allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien
allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

définition - Biometric_passport

voir la définition de Wikipedia

   Publicité ▼


Biometric passport

  Countries with biometric passports:
  Biometric passports available to the general public
  Announced future availability of biometric passports
  Symbol for biometric passports, usually printed on the cover of passports.

A biometric passport, also known as an e-passport, ePassport or a digital passport, is a combined paper and electronic passport that contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of travelers. It uses contactless smart card technology, including a microprocessor chip (computer chip) and antenna (for both power to the chip and communication) embedded in the front or back cover, or center page, of the passport. Document and chip characteristics are documented in the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Doc 9303.[1][2][3] The passport's critical information is both printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is used to authenticate the data stored electronically in the passport chip making it expensive and difficult to forge when all security mechanisms are fully and correctly implemented.

  The front cover of a contemporary Bulgarian biometric passport

The currently standardized biometrics used for this type of identification system are facial recognition, fingerprint recognition, and iris recognition. These were adopted after assessment of several different kinds of biometrics including retinal scan. The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports. Only the digital image (usually in JPEG or JPEG2000 format) of each biometric feature is actually stored in the chip. The comparison of biometric features is performed outside the passport chip by electronic border control systems (e-borders). To store biometric data on the contactless chip, it includes a minimum of 32 kilobytes of EEPROM storage memory, and runs on an interface in accordance with the ISO/IEC 14443 international standard, amongst others. These standards intend interoperability between different countries and different manufacturers of passport books.

Some national identity cards (e.g. in the Netherlands, Albania and Brazil) are fully ICAO9303 compliant biometric travel documents. However others, such as the USA Passport card, are not.

  Data protection

Biometric passports are equipped with protection mechanisms to avoid and / or detect attacks:

  • Non-traceable chip characteristics. Random chip identifiers reply to each request with a different chip number. This prevents tracing of passport chips. Using random identification numbers is optional.
  • Basic Access Control (BAC). BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information. Before data can be read from a chip, the reader needs to provide a key which is derived from the Machine Readable Zone [Mrz]: the date of birth, the date of expiry and the document number. If BAC is used, an attacker cannot (easily) eavesdrop transferred information without knowing the correct key. Using BAC is optional.
  • Passive Authentication (PA). PA prevents modification of passport chip data. The chip contains a file (SOD) that stores hash values of all files stored in the chip (picture, finger print, etc.) and a digital signature of these hashes. The digital signature is made using a document signing key which itself is signed by a country signing key. If a file in the chip (e.g. the picture) is changed, this can be detected since the hash value is incorrect. Readers need access to all used public country keys to check whether the digital signature is generated by a trusted country. Using PA is mandatory.
  • Active Authentication (AA). AA prevents cloning of passport chips. The chip contains a private key that cannot be read or copied, but its existence can easily be proven. Using AA is optional.
  • Extended Access Control (EAC). EAC adds functionality to check the authenticity of both the chip (chip authentication) and the reader (terminal authentication). Furthermore it uses stronger encryption than BAC. EAC is typically used to protect finger prints and iris scans. Using EAC is optional. In the EU, using EAC is mandatory for all documents issued starting 28 June 2009.
  • Shielding the chip. This prevents unauthorized reading. Some countries – including at least the US – have integrated a very thin metal mesh into the passport's cover to act as a shield when the passport cover is closed.[4] The use of shielding is optional.


Since the introduction of biometric passports several attacks are presented and demonstrated:

  • Non-traceable chip characteristics. In 2008 a Radboud / Lausitz University team demonstrated that it's possible to determine which country a passport chip is from without knowing the key required for reading it.[5] The team fingerprinted error messages of passport chips from different countries. The resulting lookup table allows an attacker to determine where a chip is from. In 2010 Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov documented an attack that allows an individual passport to be traced,[6][7] by sending specific BAC authentication requests.
  • Basic Access Control (BAC). In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the document numbers of Dutch passports were predictable,[8] allowing an attacker to guess / crack the key required for reading the chip. In 2006 Adam Laurie wrote software that tries all known passport keys within a given range, thus implementing one of Witteman's attacks. Using online flight booking sites, flight coupons and other public information it's possible to significantly reduce the number of possible keys. Laurie demonstrated the attack by reading the passport chip of a Daily Mail's reporter in its envelope without opening it.[9] Note that in some early biometric passports BAC wasn't used at all, allowing attacker to read the chip's content without providing a key.[10]
  • Passive Authentication (PA). In 2006 Lukas Grunwald demonstrated that it is trivial to copy passport data from a passport chip into a standard ISO/IEC 14443 smartcard using a standard contactless card interface and a simple file transfer tool.[11] Grunwald used a passport that did not use Active Authentication (anti-cloning) and did not change the data held on the copied chip, thus keeping its cryptographic signature valid. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that not all passport inspection systems check the cryptographic signature of a passport chip. For his demonstration Van Beek altered chip information and signed it using his own document signing key of a non-existing country. This can only be detected by checking the country signing keys that are used to sign the document signing keys. To check country signing keys the ICAO PKD[12] can be used. Only 5 out of 60+ countries are using this central database.[13] Van Beek did not update the original passport chip: instead an ePassport emulator was used.[14] Also in 2008, The Hacker's Choice implemented all attacks and published code to verify the results.[15] The release included a video clip that demonstrated problems by using a forged Elvis Presley passport that is recognized as a valid US passport.[16][17]
  • Active Authentication (AA). In 2005 Marc Witteman showed that the secret Active Authentication key can be retrieved using power analysis.[8] This may allow an attacker to clone passport chips that use the optional Active Authentication anti-cloning mechanism on chips – if the chip design is susceptible to this attack. In 2008 Jeroen van Beek demonstrated that optional security mechanisms can be disabled by removing their presence from the passport index file.[18] This allows an attacker to remove – amongst others – anti-cloning mechanisms (Active Authentication). The attack is documented in supplement 7 of Doc 9303 (R1-p1_v2_sIV_0006)[19] and can be solved by patching inspection system software. Note that supplement 7 features vulnerable examples in the same document that – when implemented – result in a vulnerable inspection process.
  • Extended Access Control (EAC). In 2007 Luks Grunwald presented an attack that can make EAC-enabled passport chips unusable.[20] Grunwald states that if an EAC-key – required for reading fingerprints and updating certificates – is stolen or compromised, an attacker can upload a false certificate with an issue date far in the future. The affected chips block read access until the future date is reached.


Privacy activists in many countries question and protest the lack of information about exactly what the passports' chip will contain, and whether they impact civil liberties. The main problem they point out is that data on the passports can be transferred with wireless RFID technology, which can become a major vulnerability. Although this could allow ID-check computers to obtain a person's information without a physical connection, it may also allow anyone with the necessary equipment to perform the same task. If the personal information and passport numbers on the chip are not encrypted, the information might wind up in the wrong hands.

On 15 December 2006, the BBC published an article on the British ePassport, citing the above stories and adding that:

"Nearly every country issuing this passport has a few security experts who are yelling at the top of their lungs and trying to shout out: 'This is not secure. This is not a good idea to use this technology'", citing a specialist who states "It is much too complicated. It is in places done the wrong way round – reading data first, parsing data, interpreting data, then verifying whether it is right. There are lots of technical flaws in it and there are things that have just been forgotten, so it is basically not doing what it is supposed to do. It is supposed to get a higher security level. It is not."

and adding that the Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS) network's research team (a body of IT security experts funded by the European Union) has "also come out against the ePassport scheme... [stating that] European governments have forced a document on its citizens that dramatically decreases security and increases the risk of identity theft."[21]

Most security measures are designed against untrusted citizens (the "provers"), but the scientific security community recently also addressed the threats from untrustworthy verifiers, such as corrupt governmental organizations, or nations using poorly implemented, unsecure electronic systems.[22] New cryptographic solutions such as private biometrics are being proposed to mitigate threats of mass theft of identity. These are under scientific study, but not yet implemented in biometric passports.


  European Union

European passports planned to have digital imaging and fingerprint scan biometrics placed on the RFID chip.[23] This combination of the biometrics aims to create an unrivaled level of security and protection against fraudulent identification papers. Technical specifications for the new passports has been established by the European Commission.[24] The specifications are binding for the Schengen agreement parties, i.e. the EU countries, except Ireland and UK, and three of the four European Free Trade Association countries – Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.[25] These countries are obliged to implement machine readable facial images in the passports by 28 August 2006, and fingerprints by 29 June 2009.[citation needed] The European Data Protection Supervisor has stated that the current legal framework fails to "address all the possible and relevant issues triggered by the inherent imperfections of biometric systems".[26] Currently, the British biometric passport only uses a digital image and not fingerprinting, however this is being considered by the Identity and Passport Service. The German passports printed after 1 November 2007 contain two fingerprints, one from each hand, in addition to a digital photograph. The Romanian passports will also contain two fingerprints, one from each hand. The Netherlands also takes fingerprints and is the only EU member that plans to store these fingerprints centrally.[27] According to EU requirements, only nations that are signatories to the Schengen Acquis are required to add fingerprint biometrics.[28] In these EU nations, the price of the passport will be:

  • Austria (available since 16 June 2006) An adult passport costs €69.90, while a chip-free child's version costs €26. As of March 2009 all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[29]
  • Belgium (introduced in October 2004): €71 or €41 for children + local taxes. Passports are valid for 5 years.
  • Bulgaria (introduced in July 2009; available since 29 March 2010): 40 BGN (€20) for adults. Passports are valid for 5 years.[30]
  • Czech Republic (available since 1 September 2006): 600 CZK for adults (valid 10 years), 100 CZK for children (valid 5 years). Passports contain fingerprints.
  • Cyprus (available since 13 December 2010) : €70, valid for 10 years
  • Denmark (available since 1 August 2006): DKK 600 for adults (valid for 10 years), 115 DKK for children (valid for 5 years) and 350 DKK for over 65 (valid for 10 years).[31]
  • Estonia (available since 22 May 2007): EEK 450 (€28.76) (valid for 5 years). As of 29 June 2009, all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[32]
  • Finland (available since 21 August 2006) €53 (valid for max. 5 years). As of 29 June 2009, all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[33]
  • France (available since April 2006): €86 or €89 (depending whether applicant provides photographs), valid for 10 years. As of 16 June 2009, all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[34]
  • Germany (available since November 2005): ≤23 year old applicants (valid for 6 years) €37.50, >24 years (valid 10 years) €59 Passports issued from 1 November 2007 on include fingerprints.[35][36]
  • Greece (available since 26 August 2006) €84.40 (valid for 5 years).[37] Since June 2009, passports contain fingerprints.[38]
  • Hungary (available since 29 August 2006): 6000 HUF (€24), valid for 5 years, 10000 HUF (€40) valid for 10 years. As of 29 June 2009, all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[39][40]
  • Ireland (available since 16 October 2006): €80, valid for 10 years. Free for people over 65. (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis, no obligation to fingerprint biometrics)
  • Italy (available since 26 October 2006): €42.50,[41] valid for 10 years, plus tax stamps of €40.29 per year (first is mandatory; an unexpired tax stamp is only required when travelling outside the European Union). As of January 2010 newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[42]
  • Latvia (available since 20 November 2007): An adult passport costs Ls15 (€21.36 [prior to 16, July 2012]), valid for 10 or 5 years.
  • Lithuania (available since 28 August 2006): LTL 100 (€29). For children up to 16 years old, valid max 5 years. For persons over 16 years old, valid for 10 years.[43]
  • Luxembourg (available since 28 August 2006): €30. Valid for 5 years. As of 29 June 2009, all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[44]
  • Malta (available since 8 October 2008): €70 for persons over 16 years old, valid for 10 years, €35 for children between 10–16 years (valid for 5 years) and €14 for children under 10 years (valid for 2 years).
  • Netherlands (available since 28 August 2006): Approximately €11 on top of regular passport (€38.33) cost €49.33. Passports issued from 21 September 2009 include fingerprints. Dutch identity cards are lookalike versions of the holder's page of the passport and contain the same biometric information.
  • Poland (available since 28 August 2006): 140 PLN (€35) for adults, 70PLN for students, valid 10 years. Passports issued from 29 June 2009 include fingerprints of both index fingers.[45]
  • Portugal (available since 31 July 2006 – special passport; 28 August 2006 – ordinary passport): €60 for adults (€50 for those who are over 65 years old), valid for 5 years. €40 for children under 12, valid for 2 years. All passports have 32 pages.
  • Romania (available since 31 December 2008): 276 RON (€65), valid for 5 years for those over the age of 6, and for 3 years for those under 6. As of 19 Jan 2010, new passport includes both facial images and fingerprints.[46]
  • Slovakia (available since 15 January 2008) An adult passport(>13years costs 33.19€ valid for 10 years, while a chip-free child's(5–13 years) version costs 13.27€ valid for 5 years and for children under 5 years 8.29€, but valid only for 2 years.
  • Slovenia (available since 28 August 2006): €36 for adults, valid for 10 years. €31 for children from 3 to 18 years of age, valid for 5 years. €28 for children up to 3 years of age, valid for 3 years. All passports have 32 pages, a 48-page version is available at a €2 surcharge. As of 29 June 2009, all newly issued passports contain fingerprints.[47]
  • Spain (available since 28 August 2006) at a price of €25 (price at the 22 April 2012). They include fingerprints of both index fingers as of October 2009. (Aged 30 or less a Spanish passport is valid for 5 years, otherwise they remain valid for 10 years).
  • Sweden (available since October 2005): SEK 350 (valid for 5 years). As of 1 Jan 2012, new passport includes both facial images and fingerprints.[48]
  • UK (introduced March 2006): £77.50 for adults and £49 for children under the age of 16.[49] (Not Signatory to Schengen Acquis, no obligation to fingerprint biometrics.)
Unless otherwise noted, none of the issued biometric passports mentioned above include fingerprints as of 5 May 2010.


The Albanian biometric passport is available since May 2009, costs 6000 Lekë, (€50) and is valid for 10 years. The microchip contains ten fingerprints, the photo and all the data written on the passport.


On 15 June 2012, the government announced the availability of a new biometric passport at a cost of 400 Pesos, valid for 10 years[50]


In September 2012 Armenia will introduce two new identity documents to replace ordinary passports of Armenian citizens. One of the documents – ID card with electronic signature, will be used locally within the country, and the biometric passport with an electronic chip to be used for traveling abroad. Electronic chip of biometric passport will contain digital images of fingerprints and photo of passport holder. The passport will be valid for 5 years.[51][52][53]


The Australian biometric passport was introduced in October 2005. The microchip contains the same personal information that is on the color photo page of the ePassport, including a digitized photograph. A standard (35-Visa Pages) adult passport (>18 years) is A$226 valid for 10 years; for children, the fee is A$113 valid for 5 years. A Frequent traveler (67-Visa Pages) adult passport (>18 years) is A$340 valid for 10 years; for children, the fee is A$170 valid for 5 years.[54] Airport security has been upgraded to allow Australian ePassport bearers to clear immigration controls more rapidly, and facial recognition technology has been installed at immigration gates.[55]


Azerbaijan will introduce Biometric passports after 2012. The passports will include information about the passport holder's facial features, as well as his finger and palm prints. Each passport will also include a personal identification number. The program covers the development of the appropriate legislative framework and information systems to ensure information security.

  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Available since 15 October 2009 and costing 40 KM (€ 20.51). Valid for 5 years. Produced by Bundesdruckerei. On 1 June 2010 Bosnia and Herzegovina issued its first EAC passport.


Brazil started issuing ICAO compliant passports in December 2006. However just in December 2010 it began to issue passports with microchips, first in the capital Brasília and Goiás state. Until the end of January 2011 this last will be issued all over Brazil.[56]


The Bruneian biometric passport was introduced on 17 February 2007. It was produced by German printer Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) following the Visa Waiver Program's requirements. The Bruneian ePassport has the same functions as the other biometric passports.[57]


Before the end of 2012 all new Canadian passports will be issued as ePassports.[58] These passports will incorporate biometrics using an embedded electronic chip which will hold information identical to that visible on page 2 of the passport as well as information found in the machine-readable zone.[58] The chip will also hold a country-specific signature that can be used to prove that the passport was issued by the Government of Canada. All of the information stored on the chip is secured by being "electronically locked" so that any attempt to tamper the data on the chip would require breaking the lock thereby permitting detection of the activity.[58]

In an attempt to further ensure that the information is safe, the design uses a "proximity contactless chip" that can only be read if held within 10 centimetres of the reader unit. In addition, the chip data can only be accessed after the machine-readable zone on page 2 of the passport has been read. As Passport Canada indicates "it is therefore extremely unlikely that the data stored on the chip could be read without the knowledge of the passport holder."[58]

This technology is being used at border crossings that have electronic readers that are able to read the chip in the cards and verify the information present in the card and on the passport. In addition, the possibility exists to use facial recognition technology to further authenticate the bearer's identity.[58]

This method aims at increasing efficiency and accuracy of identifying people at the border crossing.

  People's Republic of China

On 30 January 2011, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China launched a trial issuance of e-passports for public affairs. The face, fingerprint and other biometric features of the passport holder will be digitalized and stored in pre-installed contactless smart chip in the passport.[59][60] On 1 July 2011, the Ministry began issuing biometric passports to all individuals conducting public affairs work overseas on behalf of the Chinese government.[61]

Ordinary biometric passports have been introduced by the Ministry of Public Security starting from 15 May 2012.[62]


Available since 1 July 2009 and costing 390 HRK (€53). The chip contains two fingerprints and a digital photo of the holder. Since 18 January 2010 only biometric passports can be obtained at issuing offices inside Croatia. Diplomatic missions and consular offices must implement new issuing system until 28 June 2010.

  Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, biometric passports began to be issued in May 2004. In January 2010, the cost of the passport was 1,250 DOP, about 35–40 USD at that date.


The Egyptian Government has, from 5 February 2007, introduced the electronic Passport (e-Passport) and electronic Document of Identity for Visa Purposes (e-Doc/I) which are compliant with the standard of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Digital data including holder's personal data and facial image will be contained in the contactless chip embedded in the back cover of e-Passport and e-Doc/I.


Available since 1 March 2010 and costing GH¢ 50.00–100.00 for adults and children. The passports contain several other technological characteristics other than biometric technology. However the Ghanaian biometric passports do not carry the "chip inside" symbol (EPassport logo.svg), similar to the Pakistani passport, which is mandatory for ICAO-standard electronic passports.


Available since 23 May 2006 and costing ISK 5100 (ISK 1900 for under 18 and over 67).


India has recently initiated first phase deployment of Biometric e-Passport for Diplomatic Passport holders in India and abroad. The new passports have been designed indigenously by the Central Passport Organization, the India Security Press, Nashik and IIT Kanpur. The passport contains a security chip with personal data and digital images. Initially, the new passports will have a 64KB chip with a photograph of passport holder and subsequently include the holder's fingerprint(s). The biometric passport has been tested with passport readers abroad and is noted to have a 4 second response time – less than that of a US Passport (10 seconds). The passport need not be carried in a metal jacket for security reasons as it first needs to be passed through a reader, after which generates access keys to unlock the chip data for reader access.[63]

India has also given out a contract to TCS for issuing e-passports through passport seva kendra. India plans to open 77 such centers across the country to issue these passports.

On 25 June 2008 Indian Passport Authority issued first e-passport to the President of India, Pratibha Patil. The e-passport is under the first phase of deployment and will be initially restricted to diplomatic passport holders. It is expected to be made available to ordinary citizens from September 2010 onwards.[64]


Indonesia started issuing e-Passports on 26 January 2011, though the e-passport is not a mandatory until 2015. The passport costs Rp655,000(US$77) for the 48-page valid for 5 years, and Rp405,000 (US$48) for the 24-page passport valid for 5 years.[65]


Iran started issuing diplomatic and service biometric passports in July, 2007. Ordinary biometric passports began to be issued on 20 February 2011. The cost of a new passport is 600,000IRR ($60 USD) for adults and 300,000IRR ($30 USD) for minors.[66]


In April 2009, the Iraqi Ministry of Interior – the general passports directorate revealed new electronic system to issue the new A-series passports in contract with the German SAFE ID Solutions, the new series is a biometric passport available to the public which would cost 25,000 Iraqi dinars or about $20 USD.[67]


The Japanese government started issuing biometric passports in March 2006. With this, Japan has met requirements under the US Visa Waiver Program which calls for countries to roll out their biometric passports before 26 October 2006.


In May 2011, the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Kosovo[a] announced that biometric passports will be issued in the summer of 2011 after the winning firm is chosen and awarded the production of the passports.[68]

  Macao SAR

Applications for electronic passports and electronic travel permits have been started and processed since 1 September 2009.


Available since 2 April 2007 and costing 1500 MKD or c. €22.


Malaysia was the first country in the world to issue biometric passports in 1998, after a local company, IRIS Corporation, developed the technology. Malaysia is however not a member of the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) and its biometric passport does not conform to the same standards as the VWP biometric document because the Malaysian biometric passport was issued ahead of the VWP requirement. The difference lies in the storage of fingerprint template instead of fingerprint image in the chip, the rest of the technologies are the same. Also the biometric passport was designed to be read only if the receiving country has the authorization from the Malaysian Immigration Department.[citation needed] Malaysia started issuing ICAO compliant passports from February 2010.

  Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Since 2005 the SMOM diplomatic and service passports include biometric features and are compliant with ICAO standards.


The Moldovan biometric passport is available from 1 January 2008. The new Moldovan biometric passport costs approximately 760 MDL (€45)[69] and is obligatory from 1 January 2011. The passport of the Republic of Moldova with biometric data contains a chip which holds digital information, including the holder's signature, as well as the traditional information. It is valid for 7 years (for persons over 7) and 4 years (for persons less than 7) respectively. It was introduced as a request of European Union to safeguard the borders between the E.U. and Republic of Moldova.


The Montenegrin biometric passport was introduced in 2008. It costs approximately €40.


The Moroccan biometric passport was introduced in 2008. In December 2009, early limited trials have been extended, and the biometric passport is available from 25 September 2009 to all Moroccan citizens holders of an electronic identity card.[70] It costs 300DH (approximately €27).

  New Zealand

Introduced in November 2005, like Australia and the USA, New Zealand is using the facial biometric identifier. There are two identifying factors – the small symbol on the front cover indicating that an electronic chip has been embedded in the passport, and the polycarbonate leaf in the front (version 2009) of the book inside which the chip is located.


Nigeria is currently one of the few nations in Africa that issues biometric passports, and has done it since 2007.The harmonized ECOWAS Smart electronic passport issued by the Nigerian Immigrations Service is powered by biometric technology in tandem with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) specifications for international travels. Travellers' data captured in the biometric passport can be accessed instantly and read by any security agent from any spot of the globe through an integrated network of systems configured and linked to a centrally-coordinated passport data bank managed by the Nigerian Immigrations Service.


The introduction of biometric passports to Norway began in 2005 and supplied by Setec, costing NOK 450 for adults, or c. €50, NOK 270 for children.

In 2007 the Norwegian government launched a ‘multi-modal’ biometric enrolment system supplied by Motorola. Motorola's new system enabled multiple public agencies to digitally capture and store fingerprints, 2D facial images and signatures for passports and visas.[71]

The Norwegian biometrics company IDEX ASA has begun development of electronic ID cards (eID) with fingerprint security technology for use throughout the EU.[72]


In 2004 Pakistan became one of the first countries in the world to issue biometric passports. However, these passports are not compliant to ICAO standards.


On 11 August 2009, the first biometric passport was released for President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The new e-passport has various security features, including a hidden encoded image; an ultra-thin, holographic laminate; and a tamper-proof electronic microchip costing at around 950 pesos.[73][74]


On 20 April 2008, Qatar started issuing biometric passports which are ICAO compliant. A Qatari passport costs QR100.


Russian biometric passport was introduced in 2006. As of 2010, it costs 2.500 rubles (approx. USD 90), use only printed data and photo (i.e. no optional fingerprint etc.), BAC-crypted.[75] Biometric passport issued after 1 March 2010 is valid for 10 years. Russian biometric passports are currently issued only within Russia and in its consulates in Germany and Latvia. Other Russian consulates issue only non-biometric passports, which are valid for 5 years.

  Saudi Arabia

On 21 June 2006, Saudi Arabia started issuing biometric passports which are ICAO compliant. A Saudi Arabian passport costs SR150.


Available since 7 July 2008, and from 16 December 2010 costs 2.000 RSD or approx. €20.0 (was 2.200 RSD or approx.€23.5)[76] (Aged 3 or less a Serbian passport is valid for 3 years, aged 3 to 14 it is valid for 5 years, otherwise passport remain valid for 10 years.)


The Immigation & Checkpoints Authority (ICA) of Singapore introduced the Singapore biometric passport (BioPass) on 15 August 2006. With this, Singapore has met requirements under the US Visa Waiver Program which calls for countries to roll out their biometric passports before 26 October 2006.[77]


The new "e-passport" of Somalia was introduced and approved by the nation's Transitional Federal Government on 10 October 2006. It costs $100 USD to apply for Somalis living inside of Somalia, and $150 USD for Somalis living abroad. Somalia is now the first country on the African continent to have introduced the "e-passport".[78]

  South Korea

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of South Korea started issuing biometric passports to its citizens on 25 August 2008. The cost is fixed to 55,000 Won or 55 US Dollars, and the validity of ordinary passport is 10 years.[79]

  South Sudan

The Republic of South Sudan started issuing internationally recognized electronic passports in January 2012[80] The passports were officially launched by the President Salva Kiir Mayardit on 3 January 2012 in a ceremony in Juba[81] The new passport will be valid for five years[82]


The Republic of the Sudan started issuing electronic passports to citizens in May 2009. The new electronic passport will be issued in three categories. The citizen's passport (ordinary passport) will be issued to ordinary citizens and will contain 48 pages. Business men/women who need to travel often will have a commercial passport that will contain 64 pages. Smaller passports that contain 32 pages only will be issued to children. The microprocessor chip will contain the holder's information in addition to fingerprints. Cost to obtain a new passport will be SDG 250 (approx. USD 100), 200 for students and 100 for kids. and the validity of the citizen's passport will be 5 years, and 7 years for the commercial passport.[83]


The Swiss biometric passport has been available since 4 September 2006. Since 1 March 2010, all issued passports are biometric, containing a photograph and two fingerprints recorded electronically.[84] The cost is fixed to CHF 140.00 adult CHF 60.00 for children (−18 years old).[85]

  Republic of China (Taiwan)

Available since 29 December 2008 and costing NT$1,600.[86]


Biometric passports will be issued in Tajikistan from 1 February 2010. On 27 August 2009, Tajik Ministry of Foreign Affairs and German Muhlbauer signed a contract on purchase of blank biometric passports and appropriate equipment for Tajikistan.[87]


The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand[88] introduced the first biometric passport for Diplomats and Government officials on 26 May 2005. From 1 June 2005, a limited quantity of 100 passports a day was issued for Thai citizens, however, on 1 August 2005 a full operational service was installed and Thailand became the first country in Asia to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport.[89]


Turkish passports which are compatible with European Union standards have been available since 1 June 2010.[90] Colours of the new biometric passports have also be changed. Accordingly, regular passports; claret red, special passports; bottle green and diplomatic passports wrap black colours.[91]

Most recently Turkish Minister of the State announced that the government is printing the new passports at government minting office since the private contractor failed to deliver.

The current cost of issuing a 10 year passport in Turkey is 387.80 TL.[92]


Turkmenistan became the first country in ex-USSR, in mid-Asia region to issue an ICAO compliant biometric passport. Passport is available since 10 July 2008.[93]

  United Arab Emirates

The UAE ministry of interior stated that it will start issuing emirati biometric passports at the end of year 2010.[94]

  United States

The U.S. version of the biometric passport (sometimes referred to as an electronic passport) has descriptive data and a digitized passport photo on its contactless chips, and does not have fingerprint information placed onto the contactless chip. However, the chip is large enough (64 kilobytes) for inclusion of biometric identifiers. The U.S. Department of State now issues biometric passports only. Non-biometric passports are valid until their expiration dates.[95]

Although a system able to perform a facial-recognition match between the bearer and his or her image stored on the contactless chip is desired[citation needed], it is unclear when such a system will be deployed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security at its ports of entry.[96]

A high level of security became a priority for the United States after the attacks of 11 September 2001. High security required cracking down on counterfeit passports. In October 2004, the production stages of this high-tech passport commenced as the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) issued awards to the top bidders of the program. The awards totaled to roughly $1,000,000 for startup, development, and testing. The driving force of the initiative is the U.S. Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (also known as the "Border Security Act"), which states that such smartcard Identity cards will be able to replace visas. As for foreigners traveling to the U.S., if they wish to enter U.S. visa-free under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP), they are now required to possess machine-readable passports that comply with international standards. Additionally, for travelers holding a valid passport issued on or after 26 October 2006, such a passport must be a biometric passport if used to enter the U.S. visa-free under the VWP.


In Uzbekistan, 23 June 2009 Islam Karimov issued a Presidential Decree "On measures to further improve the passport system in the Republic of Uzbekistan." On 29 December 2009 the President of Uzbekistan signed a decree to change the dates for a phased exchange of populations existing passport to the biometric passport. In accordance with this decree, biometric passports will be phased in, beginning with 1 January 2011. In the first phase, the biometric passport will be issued to employees of ministries, departments and agencies of the republic, individuals who travel abroad or outside the country, as well as citizens who receive a passport in connection with the achievement of a certain age or for other grounds provided by law. The second phase will be for the rest of the population who will be to able get new passports for the period from 2012 to 2015.


Issued after July 2007, Venezuela was the first Latin American country issuing passports including RFID chips along other major security improvements. The chip has photo and fingerprints data.[97]

  Notes and references


  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. Its independence is recognised by 91 out of 193 UN member states.


  1. ^ "ICAO Document 9303, Part 1, Volume 1 (OCR machine-readable passports)" (PDF). http://hasbrouck.org/documents/ICAO9303-pt1-vol1.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "ICAO Document 9303, Part 1, Volume 2 (e-passports)" (PDF). http://hasbrouck.org/documents/ICAO9303-pt1-vol2.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  3. ^ "ICAO Document 9303, Part 3 (credit-card sized ID cards)" (PDF). http://hasbrouck.org/documents/ICAO9303-pt3.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  4. ^ "Metal shields and encryption for US passports". Newscientist.com. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn8227-metal-shields-and-encryption-for-us-passports.html. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  5. ^ "Fingerprinting Passports" (PDF). http://www.cs.ru.nl/~erikpoll/papers/nluug.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  6. ^ Goodin, Dan (26 January 2010). "Defects in e-passports allow real-time tracking, The Register, Dan Goodin, 26th Jan 2010". Theregister.co.uk. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/01/26/epassport_rfid_weakness/. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  7. ^ "A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports, Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov, 14th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2010" (PDF). http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~tpc/Papers/PassportTrace.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "Attacks on Digital Passports" (PDF). http://wiki.whatthehack.org/images/2/28/WTH-slides-Attacks-on-Digital-Passports-Marc-Witteman.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Safest ever passport is not fit for purpose". Daily Mail. 5 March 2007. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-440069/Safest-passport-fit-purpose.html. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  10. ^ "Belgian Biometric Passport does not get a pass". Dice.ucl.ac.be. http://www.dice.ucl.ac.be/crypto/passport/index.html. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  11. ^ Kim Zetter (3 August 2006). "Hackers clone E-Passports". Wired. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/08/71521. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  12. ^ "Icao Pkd". .icao.int. http://www2.icao.int/en/MRTD/Pages/icaoPKD.aspx. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  13. ^ Steve Boggan (6 August 2008). "Fakeproof e-passport is cloned in minutes". The Sunday Times (UK). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article4467106.ece. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  14. ^ "ePassport emulator". Dexlab.nl. http://dexlab.nl/downloads.html/. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "The Hacker's Choice ePassport tools". Freeworld.thc.org. http://freeworld.thc.org/thc-epassport/. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "The Hackers Choice (THC) ePassport RFID Vulnerability Demonstration". Google. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3185369830560352967. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  17. ^ Lettice, John (30 September 2008). "Elvis has left the border: ePassport faking guide unleashed". Theregister.co.uk. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/09/30/epassport_hack_description/. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "ePassport reloaded goes mobile" (PDF). http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-europe-09/VanBeek/BlackHat-Europe-2009-VanBeek-ePassports-Mobile-slides.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  19. ^ Doc 9303 supplement 7[dead link]
  20. ^ "PowerPoint Presentation" (PDF). http://www.dc414.org/download/confs/defcon15/Speakers/Grunwald/Presentation/dc-15-grunwald.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  21. ^ Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents, FIDIS NoE, Budapest, September 2006
  22. ^ "E-government: who controls the controllers?". Opendemocracy.net. http://www.opendemocracy.net/media-edemocracy/egovernment_3254.jsp#/thc-epassport/. Retrieved 9 February 2006. 
  23. ^ Jonathan P. Aus (25 September 2006). "Decision-making under Pressure: The Negotiation of the Biometric Passports Regulation in the Council" (in (Norwegian)). Arena.uio.no. http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/working-papers2006/papers/wp06_11.xml. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  24. ^ EC News article about the relevant regulations: Council Regulation (EC) 2252/2004, Commission Decision C(2005)409 adopted on 28 February 2005 and Commission Decision C(2006)2909 adopted on 28 June 2006
  25. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004, see preamble 10–14
  26. ^ Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor on the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States, 6 Aug 2008
  27. ^ "Dutch government to store fingerprints". Nrc.nl. 18 September 2009. http://www.nrc.nl/international/Features/article2363938.ece. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  28. ^ COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 2252/2004 of 13 December 2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports and travel documents issued by Member States. Official Journal of the European Union. 29 December 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/l_385/l_38520041229en00010006.pdf. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  29. ^ "Austria Adopts Fingerprint Passports". english.cri.cn (China Radio International). 30 March 2009. http://english.cri.cn/6966/2009/03/30/2001s469447.htm. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  30. ^ "Bulgaria to Start Issuing Biometric IDs in March 2010". Novinite.com (Sofia News Agency). 1 October 2009. http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=108362. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  31. ^ "Priser på pas gældende fra 1. oktober 2004" (in Danish). politi.dk. Danish National Police. 29 December 2009. http://www.politi.dk/da/borgerservice/pas/paspriser/. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  32. ^ "Estonian Passport Application". Consulate General of Estonia in New York. http://www.nyc.estemb.org/consular_information/passport. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  33. ^ "Fingerprints to be included in new passports as from 29 June". Embassy of Finland, Washington. 29 June 2009. http://www.finland.org/Public/default.aspx?contentid=166960&nodeid=35831&culture=en-US. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  34. ^ "Passeport biométrique" (in French). Service-public.fr. http://vosdroits.service-public.fr/F14929.xhtml. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  35. ^ "Elektronischer Reisepass" (in German). Bundesministerium des Innern. http://www.bmi.bund.de/cln_156/DE/Themen/Sicherheit/PaesseAusweise/eReisepass/eReisepass_node.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  36. ^ "Paßgesetz § 5 Gültigkeitsdauer" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. http://bundesrecht.juris.de/pa_g_1986/__5.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  37. ^ "Issuance of passports". Embassy of Greece Canberra. http://www2.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/AuthoritiesAbroad/Oceania/Australia/EmbassyCamberra/en-US/Visa/Issuance+of+Passports/Issuance+of+Passports.htm. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  38. ^ "Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs". http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/en-US. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  39. ^ Molnár, Szilárd (6 July 2009). "HU: Fingerprint in Hungarian Passports". ePractice. http://www.epractice.eu/en/news/292210. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  40. ^ "Június végétől ujjlenyomat is lesz az új útlevelekben" (in Hungarian). Kormányszóvivő.hu. 26 May 2009. http://www.kormanyszovivo.hu/news/show/news_1891. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  41. ^ "Passaporto Elettronico Fase II". poliziadistato.it. http://poliziadistato.it/pds/file/files/nuovocosto_Passaporto_Elettronico.pdf. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  42. ^ "Avvio emissione di passaporto elettronico con impronte digitali" (in Italian). Ambasciata d'Italia a La Valletta. 11 January 2010. http://www.amblavalletta.esteri.it/Ambasciata_LaValletta/Archivio_News/PASSAPORTOIMPRONTE.htm. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  43. ^ "New Lithuanian Passport". Personalisation of Identity Documents Centre. Ministry of the Interior. http://www.dokumentai.lt/en/pass.php. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  44. ^ "Passports". Embassy of Luxembourg in Washington. http://washington.mae.lu/en/Visa-Consular/Passports. Retrieved 5 June 2010. [dead link]
  45. ^ "The new Polish passport with fingerprint". Polska Wytwórnia Papierów Wartościowych S.A.. 22 June 2009. http://www.eng.pwpw.pl/PressInfoEntry?id=152. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  46. ^ "First biometric passport in Bucharest". RCG. 22 February 2010. http://www.rcg.tv/html/eng/about/newsroom/industry_news/biometrics/2010_details_18.jsp. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  47. ^ "Slovenia to begin issuing second-generation biometric passports". News (Ministry of the Interior). 29 June 2009. http://www.mnz.gov.si/nc/en/splosno/cns/news/article/12027/6380/. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  48. ^ "Passport and visa". Swedavia. http://www.swedavia.se/en/Start-page/Travellers/Travel-planning/Passport-and-Visa/. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  49. ^ "Passport prices rise". Directgov. 7 July 2009. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Nl1/Newsroom/DG_179060. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  50. ^ (Spanish) http://www.mininterior.gov.ar/prensa/noticiaDespliegue.php?Id=1326&idName=pre&idNameSubMenu=preComunicados&idNameSubMenuDer=
  51. ^ "Project of Biometric Passports in Armenia". PLUS Journal. 25 December 2008. http://www.plusworld.org/daily/page1_3156.php. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  52. ^ "Общество / Культура: У граждан Армении могут быть два вида паспортов" (in Russian). Barev.NET. 20 October 2009. http://news.barev.net/society/16123-U-grazhdan-Armenii-mogut-byt-dva-vida-pasportov.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  53. ^ "Армения. У граждан будет два типа удостоверений личности" (in Russian). 21 October 2009. http://biometrics.ru/document.asp?group_id=65&nItemID=4793&sSID=3.64. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  54. ^ "Australian Passport Costs". Passports Australia. https://www.passports.gov.au/web/Queries/Fees.aspx. 
  55. ^ "SmartGate Frequently Asked Questions – What is an Australian ePassport?". Australian Customs Service. http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=5555. 
  56. ^ "Globo Vídeos – VIDEO – Polícia Federal apresenta novo modelo de passaporte". Video.globo.com. 10 December 2010. http://video.globo.com/Videos/Player/Noticias/0,,GIM1391229-7823-POLICIA+FEDERAL+APRESENTA+NOVO+MODELO+DE+PASSAPORTE,00.html. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  57. ^ "Brunei passport becomes Biometric passport". I4donline.net. http://www.i4donline.net/news/news-details.asp?newsid=7874. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  58. ^ a b c d e "The ePassport". Passport Canada. 20 July 2011. http://www.ppt.gc.ca/eppt/index.aspx?lang=eng. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  59. ^ "Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi Attends the Launch Ceremony for the Trial Issuance of E-Passports for Public Affairs". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/zxxx/t791409.htm. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  60. ^ "因公电子护照31日试点签发 可使持照人快速通关". 中国网. http://www.china.com.cn/travel/txt/2011-02/01/content_21855650.htm. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  61. ^ "中华人民共和国外交部公告" (in Chinese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 1 June 2011. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/pds/fw/lsfw/tzgg/t826969.htm. Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  62. ^ "Chinese passports to get chipped". China Daily USA. http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-05/04/content_15203762.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  63. ^ After US tests, India to get first e-passport (16 May 2008). May 2008%2011:13:00%20AM "After US tests, India to get first e-passport". NDTV.com. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080050016&ch=16 May 2008%2011:13:00%20AM. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  64. ^ ITN Staff (24 January 2010). "Electronic chip enabled passports soon in India!". indian-tech-news.com. http://www.indian-tech-news.com/electronic-chip-enabled-passports-soon-in-india/293/. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  65. ^ Mustaqim Adamrah (12 February 2010). "E-passport to premiere in January, government says". The Jakarta Post. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/12/02/epassport-premiere-january-government-says.html. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  66. ^ "صدور گذرنامه های الکترونیکی" (in Persian). 22 February 2011. http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/news/149707/%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%88%D8%B1-%DA%AF%D8%B0%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%87-%D8%AE%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AF%DA%AF%D9%8A-%D9%85%D9%86%D8%AA%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%B4%D8%AF. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  67. ^ "استيراد منظومة لطبع الجوازات بطاقة إنتاجية تبلغ 10 آلاف جواز باليوم" (in Arabic). 19 April 2009. http://www.ahra.ir. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  68. ^ "Gjatë verës nis lëshimi i pasaportave biometrike". Koha Ditore. 2 May 2011. http://www.koha.net/index.php?cid=1,7,57518. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 
  69. ^ Centrul Resurselor InformaŢionale de Stat «Registru». "Centrul Resurselor Informaţionale de Stat "Registru"". registru.md. http://www.registru.md/pa/. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  70. ^ "Passport portal of the Kingdom of Morocco". Kingdom of Morocco. http://www.passeport.ma/. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  71. ^ "Norway, Sweden push ahead and biometric passports". http://www.motorola.com/web/Business/Solutions/Federal%20Government/Command,%20Control%20Communications%20&%20Computing/Documents/staticfile/Case_Study_on_Norway.pdf. 
  72. ^ Bernstein, Ralph (1). "European Union". Public Service Review (22). http://www.idex.no/viewfile.aspx?id=790. 
  73. ^ "Arroyo first to receive e-passport from DFA". 11 August 2009. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/169542/arroyo-first-to-receive-e-passport-from-dfa. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  74. ^ "Frequently asked questions regarding the 'e-passport'". 11 August 2009. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/169543/frequently-asked-questions-regarding-the-39e-passport39. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  75. ^ "Читаем биометрический паспорт" (in Russian). 3 March 2009. http://developers.sun.ru/content/view/384/85/. Retrieved 5 June 2010. [dead link]
  76. ^ "MUP RS – Putne isprave". Mup.gov.rs. http://www.mup.gov.rs/cms_cir/dokumenta.nsf/putne-isprave.h#. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  77. ^ "?". http://app.ica.gov.sg/pressrelease/pressrelease_view.asp?pr_id=582. [dead link]
  78. ^ "?". http://www.shabelle.net/news/ne1554.htm. [dead link]
  79. ^ "Passport Issuance Fees". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.0404.go.kr/passport/Passport02_3.jsp. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  80. ^ http://www.sudanradio.org/south-sudan-passports-and-ids-be-launched-3-january-2012
  81. ^ http://www.sudantribune.com/South-Sudan-launches-passports-and,41183
  82. ^ http://www.gossmission.org/goss/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1281&Itemid=192
  83. ^ "الجواز الالكترونى" (in Arabic). http://passport.gov.sd/newpas.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  84. ^ "Pass 10" (in German). 25 January 2010. http://www.schweizerpass.admin.ch/pass/de/home/ausweise/pass_10.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  85. ^ "Gebühr/Preis und Gültigkeit" (in German). 6 May 2010. http://www.schweizerpass.admin.ch/pass/de/home/ausweise/pass_10/gebuehr_und_gueltigkeit.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  86. ^ "?". http://www.boca.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=1239&ctNode=82&mp=1. Retrieved 6 October.2010. 
  87. ^ Yuldoshev, Avaz (27 October 2009). "First consignment of blank biometric passports for Tajikistan delivered to Dushanbe". http://www.asiaplus.tj/en/news/198/58564.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  88. ^ "The Minister of Foreign Affairs meets with senior executives of Italian private companies and chairs the meeting of Team Thailand and Honorary Consul Generals of Thailand in Italy". Ministry of Foreing Affrairs, Kingdom of Thailand. http://www.mfa.go.th/. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  89. ^ (English) (Dutch) "Your partner in document verification". keesingfightfraud.com. http://www.keesingfightfraud.com/site/en/recently-launched/thailand-leads-the-way-in-asia-the-introduction-of-the-thai-e-passport-by-natenapa-kon.html. [dead link]
  90. ^ "?". Hurriyet Daily News. Turkey. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/14030770.asp?gid=373.  (Turkish)
  91. ^ "Çağdaş pasaport yolda" (in Turkish). 18 June 2009. http://www.hurriyet.de/haberler/gundem/363040/cagdas-pasaport-yolda. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  92. ^ "Umuma Mahsus (Lacivert) Pasaport Harçları" (in Turkish). http://www.egm.gov.tr/hizmet.pasaport.harc.bedel.asp. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  93. ^ "Turkmenistan introduces passports with biometric data of their holders". 10 July 2008. http://www.turkmenistan.ru/?page_id=3&lang_id=en&elem_id=13207&type=event. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  94. ^ ""الداخلية": إصدار جواز السفر الالكتروني نهاية العام الجاري". Snrd.ae. http://www.snrd.ae/Docs.ArabicViewer/c8f2f2dd-7e50-4ee6-9d6c-6757c601f58e/Default.aspx. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  95. ^ "The U.S. Electronic Passport". http://travel.state.gov/passport/passport_2498.html. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  96. ^ Bronk, R. Christopher (May 2007). "Innovation by Policy: A Study of the Electronic Passport" (PDF). The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070912190322/http://bakerinstitute.org/Pubs/Electronic+Passport.pdf. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  97. ^ "Nuevo pasaporte electrónico entrará en vigencia a finales de año" (in Spanish). 22 September 2006. http://www.rnv.gob.ve/noticias/index.php?act=ST&f=2&t=38137. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 

  Further reading

  External links

ICAO related information:

Security Features:

Free / open source utilities to read and copy passport chips:

  • RFDUMP.org GPL tool for RFID ISO-Readers
  • RFIDIOt.org – Open Source RFID python library with e-passport test tools
  • JMRTD.org – Open Source Java Card implementation of the e-passport and Java API
  • ePassport emulator – free software for cloning / making your own ePassport chip using JCOP v4.1 smartcards
  • eCL0WN – free software for reading and cloning ePassport chip content using a Nokia NFC-enabled cell phone
  • wzPASS – Open Source e-Passport reader software and wzMRTD—Open Source library for accessing e-Passports
  • OpenSCDP.org – Open Source EAC-PKI for development and testing
  • EJBCA.org – Complete Open Source X.509 and EAC PKI. Includes separate java development library for EAC certificates.


Toutes les traductions de Biometric_passport

Contenu de sensagent

  • définitions
  • synonymes
  • antonymes
  • encyclopédie

  • definition
  • synonym

Dictionnaire et traducteur pour mobile

⇨ Nouveau : sensagent est maintenant disponible sur votre mobile

   Publicité ▼

sensagent's office

Raccourcis et gadgets. Gratuit.

* Raccourci Windows : sensagent.

* Widget Vista : sensagent.

dictionnaire et traducteur pour sites web


Une fenêtre (pop-into) d'information (contenu principal de Sensagent) est invoquée un double-clic sur n'importe quel mot de votre page web. LA fenêtre fournit des explications et des traductions contextuelles, c'est-à-dire sans obliger votre visiteur à quitter votre page web !

Essayer ici, télécharger le code;


Avec la boîte de recherches Sensagent, les visiteurs de votre site peuvent également accéder à une information de référence pertinente parmi plus de 5 millions de pages web indexées sur Sensagent.com. Vous pouvez Choisir la taille qui convient le mieux à votre site et adapter la charte graphique.

Solution commerce électronique

Augmenter le contenu de votre site

Ajouter de nouveaux contenus Add à votre site depuis Sensagent par XML.

Parcourir les produits et les annonces

Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu.

Indexer des images et définir des méta-données

Fixer la signification de chaque méta-donnée (multilingue).

Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet.

Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.


Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).


Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.


Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

Dernières recherches dans le dictionnaire :

3522 visiteurs en ligne

calculé en 0,063s

Je voudrais signaler :
section :
une faute d'orthographe ou de grammaire
un contenu abusif (raciste, pornographique, diffamatoire)
une violation de copyright
une erreur
un manque
merci de préciser :

Mon compte



   Publicité ▼