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définition - Centre_Georges_Pompidou

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Wikipedia

Centre Georges Pompidou

                   
Centre Georges Pompidou
General information
Type Culture and Leisure
Architectural style Postmodern / High-Tech
Location Paris, France
Completed 1971 - 1977
Technical details
Structural system Steel superstructure with reinforced concrete floors
Design and construction
Architect Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini
Structural engineer Arup
Services engineer Arup
  Part of the expositions in the Centre
  Pablo Picasso's works in the Centre

Centre Georges Pompidou (French pronunciation: [sɑ̃tʁ ʒɔʁʒ pɔ̃pidu]; also known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture.

It houses the Bibliothèque publique d'information, a vast public library, the Musée National d'Art Moderne which is the largest museum for modern art in Europe, and IRCAM, a centre for music and acoustic research. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as the Beaubourg (IPA: [bobuʁ]). It is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who decided its creation, and was officially opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. The Centre Pompidou has had over 150 million visitors since 1977.[1]

Contents

  The inception

The idea for a multicultural complex sprouted from André Malraux, the first minister of cultural affairs, was the western prophet of art and culture as centralized political power. The idea for the Centre Pompidou as a nerve centre of the French art and culture, bringing together in one place the different forms of expression, can be traced back in a way to Malraux’ ideas.(5) In the 1960’s the city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles, the historical structures were greatly priced and it was proposed that some of the cultural institutes would be appropriate occupants. Paris as a city of culture and art needed a boost and voices were raised to move the Musée d’Art Moderne to this more appropriate location. Another demand existed in Paris at the time, that for a decent public library, Paris at the time lacked any large, free, general-purpose library. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year later in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a center for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM (Institut de recherche et coordination acoustique/musique) and a center for industrial design were also housed in the complex.(2)

  Architecture

The Centre was designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano; the British architect Richard Rogers ; and the Italian architect Gianfranco Franchini, assisted by Ove Arup & Partners. [1]. The project was awarded to this team in an architectural design competition, whose results were announced in 1971. Reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly colored tubes for mechanical systems. The Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionized museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city."[2]

Initially, all of the functional structural elements of the building were color-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, and circulation elements and devices for safety (e.g., fire extinguishers) are red.[1] However, recent visits suggest that this color coding has partially lapsed, and many of the elements are simply painted white.[citation needed]

  Construction

The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977.[3] The building cost 993 million 1972 French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million 1999 francs.[1]

Building specifications[1]
Land area 2 hectares (5 acres)
Floor area 103,305 m2
Superstructure 7 levels
Height 42 m (Rue Beaubourg side), 45.5 m (Piazza side)
Length 166 m
Width 60 m
Infrastructure 3 levels
Dimensions Depth: 18 m; Length: 180 m; Width: 110 m
Materials used[1]
Earthworks 300,000 m3
Reinforced concrete 50,000 m3
Metal framework 15,000 tonnes of steel
Façades, glass surfaces 11,000 m2
Opaque surfaces 7,000 m2

  Exhibitions

Several major exhibitions are organized each year on either the first or sixth floors. Among them, many monographs:[4]

  Stravinsky Fountain

The nearby Stravinsky Fountain (also called the Fontaine des automates), on Place Stravinsky, features sixteen whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by Tinguely, the colored works by de Saint-Phalle. The fountain opened in 1983.[5]

Video footage of the fountain appeared frequently throughout the French language telecourse, French in Action.

  Place Georges Pompidou

The Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands, caricature and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, and even skateboarding competitions.

  Provincial branch

In 2010, the Centre Georges Pompidou opened a provincial branch, the Centre Pompidou-Metz, in Metz a city 170 miles east of Paris. The new museum is part of an effort to expand the display of contemporary arts beyond Paris’s large museums. The new museum’s building was designed by the architect Shigeru Ban with a curving and asymmetrical pagoda-like roof topped by a spire and punctured by upper galleries. The 77 meters central spire is a nod to the year the Centre Georges Pompidou of Paris was built – 1977. The Centre Pompidou-Metz displays unique, temporary exhibitions from the collection of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, which is not on display at the main Parisian museum. The first exhibition, called Masterpieces?, attracted over 800,000 visitors during the year following its opening.

  Use in film and television

A fifth floor room of the building featured as the office of Holly Goodhead (played by Lois Chiles), in the 1979 James Bond film Moonraker, which in the film was scripted as being part of the space station of the villainous Hugo Drax (Michael Lonsdale).[6]

  Public transport

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Architecture of the Building". Practical Information. Centre Pompidou. http://www.centrepompidou.fr/pompidou/Communication.nsf/0/B90DF3E7C7F18CAEC1256D970053FA6D?OpenDocument&sessionM=3.1.12&L=2. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  2. ^ Pogrebin, Robin (2007-03-28). "British Architect Wins 2007 Pritzker Prize". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/28/arts/design/28cnd-pritzker.html?hp. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  3. ^ "Centre Georges Pompidou". Vinci. http://www.vinci.com/vinci.nsf/en/history-sites.htm?OpenAgent&georges_pompidou_centre_in_paris. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  4. ^ "Centre Pompidou - Art culture musée expositions cinémas conférences débats spectacles concerts". Centre Pompidou. 2011. http://www.centrepompidou.fr. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  5. ^ Hortense Lyon, La Fontaine Stravinsky, Collection Baccalaureat arts plastiques 2004, Centre national de documentation pedagogique
  6. ^ "Moonraker (1979)". The Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0079574/locations. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 

  Further reading

  • Nancy Marmer, "Waiting for Gloire: Beaubourg Opens in Paris," Artforum, February 1977, pp. 52–59.

  External links

Coordinates: 48°51′38″N 2°21′09″E / 48.860653°N 2.352411°E / 48.860653; 2.352411

   
               

 

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