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définition - Albums

album (n.)

1.a book of blank pages with pockets or envelopes; for organizing photographs or stamp collections etc

2.one or more recordings issued together; originally released on 12-inch phonograph records (usually with attractive record covers) and later on cassette audiotape and compact disc

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Merriam Webster

AlbumAl"bum (�), n. [L., neut. of albus white: cf. F. album. Cf. Alb.]
1. (Rom. Antiq.) A white tablet on which anything was inscribed, as a list of names, etc.

2. A register for visitors' names; a visitors' book.

3. A blank book, in which to insert autographs, sketches, memorial writing of friends, photographs, etc.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Albums

locutions

-1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die • ARIA Albums Chart • Albums chart • Australian Albums Chart • Best-selling albums by year in the United States • Best-selling albums in the United States since Nielsen SoundScan tracking began • Bestselling albums • Billboard Comprehensive Albums • Canadian Albums Chart • Canadian number-one albums of 1990 • Celine Dion albums discography • Cher albums discography • Classic Albums • Classic Albums (radio show) • Coffee Hag albums • Concept albums • Dalida albums discography • Dance/Electronic Albums • European Top 100 Albums • Five Albums • Gloria Estefan albums discography • Incomplete albums • Irish Albums Chart • Jimmy Buffett sound board live albums • Jonatha Brooke albums • List Of Kid's Praise! Albums • List Of Kids Praise! Albums • List Of The Kids' Praise! Albums • List of ABBA tribute albums • List of AC/DC tribute albums • List of BMG Music Club's top selling albums in the United States • List of Bone Thugs-n-Harmony solo albums • List of Care Bears albums • List of Haruhi Suzumiya albums • List of Hayate the Combat Butler albums • List of Hillsong albums • List of Kate Bush tribute albums • List of Kid's Praise! Albums • List of Kid's Praise! albums • List of Kids Praise albums • List of Kids Praise! Albums • List of Kids Praise! albums • List of Lucky Star character song albums • List of Macross Plus albums • List of Madlax albums • List of Maria-sama ga Miteru albums • List of New Order tribute albums • List of New Zealand compilation albums • List of OTSU albums • List of Phish tribute albums • List of Pixies tribute albums • List of Polymarchs albums under Musart • List of Redbeard albums • List of Saturday Night Live compilation albums and videos • List of School Rumble albums • List of School Rumble character image albums • List of Seto no Hanayome albums • List of Strawberry Panic! albums • List of The Analogs albums • List of The Kids' Praise! albums • List of The Naked Brothers Band albums • List of Wu-Tang Clan affiliate albums • List of albums • List of albums by the Beatles • List of albums by the Carpenters • List of best-selling albums in Brazil • List of best-selling albums in the United States • List of best-selling remix albums worldwide • List of compilation albums by The Fall • List of diamond-certified albums in Canada • List of double albums • List of fastest-selling albums in the United Kingdom • List of garage rock and psychedelic rock compilation albums • List of grunge albums • List of hip hop albums • List of hip hop albums, inclusive 2000-2005 • List of jazz albums • List of kid's praise albums • List of kids praise albums • List of kids' praise albums • List of number-one albums (Ireland) • List of number-one albums (United States) • List of number-one albums from the 1960s (UK) • List of number-one albums in 2007 (New Zealand) • List of number-one albums in 2008 (New Zealand) • List of number-one albums in Australia during the 1970s • List of number-one albums in Australia during the 1980s • List of number-one albums in Australia during the 1990s • List of number-one albums of 1983 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 1984 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 1998 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2000 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2001 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2002 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2003 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2004 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2005 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2006 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2007 (U.S.) • List of number-one albums of 2008 (Australia) • List of number-one albums of 2008 (U.S.) • List of punk compilation albums • List of punk rock albums • List of rock and roll albums • List of rock and roll albums 1990-1994 • List of rock and roll albums 1995-1999 • List of rock and roll albums in the 1950s • List of rock and roll albums in the 1960s • List of rock and roll albums in the 1970s • List of rock and roll albums in the 1980s • List of rock and roll albums in the 1990s • List of rock and roll albums in the 2000s • List of songs on the Kidz Bop albums • List of the Carpenters albums • List of the Kid's Praise! albums • Madonna albums • Mariah Carey albums discography • Music albums • New Zealand Top 50 Albums of 2001 • New Zealand Top 50 Albums of 2002 • New Zealand Top 50 Albums of 2003 • New Zealand Top 50 Albums of 2004 • Number-one albums of 1961 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1962 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1963 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1964 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1965 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1966 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1967 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1968 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1969 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1970 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1971 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1972 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1973 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1974 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1975 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1976 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1977 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1978 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1979 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1980 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1981 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1982 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1985 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1986 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1987 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1988 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1989 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 1989 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1990 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1991 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1992 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1993 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1994 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1995 (Finland) • Number-one albums of 1995 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1996 (Finland) • Number-one albums of 1996 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1997 (U.S.) • Number-one albums of 1999 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2000 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2001 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2002 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2003 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2003 (Ireland) • Number-one albums of 2004 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2004 (Ireland) • Number-one albums of 2005 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2005 (Ireland) • Number-one albums of 2006 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2006 (Ireland) • Number-one albums of 2007 (Australia) • Number-one albums of 2007 (Ireland) • Number-one albums of 2008 (Ireland) • Record albums • Rent (albums) • The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time • The Basement Albums Vol. 3 • The Capitol Albums, Volume 2 • The Elf Albums • The Top 100 Canadian Albums • Top Comprehensive Albums • Top Contemporary Jazz Albums • Top Independent Albums • Top Jazz Albums • Top Pop Catalog Albums • Top selling singles and albums in Ireland • Top selling singles and albums in Ireland 2001 • Top selling singles and albums in Ireland 2002 • Top selling singles and albums in Ireland 2003 • Top selling singles and albums in Ireland 2004 • Top selling singles and albums in Ireland 2005 • Traffic albums • UK Albums Chart • Unfinished albums • Whitney Houston albums discography • Wild Arms albums • Yin and Yang (Fish albums)

dictionnaire analogique



Wikipedia - voir aussi

Wikipedia

Album

                   
  Early record albums were packages of 78 RPM records in book form

An album may be understood as a collection of recordings, released as a single package on gramophone record, cassette, compact disc, or via digital distribution, however the concept is found in printed music dating into the early nineteenth century in works by composers such as Schumann and Mendelssohn.[1] The word derives from the Latin word for list.[2]

Today, with the vinyl record no longer being used as the primary form of distribution, the term "album" can still be applied to any sound recording collection, such as those on compact disc, MiniDisc, Compact audio cassette, and digital or MP3 albums.[3] Cover art is also considered an integral part of the album. Many albums also come with liner notes and inserts giving background information or analysis of the recording, reprinted lyrics, images of the performers, or additional artwork and text.[4] These are now often found in the form of CD booklets.[5]

Contents

  History and Formats

  Vinyl records

  Two vinyl records with inner and outer album sleeves

Vinyl LP records have two sides, each comprising one half of the album. If a pop or rock album contained tracks released separately as commercial singles, these were often traditionally placed in particular positions on the album.[3] A common configuration was to have the album led off by the second and third singles, followed by a ballad. The first single would lead off side 2. In the past many singles (such as the Beatles' "Hey Jude" and Bob Dylan's "Positively 4th Street") did not appear on albums, but others (such as the Beatles' "Come Together" and Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone") were part of an album released concurrently. Today, many commercial albums of music tracks feature one or more singles, which are released separately to radio, TV or the Internet as a way of promoting the album.[6] Albums have also been issued that are compilations of older tracks not originally released together, such as singles not originally found on albums, b-sides of singles, or unfinished "demo" recordings.[3]

Album sets of the past were arranged "in sequence" for phonographs equipped with record changers. In the case of a two-record set, for example, sides 1 and 4 would be printed on one record, and sides 2 and 3 on the other. The consumer would then stack the two records onto a spindle equipped with an automatic record changer by stacking the record with side 1 on the bottom and the record with side 2 directly on top of it. The record containing side 1 would then automatically drop onto the turntable, and the tone arm containing the stylus needle would automatically play the album's side 1. When that side was finished, the tone arm would swing back to allow the record containing side 2 to drop down on top of the record containing side 1 and automatically begin to play. When that was done, the consumer would pick up the stack of records that have already played, flip them over (as a stack, without rearranging), and put them back on the spindle. Sides 3 and 4 would play in sequence without further intervention from the consumer.[3] Record changers persisted throughout the LP era, but were discontinued after it was discovered that the stacking up of records had the potential to warp them.[3]

  Compact cassette

  A blank compact cassette tape and case

The Compact Cassette was a popular medium for distributing pre-recorded music in the late 1970s through to the 1990s. The very first "Compact Cassette" was introduced by Philips in August of 1963 in the form of a prototype.[7] Compact cassettes became especially popular during the 1980s after the advent of the Sony Walkman, which allowed the person to personally control what they listen to.[8][7] The Walkman was convenient because of its size, the device could fit in most pockets and often came equipped with a clip for belts or pants.[7] The compact cassette used doubled-sided magnetic tape to distribute music for commercial sale.[7][9] The music is recorded on both the "A" and "B" side of the tape, with cassette being "turned" to play the other side of the album.[7]



  Compact disc

  A compact disc within an open 'Jewel Case'

The Compact Disc's format effectively replaced both the vinyl record and the cassette, to become the standard for the commercial mass-market distribution of physical music albums.[10] After the introduction of music downloading and the iPod, US album sales dropped 54.6% from 2001 to 2009.[11] The CD is a digital data storage device which permits digital recording technology to be used to record and play-back the recorded music.[9][10]








  Length

According to the rules of the UK Charts, a recording counts as an "album" if either it has more than four tracks or lasts more than 25 minutes.[12] Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as "mini-albums" or EPs.[13] Albums such as Tubular Bells, Amarok, Hergest Ridge by Mike Oldfield, and Yes's Close to the Edge, include fewer than four tracks. Other artists such as Pinhead Gunpowder refer to their own releases under 30 minutes to bake as "albums" despite the normal distinction.

If an album becomes too long to fit a single vinyl record or CD, a recording artist may make the decision to release a double album where two vinyl LPs or compact discs are packaged together in a single case, or a triple album containing three LPs or compact discs.

Recording artists who have an extensive back catalog will often re-release several CDs in one single box with a unified design, often containing one or more albums, or a compilation of previously unreleased recordings. These are known as box sets. Some musical artists have also released more than three compact discs or LP records of new recordings at once, in the form of boxed sets, although in that case the work is still usually considered to be an album.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Mendelssohn And Schumann". Old and Sold. http://www.oldandsold.com/opera/music-3.shtml. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  2. ^ "Album". Hot to Creative Write. http://howtocreativewrite.com/album. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "About Vinyl Records". Record Collector's Guild. http://www.recordcollectorsguild.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=Sections&file=index&req=viewarticle&artid=44&page=1. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  4. ^ "Album Cover Art Series". Rock Art Picture Show. http://www.rockartpictureshow.com/vinylgallery. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "The history of the CD - The 'Jewel Case'". Philips Research. http://www.research.philips.com/technologies/projects/cd/jewelcase.html. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  6. ^ "Chronology: Technology and the Music Industry". Callie Tainter. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/music/inside/cron.html. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "History of Compact Cassette". Vintage Cassettes. http://vintagecassettes.com/_history/history.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  8. ^ "A Brief History of The Walkman". Time. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1907884,00.html. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "The History of Recorded Music". Music Cd Industry. http://www.soc.duke.edu/~s142tm01/history4.html. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "The history of the CD - The beginning". Philips Research. http://www.research.philips.com/technologies/projects/cd/index.html. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "Scary Stat: Album Sales Down 54.6 Percent Since 2000...". Digital Music Newss. http://www.digitalmusicnews.com/stories/012709album. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  12. ^ "Rules For Chart Eligibility - Albums" (pdf). The Official UK Charts Company. January 2007. Archived from the original on June 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070627231755/http://www.theofficialcharts.com/docs/NEW_Album_Chart_Rules_2007_2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  13. ^ "As albums fade away, music industry looks to shorter records". Associated Press. http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/2010/jan/04/albums-fade-away-music-industry-looks-shorter-reco/?breakingnews. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 

   
               

Album

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Albums)
Jump to: navigation, search

An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. The most common way is through commercial distribution, although smaller artists will often distribute directly to the public by selling their albums at live concerts or on their websites.

Contents

Tracklisting

History

The term "record album" originated from the fact that 78-RPM phonograph disc records were kept in a bound container resembling a photograph album. The first collection of records to be called an "album" was Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite, released in April 1909 as a four-disc set by Odeon Records.[1][2] It retailed for 16 shillings (approximately £56 or US$101 in 2005 currency).

In 1948, Columbia produced the first 12-inch, 33⅓-RPM microgroove record made of vinyl.[1] With a running time of 23 minutes per side, these new records contained as much music as the old-style album of records and, thus, took on the name "album". For many years, the standard industry format for popular music was an album of twelve songs, originally the number related to payment of composer royalties.

Originally, albums ranged in duration from half an hour to an hour, depending on the genre and record label. American pop albums tended to be around a half hour; British pop albums were somewhat longer, often containing 14 songs instead of 11 or 12; jazz albums were longer still; and classical albums were the longest of all. From the dawn of the "album era" (in jazz, about 1954; in rock, about 1962) until about the mid-1960s, albums were often recorded as quickly as possible, sometimes in single sessions. (Prestige Records and Blue Note Records were famous for this; as well, The Beatles' first album and The Byrds' first four albums were all largely recorded in single sessions.) In the 1960s, many performers issued two or more albums of new material every year.

By the late 1960s, the growing importance of albums and advances in studio recording led many rock groups to spend more time on each release, and through the 1970s, an interval of one or two years between albums became the norm. With the advent of compact discs, even longer periods between new recordings become common; however, in some genres such as indie rock, groups often continue to produce albums at the rate of one a year.

Vinyl LP records have two sides, each comprising one half of the album. If a pop or rock album contained tracks released separately as commercial singles, these were often traditionally placed in particular positions on the album. A common configuration was to have the album led off by the second and third singles, followed by a ballad. The first single would lead off side 2. In the past, many singles (such as the Beatles' "Hey Jude") did not appear on albums, but others (such as the Beatles' "Come Together" and "Something") were also part of an album released concurrently. Today many commercial albums of music tracks feature one or more singles, which are released separately to radio, TV or the Internet as a way of promoting the album. Albums have also been issued that are compilations of older tracks not originally released together, such as singles not originally found on albums, b-sides of singles, or unfinished "demo" recordings.

Album sets of the past were arranged "in sequence" for phonographs equipped with record changers. In the case of a two-record set, for example, sides one and four would be printed on one record, and sides two and three on the other. The two records would then be stacked up on a spindle especially equipped to handle such albums, with side one on the bottom and side two on the top. The record containing side one would then automatically drop down on the turntable, and the tone arm containing the stylus needle would then automatically play the record. When that side was finished, the tone arm would swing back to allow the record containing side two to drop down on top of the record containing side one, and automatically begin to play.

Record changers persisted throughout the LP era, but were discontinued after it was discovered that the stacking up of records had the potential to warp them.

Today, with the vinyl record no longer being used as the primary form of distribution, the term "album" can still be applied to any sound recording collection, such as those on compact disc, MiniDisc, Compact audio cassette, and digital or MP3 albums. Cover art is also considered an integral part of the album. Many albums also come with liner notes and inserts giving background information or analysis of the recording, reprinted lyrics, images of the performers, or additional artwork and text. These are now often found in the form of CD booklets.

Length

Due to the large capacity of new media (compact discs originally ran to 74 minutes, later extended to 80 minutes) and the lack of any formal "side" divisions, the matter of how long an album should be is open to debate, although most albums today are at least 30 minutes long. Usually, rock albums with a particularly fast tempo, such as albums in punk rock and non-progressive thrash metal are the shortest, then albums in mainstream rock and pop; then hip hop albums are slightly longer. Progressive varieties of metal and rock, such as Dream Theater, Opeth and Tool, may have songs around ten minutes or longer individually. Albums like these are usually around or over an hour. According to the rules of the UK Charts, a recording counts as an "album" if either it has more than four tracks or lasts more than 25 minutes.[3] Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as "mini-albums", and can sometimes be confused with EPs.

If an album becomes too long to fit this format, a recording artist may make the decision to release a double album where two vinyl LPs or compact discs are packaged together in a single case, or a triple album containing three LP's or compact discs.

Recording artists who have an extensive back catalogue will often re-release several CDs in one single box with a unified design, often containing one or more albums, or a compilation of previously unreleased recordings. These are known as box sets. Some musical artists have also released more than three compact discs or LP records of new recordings at once, in the form of boxed sets, although in that case the work is still usually considered to be an album.

See also

References

 

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