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1.any of several breeds of Indian cattle; especially a large American heat and tick resistant greyish humped breed evolved in the Gulf States by interbreeding Indian cattle and now used chiefly for crossbreeding
1.the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category
2.a member of the highest of the four Hindu varnas"originally all brahmans were priests"
3.a member of a social and cultural elite (especially a descendant of an old New England family)"a Boston brahman"
Anavil Brahmin • Boston Brahmin • Boston Brahmin accent • Brahmin Tamil • Brahmin communities • Brahmin gotra system • Chauriyasi Mewada Brahmin • Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmin • Desasta Brahmin • Deshasta Brahmin • Deshastha Brahmin • Gangaputra Brahmin • Gaur Brahmin • Golapurab Brahmin • Goud Saraswat Brahmin • Halenadu Karnataka Brahmin • Havyaka Brahmin • Karhade Brahmin • Kashmiri Brahmin • Khandelwal Brahmin • Kota brahmin • Kulin Brahmin • List of Deshastha Brahmin surnames • List of Goan Brahmin communities • List of Goud Saraswat Brahmin surnames • Maithil Brahmin • Naramdev Brahmin • Pirali Brahmin • Pushpaka Brahmin • Roman Catholic Brahmin • Sanadhya Brahmin • Saraswat Brahmin • The Tiger, the Brahmin and the Jackal • Utkala Brahmin • Vishwakarma Manu Maya Brahmin
croyant en une religion (fr)[Classe...]
adepte du brahmanisme (fr)[Classe]
bovine animal; bovine[ClasseHyper.]
bovine animal; bovine[ClasseHyper.]
group, grouping, party, set[Hyper.]
politician; political schemer[Classe]
Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self. Brahmin or Brahmana refers to an individual, while the word Brahma refers to the creative aspect of the universal consciousness. The English word brahmin is an anglicised form of the Sanskrit word Brāhmana. In the Smriti view there are four "varnas", or classes: the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and Shudras. The Atreya smriti 141-142 enjoins that
Traditionally Brahmin was the name given to persons who had attained the highest spiritual knowledge (brahmavidya) and who adhered to different branches (shakhas) of Vedas. This was described to be a difficult path of discipline of body, mind, and intellect. Irrespective of their birth or class, people who were dedicated to such an austere life were recognized as Brahmins. An example of this definition of Brahmin, that a person becomes a Brahmin, rather than being born as one, is the story of the sage Vishwamitra, who was a warrior, who became a Brahmin after attaining brahmavidya, and composed the Gayatri mantra. [defunct example from period before dharmashastras So, The belief that people born into the Brahmin caste, automatically become Brahmins, is a concept that emerged later in ancient India.
Historically, the semantic[clarification needed] change from a tribal state into the Hindu state of the jati-varna matrix saw the conversion and absorption of tribals into the Brahmin class, through adoption of the priestly occupation. In medieval and colonial India, people in mundane occupations also proselytized[clarification needed] themselves into Brahmins, usually upon gaining positions of power or upon becoming wealthy.
The Smritis conferred upon the Brahmins the position of being the highest of the four Varnas. The priestly class is expected to practice self-abnegation and play the role of being the custodians of Dharma (as a Brāhman who is well versed in Vedic texts). The fee paid to the Brahmana for performance of a sacrifice was considered as a return for the duties of the priest. Hopkins states: "As to the fees, the rules are precise, and the propounders of them are unblushing. The priest performs the sacrifice for the fee alone, and it must consist of valuable garments, kine, horses, or gold; – when each is to be given is carefully stated. Gold is coveted most, for ‘this is immortality, the seed of Agni'"
Most sampradayas (sects) of modern Brahmins claim to take inspiration from the Vedas. According to orthodox Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya and anādi (beginning-less), and are revealed truths of eternal validity. The Vedas are considered Śruti ("that which is heard") and are the paramount source on which Brahmin tradition claims to be based. Śruti texts include the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), and their respective Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.
In 1931, Brahmins accounted for 4.32% of the total population of the subcontinent. Now it comprises 3% of the total population.In West Bengal the figures stand at 5 %, whereas in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar and Orissa the Brahmin population is quite near 10%.
Brahmins, basically adhere to the principles of the Vedas, related to the texts of the Śruti and Smriti which are some the foundations of Hinduism, and practise Sanatana Dharma. Vedic Brāhmaṇas have six occupational duties, of which three are compulsory — studying the Vedas, performing Vedic rituals and practicing dharma. By teaching the insights of the Vedic literature which deals with all aspects of life including spirituality, philosophy, yoga, religion, rituals, temples, arts and culture, music, dance, grammar, pronunciation, metre, astrology, astronomy, logic, law, medicine, surgery, technology, martial arts, military strategy, etc. By spreading its philosophy, and by accepting back from the community, the Brahmins receive the necessities of life.
Brahmins practice vegetarianism or lacto-vegetarianism which has been a custom for centuries, dating back to the pre-Christian era. However, some Brahmins inhabiting regions of Mithila, Punjab, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal and Nepal, are non-vegetarian.
Most Brahmin sects wear the Yagnopaveetham (or sacred thread) that is a symbol of initiation to the Gayatri recital. This ritual is often referred to as Upanayana. This marks the learning of the Gayatri hymn. Brahmin sects also generally identify themselves as belonging to a particular Gotra, a classification based on patrilineal descent, which is specific for each family and indicates their origin.
The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins from the Northern part of India (considered to be the region north of the Vindhya mountains) and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from the region south of the Vindhya mountains as per the shloka asdof Kalhana. This shloka was composed only in the 11th century CE.
सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः, पञ्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः ||
Assamese Brahmins are found mostly in Lower Assam, Upper Assam and throughout the entire Brahmaputra Valley. They are believed to have their origins in Kannauj, in ancient Magadha, and to have migrated during the Kamarupa period to Lower Assam and then to the rest of the Brahmaputra Valley. With respect to faith and customs, Brahmins in Assam are the same as other Brahmin communities across India. Each Brahmin family within the community identify themselves to a specific Gotra. Sarma/Sharma, Bhagawati, Goswami, Chakraborty are a few common Assamese Brahmin surnames.
Kamrupi kings were known to take regular advice from Brahmins for political and religious purposes. Kamrupi king Bhaskar Varman was known to regularly grant land, copper plates and cows to Brahmins.
The Sanskrit text Brāhmaṇotpatti-Mārtaṇḍa by Pt. Harikrishna Śāstri mentions that a king named Utkala invited Brahmins from the Gangetic Valley to perform a yajna in Jagannath-Puri in Orissa. When the yajna ended, these Brahmins laid the foundation of Lord Jagannath there and settled around Orissa, Jharkhand and Medinipur. The Utkala Brahmins are of three classes 1) Shrautiya (vaidika), 2) Sevayata and 3) Halua Brahmins.
Maithil Brāhamaṇas, are a group of Brahmins typically originating from and living in and around Mithila, which is part of North Bihar. They are a community of highly cohesive, traditional Brahmins who strive to follow rites and rituals according to ancient Hindu canons. They have a reputation for orthodoxy and interest in learning. A large number of Maithil Brahmins migrated a few centuries ago to adjoining areas of South-east Bihar and Jharkhand, as well as to adjoining Terai regions of Nepal. Most of the Maithil Brahmins are Śāktas (worshippers of Śakti) . Maithili is their mother tongue, though many use Angika (a south-eastern dialect of Maithili) as their mother tongue.
The Hindu caste system of the region was influenced by the influx of Buddhism from the time of Asoka, around the third century BCE, and in consequence the traditional lines of varna were blurred, with the exception of the Brahmins, who remained aloof from the changes. Another notable feature of early Kashmiri society was the relatively high regard in which women were held, when compared to their position in other communities of the period.
कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः, गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ||
Jangid Brahman are the followers of Angira Rishi. The sect of Jangid Brahmins are widely found in Rajasthan. Jangid Brahmins are now also found in Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Nepal.
Bagra Brahmin (pronounced as Bagda) is a part of the Brahmin community mainly concentrated in and around Jaipur district of Rajasthan, India, although members of this community can be found throughout India and also in foreign countries.
Gurjara Brāhmans refer to the Brahmins of Gujarāt, and are subdivided into many groups and subcastes. Many of them have origins in Rajasthan. Some of the sub-categories are:
Girinarayan Brahmin, Shrigod Brahmin, Sachora Brahmin, Anavil Brahmin, Sidhra-Rudhra Brahmins, Prashnora Brahmins, Vadadra Brahmin, Sree gauda Brahmin, Trivedi Mewada Brahmin (origin Mewad), Palival Brahmin (Dasha and visha), Modh Brahmin, Tapodhan Brahmin, Audichya Brahmin, Sahastra Audichya Gorwal Brahmin, Nagar Brahmin, Pushkarna Brahmin, Saurashtra Bhatt Mewada Brahmin, Saurashtra Trivedi Mewad Brahmin, Chauriyasi Mewada Brahmin, Rajgor Brahmin (Gujarat Origin), Bajkhedawal Brahmins (origin Kheda in central Gujarat or Khedbrahma in north Gujarat), Jangid Brahmin, Rajgor Brahmin, Bhatt Mewada Brahmin, Shrimali Brahmins and Chvyan Brahmin (or bharah gaon Brahmin), Adhyagoud Brahmins (Rajasthan origin) and Jaiswal Brahmin (North-Indian origin),
Kanaujiya or Kanyakumbj Brahmins migrated from Kanauj and entered the Kutch area via Sindh along with the lohanas. They are divided into the categories bhuvdiyas, vondhiyas and sandhliyas, according to their village temple. Others in Gujarat are mainly found in Jamnagar, Morbi, Junaghath and Rajkot. Surnames like Bhatt, Kaileyas, Bhaglani, Pingal, Lakhlani, Ghediya etc. are common among them.
Vaidiki Brahmins are further divided into the following sub-categories: Dravidlu (Aadi Saivulu, Saivulu), Vaidiki Velanadu, Vaidiki Venginadu, Vaidiki Kosalanadu or Kasalnadu, Vaidiki Mulakanadu, Vaidiki Murikinadu, Vaidiki Telaganya.
Niyogis are further divided into the following subcategories: Nandavarika Niyogi, Pradhama Shakha Niyogi, Aaru Vela Niyogulu, Golkonda Vyapari, Karanaalu, Sistukaranalu, Karana kamma vyaparlu, Karanakammulu.
Another sub-section, known as Dravida Brahmins, is made up of a group of Saraswat Brahmins who migrated to Andhra Pradesh from Tamil Nadu. They had originally migrated to Tamil Nadu from Saurashtra. Islamic invasions affected this group by forcing its slow migration from Kashmir to Andhra Pradesh via Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. As a result of their migration from Tamil Nadu, this group of Brahmins is known as Dravida Brahmins or Dravidlu. They remain with the Vedic traditions. This sect is also related to the Vadama Brahmins.
Karnāta Brāhmans(ಕನ್ನಡ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣ): The Brāhmans of the Carnatic, or the Canarese country. The Canarese area comprises Mysore State, and the British Districts of Canara, Dharwar and Belgaum.
These are further subdivided into the following castes : Babbur Kamme Brahmins, Badaganadu Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmin, Hale naadu Karnataka Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmin, Hasan Iyengars, Hebbar Iyengars, Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins, Jangam Brahmins, Karhade Brahmin, Koota Brahmins, Madhva Brahmins, Mandyam Iyengars, Mysore Iyengars, Niyogi Brahmins, Panchagrama Brahmin, Sankethi Brahmins, Sattada vaishnava Brahmins, Shukla Yajurveda Brahmins, Smartha Brahmins, Srivaishnava Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Ulucha Kamme Brahmins
Brahmins classify themselves on the basis of their patrilineal descent from a notable ancestor. These ancestors are either ancient Indian sages or kshatriyas (warriors), who chose to become Brahmins. The major gotras that trace descent from sages are: Shri Vatsya, Kanva, Jamadagni, Bhrigu, Bharadvâja, Kaundinya, Gautama Maharishi, Sandilya, Bhrigu, Vashista, Parāshara, Atryasa, Harithasa, Kashyapa, and Agastya gotra. Other gotras are Mitra, Vishvamitra and Chaurasia gotra.
In general, gotra denotes any person who traces descent in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Pāṇini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as 'apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram' (IV. 1. 162), which means: "the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son's son". When a person says, "I am Kashypasa-gotra", he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent. This enumeration of eight primary gotras seems to have been known to Pāṇini. These gotras are not directly connected to Prajapathy or latter brama[clarification needed]. The offspring (apatya) of these Eight are gotras; and others than these are called 'gotrâvayava'.Provide Vepachedu's Sources
The gotras are divided into three tiers of ganas, then into pakshas, and finally into individual gotras. According to the Âsvalâyana-srautasûtra, there are four subdivisions of the Vashista gana, viz. Upamanyu, Parāshara, Kundina and Vashista (other than the first three). The first has survived in the Bhrigu and Āngirasa gana. According to Baudh, the principal eight gotras were divided into pakshas. The pravara of Upamanyu is Vashista, Bharadvasu, Indrapramada; the pravara of the Parâshara gotra is Vashista, Shâktya, Pârâsharya; the pravara of the Kundina gotra is Vashista, Maitrâvaruna, Kaundinya and the pravara of Vashistas other than these three is simply Vashista. Therefore some define pravara as the group of sages that distinguishes the founder (lit. the starter) of one gotra from another.
There are two kinds of pravaras, 'sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara' and 'putrparampara'. Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis. Kashyapasa gotra has at least two distinct pravaras in Andhra Pradesh: one with three sages (triarsheya pravara) and the other with seven sages (saptarsheya pravara). This pravara may be either sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara or putraparampara. Similarly, Srivatsasa gotra has five sages or is called Pancharsheya and are the descendants of Jamadagni. For a sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara marriage it is not acceptable if half, or more than half, of the rishis are the same in both bride and bridegroom gotras. If it is putraparampara, a marriage is totally unacceptable even if one rishi matches.Provide Vepachedu's Sources-
Due to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools to which they belong, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes. During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BCE to 200 BCE, Brahmins became divided into various Shakhas (branches), based on the adoption of different Vedas and different rescension Vedas. Sects for different denominations of the same branch of the Vedas were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among the Brahmins.
There are several Brahmin law givers, such as Angiras, Apasthambha, Atri, Bhrigu, Brihaspati, Boudhayana, Daksha, Gautama, Harita, Katyayana, Likhita, Manu, Parasara, Samvarta, Shankha, Shatatapa, Ushanasa, Vashista, Vishnu, Vyasa, Yajnavalkya, and Yama. These twenty-one rishis were the propounders of the Smritis. The oldest among these smritis are Apastamba, Baudhayana, Gautama, and Vashista Sutras.Provide Vepachedu's Sources
Many Indians and non-Indians claim descent from the Vedic Rishis of both Brahmin and non-Brahmin descent. For example, the Dasharna and Nagas are said to be the descendants of Kashyapa Muni. The descent of Brahmins is generally indicated by the gotra, which refers to his patrilineage. It is indicated by the name of the 'great sage' to whose descent the Brahmin is said to belong.
The Saini (gardener) community claim in one of their stories that they descended from a Brahmin and call themselves Parpadh Brahman, which in course of time became Phulmali.
Dadheech Brahmins/dayama Brahmin trace their roots from Dadhichi Rishi. Many Jat clans claim to descend from Dadhichi Rishi while the Dudi Jats claim to be in the lineage of Duda Rishi.
In Andhra Pradesh the Panchanamvaru, the artisan caste of five groups (goldsmith, carpenters, blacksmiths, brasiers and stone-cutters) claim to descent from Vishwakarma and his five sons (Manu, Maya, Silpa, Tvastra and Daivagna), and claim to be Vishwa-Brahmin. The Vipravinodins also claim the status.
In Bengal (West Bengal State and Bangladesh) the Namasudras, now named as Namasudra (Namassej) also claimed Brahmin status. It is claimed that King Ballal Sen expelled them from society and declared them as out-castes. A Vyavastha  was signed in 1901 by forty odd Brahmin pundits, headed by Chief Brahmin pundit (Nabadwip) of Bengal. This is supported by Dr. Nihar Ray in "The History Of Bengali People , Ancient Period", published in "Desh", The Famous Bengali Literary Magazine in 1951, and included in the special issue of "Articles of One Century". It is claimed that the 1931 census of India shows that the two states of the Ganga River Valley basin, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, had a 10% Brahmin population and adjacent Orissa also had a 10% population, but Bengal had exactly half, 5%. Dr. N.R. Ray mentions in his book that Namasudra (Namassejas) are the Lost Tribe.
In Karnataka, the Sthanika Brahmins claim to be Saiva Brahmins.
Brahmins have taken on many professions – from being priests, ascetics and scholars to warriors and business people, as is attested for example in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Brahmins with the qualities of Kshatriyas are known as 'Brahmakshatriyas'. An example mentioned in mythology is the sage Parashurama who is considered an avatar of Vishnu. Sage Parashurama is portrayed as a powerful warrior who defeated the Haiheya kshatriyas twenty one times, was an expert in the use of weapons, and trained others to fight without weapons. He is said to have established the Bhumihar Brahmins as landowners once he destroyed the Kshatriya race. These Brahmins, after having mostly abandoned their priestly functions (although some still perform), took to land-owning (Zamindar) as a profession.
Brahmin sects that have taken up the profession of medicine include the Vaidya (or Baidya) Brahmins of Bengal, with surnames Gupta, Dasgupta and Senguptas. They are considered descendants of Dhanvantari, the Hindu god of medicine and father of Ayurveda.
Kshatriya Brahmin  and Brahma-kshatriya  are terms associated with people of both the Brahmin and Kshatriya caste components. Among the Royal Rajput households, Brahmins who became the personal teachers and protectors of the royal princes rose to the status of Rajpurohit and taught the princes everything, including martial arts.
They would also become the keepers of the Royal lineage and its history. They would also be the protectors of the throne in case the regent was orphaned and a minor. The well-known Brahmin Chanakya was a Rajpurohit for Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan empire, who helped Chandragupta get a grip on the well-established Nanda Empire and prevent Alexander the Great from invading India. The Pallava kings also claimed to be Brahmakshatriyas. King Jayavarma I of Kambuja (Kampuchea) of 781 A.D. was a Brahma-kshatriya. King Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir ruled all of India and even Central Asia.
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu), born into a family of Purohits, started the manufacture of cannons for the first time in North India, with Portuguese know-how and dealt in gunpowder supplies for Sher Shah Suri's army. Later he became Prime Minister and Chief of Army of the Suris and Emperor of North India in 1556, defeating Akbar's army at Agra and Delhi.
Brahmins with the qualities of a Vaisya or merchant are known as 'Brahmvyasya'. An example of such persons are people of the Ambastha caste, which exist in South India. They perform medical work, and claim that from ancient times they have practised Ayurveda and have been Vaidyas (or doctors). During British rule, when the government desired to promote caste mobility, they started bearing the sacred thread also, but neither the government nor the Hindu oligarchs supported any such sanction[disambiguation needed].
Smartism (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as it is termed in Sanskrit) is a liberal or nonsectarian denomination of the Hindu religion, who accept all the major Hindu deities as forms of the one Brahman in contrast to Shaivism and Shaktism, for example. The term Smarta refers to adherents who follow the Vedas and Shastras.
One form of Vaishnavism is Madhwa (Dwaita Sampradaya), and the other is Sri Vaishnava (Vishishtadvaita sampradaya). Madhwa Brahmins are mainly located in the Carnatic plains and some of them are seen in Andhra, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. They follow the teachings of Sri Madhvacharya, who was born in South Canara district of Karnataka in the 12th Century. He preached Dvaita, which says that God and atma (soul) are different entities, which is contradictory to the teachings of Sri Adi Sankaracharya, who preached Advaita vedanta (non-duality). In South India, Sri Vaishnava sampradayam was propagated by Srimad Ramanujacharya.
Shaivism (sometimes called Shivaism) is a belief system where Lord Shiva is worshipped as the Supreme Lord. It is a derivative faith of the core Vedic tradition. Saiva sects contains many subsects, such as Asdisaivas, Rudrasaivas, Veerasiavas, Paramasaivas, etc. Ravana, the ruler of Lanka in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was depicted to be a Shiva devotee, who was a son of a Brahmin and a Daitya.
Brahmins were treated with great veneration in the time of the Buddha and there are countless references to Brahmins throughout the Buddhist scriptures. Furthermore, most of the major Buddhist founders were Brahmins. They include Sariputra, Maudgalyayana, Mahakashyapa, Nagarjuna, Asvaghosha, Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita, Nagasena, Kumarajiva and Shantideva, all of whom were referred by their titles as Brahmins. The word Brahmin, meaning "priest class", was not redefined by the Buddha and it continued to be used alongside Arahat in separate capacities. Max Muller points out that in the Dhamapada, Buddha etymologizes the word "Bahama", the Prakrit form of "Brahmana", by playing off the Sanskrit/Prakrit etymon -bra.
In the Ambattha Sutra, we find the Buddha debated a Brahmin who was clearly not an Arahat. Also in many important dharanis, Brahmins are mentioned in an entirely different capacity from Arahats, and therefore there is a marked difference. The Buddha however insisted that Brahmins had to live up to their great legacy, and could not be by birth alone, but also had to have performed the meritorious acts. In the Dhammapada, the Buddha mentions Brahmins and Arahats in very different capacities and dedicates an entire chapter to what it means to be a real Brahmin called the Brahmana-vagga.
The Buddha did not believe in caste discrimination but he did endorse a fair division of labour based on merit. According to him, Brahmins were not to discriminate against lower castes but were to serve them wholeheartedly. Many sutras indicate that the Buddha himself was a Brahmin in a previous life and, due to his good merit as a Brahmin, was re-born as the Buddha. Other experts believe the Buddha descended from Brahmin sage Angiras whose descendants like Dronacharya were Shatra Brahmins or warrior Brahmins that eventually became Kshatriya warriors.
The notion of ritual purity provided a conceptual foundation for the caste system, by identifying occupations and duties associated with impure or taboo objects as being themselves impure. Regulations imposing such a system of ritual purity and taboos are absent from the Buddhist monastic code, and not generally regarded as being part of Buddhist teachings On the contrary, the early Buddhist scriptures defined purity as determined by one's state of mind, and refer to anyone who behaves unethically, of whatever caste, as "rotting within", or "a rubbish heap of impurity".
There are many places in which the Buddha explains his use of the word brahman. At Sutta Nipata 1.7, Vasala Sutta, verse 12, he states: "Not by birth is one an outcast; not by birth is one a brahman. By deed one becomes an outcast, by deed one becomes a brahman."
There are additional sampradayas, which are not as widely followed:
The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukunda Das of present-day Orissa, popularly known by followers as Mahima Swami according to the Bhima Bhoi text. He was born in the last part of the 18th century, in the former state of Baudh, a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order. This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.
There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattatreya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an Avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva.
Bahun is a colloquial Nepali term for a member of the Pahari or "hill" Brahmin (ब्राह्मण) caste, who are traditionally educators, scholars and priests of Hinduism. They are also known as Barmu in Newari. Brahmins are the second largest caste group in Nepal (31% of the population), with the Chhetri (Kshatriya) being the first (42%). Brahmins were inhabitants of Nepal in prehistoric times. The Brahmin community is the major part of the indigenous Khas community of Nepal. They moved eastward along Xinjiang province of China, Western Tibet, the Himalayan foothills from Kashmir and Kumao/Garwal. They settled first in the Karnali River basin, then the Gandaki and finally the Kosi basin and into Sikkim and Bhutan.
Some Jaiswal Brahmins are Chaurasi Brahmins from Nepal or North India. There are references about Brahmins of Nepal in bansawali and purans. By tradition—and by civil law until 1962—they represented the highest of the four Hindu varna or castes. Bahuns from the "hills" have been represented disproportionately in Nepal's education system, political parties and civil service since the country was unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah and his heirs in the 18th century. The top leaders of the all the major parties are also Bahuns: the Maoist opposition (Pushpa Kamal Dahal and Baburam Bhattarai), the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) Jhalanath Khanal, Madhav Kumar (Nepal), and the Nepali Congress (Sushil Koirla).
Very often, Khas Bahuns can be identified by their middle names being Dev (देव), Nath (नाथ), Mani (मणि), Raj (राज), Prasad (प्रसाद), Devi (देवी) or Kumari (कुमारी). They never use bahadur (बहादुर) in their names because it is associated mainly with Chhetris (Kshatriya) and "martial tribes".
The Brahman caste in Nepal includes numerous family names such as:
Historically, Brahmins, known as ponna (ပုဏ္ဏား) in modern-day Burmese, formed an influential group in Burma prior to British colonialism. Until the 1900s, ponna referred to Indians who had arrived prior to colonial rule, distinct from kala, Indians who arrived during British rule. During the Konbaung dynasty, court Brahmins were consulted by kings before moving royal capitals, waging wars, making offerings to Buddhist sites like the Mahamuni Buddha, and for astrology. Burmese Brahmins can be divided into four general groups, depending on their origins:
According to Burmese chronicles, Brahmins in Burma were subject to the four-caste system, which included brahmanas (ဗြာဟ္မဏ), kshatriyas (ခတ္တိယ), vaishya (ဝေဿ), and shudra (သုဒ္ဒ). Because the Burmese monarchy enforced the caste system for Indians, Brahmins who broke caste traditions and laws were subject to punishment. In the Arakanese kingdom, punished Brahmins often became kyun ponna (ကျွန်ပုဏ္ဏား), literally 'slave Brahmins', who made flower offerings to Buddha images and performed menial tasks. During the Konbaung dynasty, caste was indicated by the number of salwe (threads) worn; Brahmins wore nine, while the lowest caste wore none. Brahmins are also fundamental in the Nine-God cult, called the Nine Divinities (Phaya Ko Su ဘုရားကိုးစု) which is essentially a Burmese puja (puzaw in Burmese) for appeasing nine divinities, Buddha and the eight arahats, or a group of nine deities, five Hindu gods and four nat spirits. This practice continues to be practiced in modern-day Burma.