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|Congress of the Philippines
Kongreso ng Pilipinas
|15th Congress of the Philippines|
House of Representatives
|Senate President||Juan Ponce Enrile, PMP
since July 26, 2010
|House Speaker||Feliciano Belmonte, Jr., Liberal
since July 26, 2010
|Senate Political groups|
|House of Representatives Political groups|
|Joint committees||Joint committees are chaired by senators|
|Authority||Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines|
|Senate Last election||May 10, 2010|
|House of Representatives Last election||May 10, 2010|
Government Service Insurance System Building, Pasay
House of Representatives:
Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City
|Senate of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate (upper chamber), and the House of Representatives (lower chamber) although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.
The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district.
The House of Representatives is composed of a maximum of 250 congressmen. There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. The district congressmen represent a particular geographical district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some composed of two or more representatives.
The sectoral congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations.
The Constitution provides that the Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The President may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters.
When the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. On March 19, 1812, the Constitution of Cadiz was approved, which led to the colony's first representatives at the Cortes in September 24, 1812 by Pedro Perez de Tagle and Jose Manuel Coretto. However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed the Spanish throne, and the Cadiz Constitution was rejected by the Cortes on May 24, 1816 with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Illustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century.
The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the 1899 Constitution of the Philippines. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish sold the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine-American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured on 1901.
When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights.
The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmeña and then Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature.
In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established.
The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, aside from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II intervened. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same set up will continue until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946.
Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree.
As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; in 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a parliamentary system of government. The parliament elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened in 1978.
Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened in 1987.
|In operation||Authority||Legislature||Type||Upper house||Lower house|
|1900–07||Appointment by the President of the United States||Philippine Commission||Unicameral||Philippine Commission|
|1907–16||Philippine Bill of 1902||Philippine Legislature||Bicameral||Philippine Commission||Philippine Assembly|
|1916–35||Philippine Autonomy Act||Philippine Legislature||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
|1935–41||1935 Constitution||National Assembly||Unicameral||National Assembly|
|1943–44||1943 Constitution||National Assembly||Unicameral||National Assembly|
|1945–46||Amendments to the 1935 Constitution||Commonwealth Congress||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
|1946–73||Congress||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
|never convened||1973 Constitution||National Assembly||Unicameral||National Assembly|
|1978–86||Amendments to the 1973 Constitution||Batasang Pambansa||Unicameral||Batasang Pambansa|
|1987–present||1987 Constitution||Congress||Bicameral||Senate||House of Representatives|
The powers of the Congress of the Philippines may be classified as:
It consists of the enactment of laws intended as a rule of conduct to govern the relation between individuals (i.e., civil laws, commercial laws, etc.) or between individuals and the state (i.e., criminal law, political law, etc.)
It is the essential to the effective exercise of other powers expressly granted to the assembly.
These are the powers which though not expressly given are nevertheless exercised by the Congress as they are necessary for its existence such as:
It has reference to powers which the Constitution expressly and specifically directs to perform or execute.
Powers enjoyed by the Congress classifiable under this category are:
Powers of the Congress that are executive in nature are:
The Congress of the Philippines exercises considerable control and supervision over the administrative branch - e.g.:
Considered as electoral power of the Congress of the Philippines are the Congress' power to:
Constitutionally, each house has judicial powers:
The other powers of Congress mandated by the Constitution are as follows:
The vote requirements in the Congress of the Philippines are as follows:
|Requirement||Senate||House of Representatives||Joint session||All members|
|Majority (50% +1 member)||
In most cases, such as the approval of bills, only a majority of members present is needed; on some cases such as the election of presiding officers, a majority of all members, including vacant seats, is needed.
This article is part of the series:
Other countries · Atlas
In the Philippines, the most common way to illustrate the result in a Senate election is via a tally of candidates in descending order of votes. The twelve candidates with the highest number of votes are elected.
|3.||Miriam Defensor Santiago||PRP||17,344,742||45.47%|
|5.||Juan Ponce Enrile||PMP||15,665,618||41.06%|
|7.||Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.||Nacionalista||13,169,634||34.52%|
|10.||Sergio Osmeña III||Independent||11,656,668||30.56%|
|12.||Teofisto Guingona III||Liberal||10,277,352||26.94%|
|15.||Joey de Venecia||PMP||8,375,043||21.95%|
|24.||Emilio Mario Osmeña||PROMDI||3,980,370||10.43%|
|26.||Satur Ocampo||Bayan Muna||3,539,345||9.28%|
|28.||Ramon Mitra III||Nacionalista||2,744,090||7.19%|
|31.||Silvestre Bello III||Lakas-Kampi||2,468,276||6.47%|
|33.||Imelda Papin||Bangon Pilipinas||1,972,667||5.17%|
|37.||JV Larion Bautista||PMP||1,415,117||3.71%|
|41.||Ramoncito Ocampo||Bangon Pilipinas||944,725||2.48%|
|42.||Kata Inocencio||Bangon Pilipinas||888,771||2.33%|
|43.||Jovito Palparan, Jr.||Independent||825,208||2.16%|
|44.||Alex Tinsay||Bangon Pilipinas||728,339||1.91%|
|45.||Zafrullah Alonto||Bangon Pilipinas||712,628||1.87%|
|46.||Reginald Tamayo||Ang Kapatiran||680,211||1.78%|
|49.||Shariff Ibrahim Albani||KBL||508,558||1.33%|
|50.||Rizalito David||Ang Kapatiran||504,259||1.32%|
|51.||Israel Virgines||Bangon Pilipinas||455,332||1.19%|
|52.||Zosimo Paredes||Bangon Pilipinas||437,439||1.15%|
|53.||Adrian Sison||Ang Kapatiran||418,055||1.10%|
|55.||Jo Aurea Imbong||Ang Kapatiran||362,457||0.95%|
|56.||Adz Nikabulin||Bangon Pilipinas||346,848||0.91%|
|58.||Manuel Valdehuesa, Jr.||Ang Kapatiran||201,118||0.53%|
|59.||Hector Tarrazona||Ang Kapatiran||168,386||0.44%|
|60.||Ma. Gracia Riñoza-Plazo||Ang Kapatiran||151,755||0.40%|
A voter has two votes in the House of Representatives: one vote for a representative elected in the voter's congressional district (first-past-the-post), and one vote for a party in the party-list system (closed list), the so-called sectoral representatives; sectoral representatives shall comprise not more than 20% of the House of Representatives.
To determine the winning parties in the party-list election, a party must surpass the 2% election threshold of the national vote; usually, the party with the largest number of votes wins the maximum three seats, the rest two seats. If the number of seats of the parties that surpassed the 2% threshold is less than 20% of the total seats, the parties that won less than 2% of the vote gets one seat each until the 20% requirement is met.
|Lakas-Kampi (Strength-Partner of Free Filipinos-Christian Muslim Democrats)||12,910,892||37.46%||121||164||13||86||35||7||106||36.93%||15|
|KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress)||70,852||0.21%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.35%|
|SARRO (Sarangani Reconciliation and Reformation Organization)||60,899||0.18%||1||1||0||0||1||0||0||0.00%||1|
|Lakas Kampi CMD coalition||13,042,643||37.84%||123||166||13||87||36||7||107||37.28%||16|
|Liberal (Liberal Party)||6,716,911||19.49%||32||131||19||22||10||3||44||15.38%||12|
|KKK/Liberal joint ticket||169,944||0.49%||1||3||2||1||0||0||3||1.04%||2|
|KKK (Struggle for Peace, Progress and Justice)||11,076||0.03%||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Liberal Party coalition||6,901,005||20.02%||33||135||21||23||10||3||47||16.43%||14|
|Nacionalista (Nationalist Party)||3,748,973||10.88%||25||64||7||18||7||0||25||9.08%|
|Kusug (Promote Progress for Cebu)||126,144||0.37%||0||2||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|PCM (People's Champ Movement)||120,052||0.35%||0||1||1||0||0||0||1||0.35%||1|
|Ugyon Kita Capiz (Unite Capiz)||45,859||0.13%||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Nacionalista Party coalition||4,041,028||11.73%||24||68||7||18||7||0||26||9.09%||1|
|PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses)||862,599||2.50%||2||45||1||1||1||2||4||1.40%||2|
|Navoteño (Party of the People of Navotas)||76,276||0.22%||0||1||0||0||0||1||1||0.35%||1|
|Magdiwang (Magdiwang Party)||47,840||0.14%||0||1||1||0||0||0||1||0.35%||1|
|NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition)||5,479,413||15.90%||25||72||10||10||3||0||29||10.14%||7|
|PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party – People's Power)||283,119||0.82%||5[n 2]||14||0||2||0||0||2||0.69%||3|
|Bigkis Pinoy (Bundle Pinoy)||206,853||0.60%||0||7||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|PDSP (Philippine Social Democratic Party)||171,345||0.50%||0||4||1||0||0||0||1||0.35%||1|
|LDP (Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos)||162,434||0.47%||1||3||1||1||0||0||2||0.69%||1|
|KBL (New Society Movement)||158,416||0.46%||0||10||1||0||0||0||1||0.35%||1|
|Aksyon (Democratic Action)||113,088||0.33%||0||10||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Lapiang Manggagawa (Workers' Party)||88,556||0.25%||1||3||0||1||0||0||1||0.35%|
|Bagumbayan-VNP (New Nation-Volunteers for a New Philippines)||71,319||0.21%||0||4||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|GAD (Grand Alliance for Democracy)||47,677||0.14%||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Ang Kapatiran (Alliance for the Common Good)||45,631||0.13%||0||2||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Aton Tamdon Utod Negrosa-non (Let’s Take Care of our Brother Negrenses)||42,796||0.12%||0||2||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party)||21,636||0.06%||0||10||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Lingkod Taguig (Service to Taguig)||16,990||0.05%||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%||1|
|Bangon Pilipinas (Rise Up Philippines)||14,150||0.04%||0||3||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Lapiang Manggagawa Workers and Peasants Party||8,894||0.03%||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Sandugo (Blood Compact)||1,486||0.00%||0||1[n 4]||0||0||0||0||0||0.00%|
|Invalid or blank votes[n 5]||2,937,866||7.88%||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|Total turnout[n 5]||37,293,960||73.52%||215||792||61||154||61||14||229||80.07%||14|
|Registered voters[n 5]||50,723,733[n 6]||100.00%|
In what could be a unique setup, Congress' two houses meet at different places in Metro Manila, the seat of government: the Senate sits at a building shared with the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) at Pasay, while the House of Representatives sits at the Batasang Pambansa Complex.
Historically, when Congress is composed of two houses, it sat on one building. The Philippine Legislature convened at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros, Manila from 1907 to 1926, when it transferred to the Manila Legislative Building outside Intramuros. In the Legislative Building, the Senate occupied the upper floors while the House of Representatives used the lower floors. However the Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan serve as a meeting place of unicameral congress of the First Philippine Republic
Destroyed during the Battle of Manila of 1945, the Commonwealth Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Sampaloc. Congress met at the school auditorium, with the Senate convening on evenings and the House of Representatives meeting every morning. Congress would return to the Legislative Building, which will be renamed as the Congress Building, on 1949 up to 1973 when President Marcos ruled by decree. Marcos built a new seat of a unicameral parliament at Quezon City, which would eventually be the Batasang Pambansa Complex. The parliament that will eventually be named as the Batasang Pambansa (National Legislature), first met at the Batasang Pambansa Complex on 1978.
With the overthrow of Marcos after the People Power Revolution, the bicameral Congress was restored. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate returned to the Congress Building. On May 1997, the Senate moved to the newly constructed building owned by the GSIS on land reclaimed from Manila Bay at Pasay; the Congress Building was eventually transformed into the National Museum of the Philippines.