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Demographics of the United States

                   

As of 2012, the United States has a total resident population of 314,276,000,[1] making it the third most populous country in the world.[2] It is a very urbanized population, with 82% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2008 (the worldwide urban rate is 50.5%[3]). This leaves vast expanses of the country nearly uninhabited.[4] California and Texas are the most populous states,[5] as the mean center of United States population has consistently shifted westward and southward.[6] New York City is the most populous city in the United States.[7]

The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2009 is 2.01 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1.[10] However, U.S. population growth is among the highest in industrialized countries,[11] since the vast majority of these have below-replacement fertility rates and the U.S. has higher levels of immigration.[12][13] The United States Census Bureau shows population increase of 0.91% for the twelve month period ending in July 2011.[14] Nonetheless, though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.092%.[11]

There were 155.6 million females in the United States in 2009. The number of males was 151.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were more than twice as many women as men. People under 20 years of age made up over a quarter of the U.S. population (27.3%), and people age 65 and over made up one-eighth (12.8%) in 2009.[15] The national median age was 36.8 years.[15] The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who reported “White” or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish."[16] Whites constitute the majority of the U.S. population, with a total of 223,553,265 or 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. However, non-Hispanic whites constitute 63.7% of the United States population.

The American population more than tripled during the 20th century—at a growth rate of about 1.3% a year—from about 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000. It reached the 200 million mark in 1967, and the 300 million mark on October 17, 2006.[17][18] Currently, population growth is fastest among minorities as a whole, and according to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2012, 50.4% of American children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[19]

Hispanic and Latino Americans accounted for almost half (1.4 million) of the national population growth of 2.9 million between July 1, 2005, and July 1, 2006.[20] Immigrants and their U.S.-born descendants are expected to provide most of the U.S. population gains in the decades ahead.[21]

The Census Bureau projects a U.S. population of 439 million in 2050, which is a 46% increase from 2007 (301.3 million).[22] However, the United Nations projects a U.S. population of 402 million in 2050, an increase of 32% from 2007 (the UN projects a gain of 38% for the world at large).[23] In either case, such growth is unlike most European countries, especially Germany, Russia, and Greece, or Asian countries such as Japan or South Korea, whose populations are slowly declining, and whose fertility rates are below replacement. In 2011, non-white babies outnumbered non-Hispanic white babies for the first time.[24]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 3,929,214
1800 5,236,631 33.3%
1810 7,239,881 38.3%
1820 9,638,453 33.1%
1830 12,866,020 33.5%
1840 17,069,453 32.7%
1850 23,191,876 35.9%
1860 31,443,321 35.6%
1870 38,558,371 22.6%
1880 49,371,340 28.0%
1890 62,979,766 27.6%
1900 76,212,168 21.0%
1910 92,228,496 21.0%
1920 106,021,537 15.0%
1930 123,202,624 16.2%
1940 132,164,569 7.3%
1950 151,325,798 14.5%
1960 179,323,175 18.5%
1970 203,211,926 13.3%
1980 226,545,805 11.5%
1990 248,709,873 9.8%
2000 281,421,906 13.2%
2010 308,745,538 9.7%

Contents

  History

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were 66.8 million Whites in the United States, representing 88% of the total population,[25] 8.8 million Blacks, with about 90% of them still living in Southern states,[26] and slightly more than 500,000 Hispanics.[27]

Under the current law, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965,[28] the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled,[29] from 9.6 million in 1970 to about 38 million in 2007.[30] During the 1950s, 250,000 legal immigrants entered the country annually; by the 1990s, the number was almost one million, and the vast majority of new immigrants have come from Latin America and Asia. In 2009, 37% of immigrants originated in Asia, 42% in the Americas, and 11% in Africa.[31] Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities in 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.[32] In 2006, non-Hispanic whites were the minority in thirty-five of the fifty largest cities.[33] The Census Bureau reported that minorities accounted for 50.4% of the children born in the U.S. between July 2010 and July 2011,[34] compared to 37% in 1990.[35]

In 2009 the state with the lowest fertility rate was Vermont, with 1.62 children per woman, while Utah had the greatest rate with 2.47 children per woman. This corresponds to the ages of the states' populations; Vermont has the second oldest median age in the US — 41.5 — while Utah has the youngest — 29.0. [36]

  Vital statistics

Source: National Center for Health Statistics,[37][clarification needed] U.S. Census Bureau (intercensal population estimates)[38][clarification needed]

Average population (x 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1935 2,377,000 1,392,752 984,248 18.7 2.19
1936 2,355,000 1,479,228 875,772 18.4 2.15
1937 2,413,000 1,450,427 962,573 18.7 2.17
1938 2,496,000 1,381,391 1,114,609 19.2 2.22
1939 2,466,000 1,387,897 1,141,731 18.8 2.17
1940 132,165 2,559,000 1,417,269 1,142,000 19.4 10.8 8.6 2.23
1941 133,002 2,703,000 1,397,642 1,305,358 20.3 2.33
1942 134,464 2,989,000 1,385,187 1,603,813 22.2 2.55
1943 136,003 3,104,000 1,459,544 1,644,456 22.7 2.64
1944 138,083 2,939,000 1,411,338 1,644,456 21.2 2.49
1945 139,994 2,858,000 1,401,719 1,456,281 20.4 2.42
1946 140,008 3,411,000 1,395,617 2,015,383 24.1 2.86
1947 145,023 3,817,000 1,445,370 2,371,630 26.6 3.18
1948 148,013 3,637,000 1,444,337 2,192,663 24.9 3.03
1949 149,336 3,649,000 1,443,607 2,205,393 24.5 3.04
1950 151,868 3,632,000 1,452,454 2,180,000 24.1 9.6 14.5 3.03
1951 154,056 3,823,000 1,482,099 2,340,901 24.8 9.6 15.2 3.20
1952 156,431 3,913,000 1,496,838 2,416,162 25.0 9.6 15.4 3.30
1953 159,047 3,965,000 1,447,459 2,142,000 25.2 9.1 16.1 3.36
1954 161,948 4,078,000 1,481,091 2,596,909 24.8 9.3 15.5 3.48
1955 163,476 4,097,000 1,528,717 2,568,283 25.0 9.3 14.3 3.52
1956 166,578 4,218,000 1,564,476 2,653,524 25.1 9.3 15.8 3.63
1957 169,637 4,308,000 1,633,128 2,666,872 25.3 9.5 15.8 3.71
1958 172,668 4,255,000 1,647,886 2,607,114 24.4 9.5 14.9 3.65
1959 175,642 4,244,796 1,656,814 2,587,982 24.0 9.4 14.7 3.66
1960 179,979 4,257,850 1,711,982 2,545,868 23.7 9.5 14.1 3.65
1961 182,992 4,268,326 1,701,522 2,566,804 23.3 9.3 14.0 3.62
1962 185,771 4,167,362 1,756,720 2,410,642 22.4 9.5 12.9 3.46
1963 188,483 4,098,020 1,813,549 2,284,471 21.7 9.6 12.1 3.32
1964 191,141 4,027,490 1,798,051 2,229,439 21.1 9.4 11.7 3.19
1965 193,526 3,760,358 1,828,136 1,932,222 19.4 9.5 9.9 2.91
1966 195,576 3,606,274 1,863,149 1,743,125 18.4 9.5 8.9 2.72
1967 197,457 3,520,959 1,851,323 1,669,636 17.8 9.4 8.4 2.56
1968 199,399 3,501,564 1,930,082 1,571,482 17.6 9.7 7.9 2.46
1969 201,385 3,600,206 1,921,990 1,678,216 17.9 9.5 8.4 2.46
1970 203,984 3,731,386 1,921,031 1,810,355 18.4 9.4 9.0 2.48
1971 206,827 3,555,970 1,927,542 1,628,428 17.2 9.3 7.9 2.27
1972 209,284 3,258,411 1,963,944 1,294,467 15.6 9.4 6.2 2.01
1973 211,357 3,136,965 1,973,003 1,163,962 14.8 9.5 5.3 1.88
1974 213,342 3,159,958 1,934,388 1,225,570 14.8 9.1 5.7 1.84
1975 215,465 3,144,198 1,892,879 1,251,319 14.6 8.8 5.8 1.77
1976 217,563 3,167,788 1,909,440 1,258,348 14.6 8.8 5.8 1.74
1977 219,760 3,326,632 1,899,597 1,427,035 15.1 8.6 6.5 1.79
1978 222,095 3,333,279 1,927,788 1,405,491 15.0 8.7 6.3 1.76
1979 224,567 3,494,398 1,913,841 1,580,557 15.6 8.5 7.1 1.81
1980 227,225 3,612,258 1,989,841 1,622,417 15.9 8.8 7.1 1.84
1981 229,466 3,629,238 1,977,981 1,651,257 15.8 8.6 7.2 1.81
1982 231,664 3,680,537 1,974,797 1,705,740 15.9 8.5 7.4 1.83
1983 233,792 3,638,933 2,019,201 1,619,732 15.6 8.6 6.9 1.80
1984 235,825 3,669,141 2,039,369 1,629,772 15.6 8.6 6.9 1.81
1985 237,924 3,760,561 2,086,440 1,674,121 15.8 8.8 7.0 1.84
1986 240,133 3,756,547 2,105,361 1,651,186 15.6 8.8 6.9 1.84
1987 242,289 3,809,394 2,123,323 1,686,071 15.7 8.8 7.0 1.87
1988 244,499 3,909,510 2,167,999 1,741,511 16.0 8.9 7.1 1.93
1989 246,819 4,040,958 2,150,466 1,890,492 16.4 8.7 7.7 2.01
1990 249,623 4,158,212 2,148,463 2,009,749 16.7 8.6 8.1 2.08
1991 252,981 4,110,907 2,169,518 1,941,389 16.2 8.6 7.7 2.06
1992 256,514 4,065,014 2,175,613 1,889,401 15.8 8.5 7.4 2.05
1993 259,919 4,000,240 2,268,553 1,731,687 15.4 8.7 6.7 2.02
1994 263,126 3,952,767 2,278,994 1,673,773 15.0 8.7 6.4 2.00
1995 266,278 3,899,589 2,312,132 1,587,457 14.6 8.7 6.0 1.98
1996 269,394 3,891,494 2,314,690 1,576,804 14.4 8.6 5.9 1.98
1997 272,647 3,880,894 2,314,245 1,566,649 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.97
1998 275,854 3,941,553 2,337,256 1,604,297 14.3 8.5 5.8 2.00
1999 279,040 3,959,417 2,391,399 1,568,018 14.2 8.6 5.6 2.01
2000 282,172 4,058,814 2,403,351 1,655,463 14.4 8.5 5.9 2.06
2001 285,082 4,025,933 2,416,425 1,609,508 14.1 8.5 5.6 2.03
2002 287,804 4,021,726 2,443,387 1,578,339 14.0 8.5 5.5 2.02
2003 290,326 4,089,950 2,448,288 1,641,662 14.1 8.4 5.5 2.05
2004 293,046 4,112,052 2,397,615 1,714,437 14.0 8.2 5.9 2.05
2005 295,753 4,138,349 2,448,017 1,690,332 14.0 8.3 5.7 2.06
2006 298,593 4,265,555 2,426,264 1,839,291 14.3 8.1 6.2 2.11
2007 301,580 4,316,233 2,423,712 1,892,521 14.3 8.0 6.3 2.13
2008 304,375 4,247,694 2,471,984 1,775,710 14.0 8.1 5.8 2.10
2009 307,007 4,130,665 2,437,163 1,693,502 13.5 7.9 5.9 2.00
2010 309,330 3,999,386 (p) 2,465,936 1,534,343 13.0 8.0 5.0 1.93
2011 311,592 (p) 3,961,000 (p) 2,508,000 1,453,000 12.7 8.0 4.7

(p) = Preliminary/provisional.

  Population density

  2000 U.S. population density within each county (by parish in Louisiana), in persons per sq. mile (lower 48 states only): Light to dark (yellow to blue): 1-4 (y), 5-9 (lt. green), 10-24 (teal), 25-49 (dk. teal), 50-99 (blue-green), 100-249 (blue), 250-66,995 (dark blue/purple).


The most densely populated state is New Jersey (1,121/mi2 or 433/km2). See List of U.S. states by population density for maps and complete statistics.

The United States Census Bureau publishes a popular "dot" or "nighttime" map showing population distribution at a resolution of 7,500 people,[39] as well as complete listings of population density by place name. [40]

  Cities

The United States has dozens of major cities, including 8 of the 60 "global cities"[41] of all types, with three in the "alpha" group of global cities: New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago.[42][43] As of 2011, the United States had 51 metropolitan areas with a population of over 1,000,000 people each. (See Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas.)

As of 2011, about 250 million Americans live in or around urban areas. That means more than three-quarters of the U.S. population shares just about three percent of the U.S. land area.[44]

The following table shows the populations of the top ten metropolitan areas, as of the 2010 Census.

Leading population centers
Rank Core city Metro area pop.[45] Metropolitan Statistical Area Region[46]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1 New York City 19,015,900 New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island, NY–NJ–PA MSA Northeast
2 Los Angeles 12,944,801 Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, CA MSA West
3 Chicago 9,504,753 Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSA Midwest
4 Dallas 6,526,548 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSA South
5 Houston 6,086,538 Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, TX MSA South
6 Philadelphia 5,992,414 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSA Northeast
7 Washington, D.C. 5,703,948 Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV MSA South
8 Miami 5,670,125 Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, FL MSA South
9 Atlanta 5,359,205 Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta, GA MSA South
10 Boston 4,591,112 Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSA Northeast
based on the 2011 U.S. Population Estimate

  Race and ethnicity

The U.S. population's distribution by race and ethnicity in 2010 was as follows-due to rounding, figures may not add up to the totals shown:[47]

Race / Ethnicity Number Percentage of
U.S. population
Americans 308,745,538 100.0 %
White or European American 223,553,265 72.4 %
Black or African American 38,929,319 12.6 %
Asian 14,674,252 4.8 %
American Indian or Alaska Native 2,932,248 0.9 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 540,013 0.2 %
Some other race 19,107,368 6.2 %
Two or more races 9,009,073 2.9 %
Not Hispanic or Latino 258,267,944 83.7 %
Non-Hispanic White or European American 196,817,552 63.7 %
Non-Hispanic Black or African American 37,685,848 12.2 %
Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native 2,247,098 0.7 %
Non-Hispanic Asian 14,465,124 4.7 %
Non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 481,576 0.2 %
Non-Hispanic Some Other Race 604,265 0.2 %
Non-Hispanic Two or more races 5,966,481 1.9 %
Hispanic or Latino 50,477,594 16.3 %
White or European American Hispanic 26,735,713 8.7 %
Black or African American Hispanic 1,243,471 0.4 %
American Indian or Alaska Native Hispanic 685,150 0.2 %
Asian Hispanic 209,128 0.1 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Hispanic 58,437 0.0 %
Some Other Race Hispanic 18,503,103 6.0 %
Two or more races Hispanic 3,042,592 1.0 %
Total 308,745,538 100.0%

  Hispanic or Latino origin

  2010 U.S. Census Hispanic population map.

Each of the racial categories includes people who identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino.[48] U.S. federal law defines Hispanic or Latino as "those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican", "Puerto Rican", or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.""[49]

Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

The total population of Hispanic and Latino Americans comprised 50.5 million or 16.3% of the national total in 2010.

  CensusViewer US 2010 Census Latino Population as Heatmap by County.
  CensusViewer US 2010 Census Latino Population as a Heatmap by census tract.

  Breakdown by state

[clarification needed]

State Population Non Latino White Latino Black AIAN1 Asian NHPI2 Mixed Race
Alabama 4,800,736 67.0 3.9 26.2 0.6 1.1 0 1.5
Alaska 740,231 64.1 5.5 3.3 14.8 5.4 1.0 7.3
Arizona 6,694,017 57.8 29.6 4.1 4.6 2.8 0.2 3.4
Arkansas 2,937,979 74.5 6.4 15.4 0.8 1.2 0.2 2.0
California 38,053,956 40.1 37.6 6.2 1.0 13.0 0.4 4.9
Colorado 5,229,196 70.0 20.7 4.0 1.1 2.8 0.1 3.4
Connecticut 3,580,709 71.2 13.4 10.1 0.3 3.8 0 2.6
Delaware 947,934 65.3 8.2 21.4 0.5 3.2 0 2.7
District of Columbia 617,996
Florida 19,057,542 57.9 22.5 16.0 0.4 2.4 0.1 2.5
Georgia 9,792,653 55.9 8.8 30.5 0.3 3.2 0.1 2.1
Hawaii 1,400,301 22.7 8.9 1.6 0.3 38.6 10.0 23.6
Idaho 1,607,582 84.0 11.2 0.6 1.4 1.2 0.1 2.5
Illinois 12,869,257 63.7 15.8 14.5 0.3 4.6 0 2.3
Indiana 6,589,802 81.5 6.0 9.1 0.3 1.6 0 2.0
Iowa 3,246,355 88.7 5.0 2.9 0.4 1.7 0.1 1.8
Kansas 2,963,118 78.2 10.5 5.9 1.0 2.4 0.1 3.0
Kentucky 4,369,356 86.3 3.1 7.8 0.2 1.1 0.1 1.7
Louisiana 4,673,372 60.3 4.2 32.0 0.7 1.5 0 1.6
Maine 1,401,361 94.4 1.3 1.2 0.6 1.0 0 1.6
Maryland 5,873,552 54.7 8.2 29.4 0.4 5.5 0.1 2.9
Massachusetts 6,601,629 76.1 9.6 6.6 0.3 5.3 0.0 2.6
Michigan 9,876,187 76.6 4.4 14.2 0.6 2.4 0 2.3
Minnesota 5,403,925 83.1 4.7 5.2 1.1 4.0 0 2.4
Mississippi 3,009,297 58.0 2.7 37.0 0.5 0.9 0 1.1
Missouri 5,988,927 81.0 3.5 11.6 0.5 1.6 0.1 2.1
Montana 998,199 87.8 2.9 0.4 6.3 0.6 0.1 2.5
Nebraska 1,842,641 82.1 9.2 4.5 1.0 1.8 0.1 2.2
Nevada 2,723,322 54.1 26.5 8.1 1.2 7.2 0.2 4.7
New Hampshire 1,318,194 92.3 2.8 1.1 0.2 2.2 0 1.6
New Jersey 8,821,155 59.3 17.7 13.7 0.3 8.3 0 2.7
New Mexico 2,082,224 40.5 46.3 2.1 9.4 1.4 0.1 3.7
New York 19,465,197 58.3 17.6 15.9 0.6 7.3 0 3.0
North Carolina 9,656,401 65.3 8.4 21.5 1.3 2.2 0.1 2.2
North Dakota 682,591 88.9 2.0 1.2 5.4 1.0 0 1.8
Ohio 11,736,504 81.1 3.1 12.2 0.2 1.7 0 2.1
Oklahoma 3,821,351 68.7 8.9 7.4 8.6 1.7 0.1 5.9
Oregon 3,851,074 78.5 11.7 1.8 1.4 3.7 0.3 3.8
Pennsylvania 12,902,379 79.5 5.7 10.8 0.2 2.7 0 1.9
Rhode Island 1,060,567 76.4 12.4 5.7 0.6 2.9 0.1 3.3
South Carolina 4,825,364 64.1 5.1 27.9 0.4 1.3 0.1 1.7
South Dakota 900,020 84.7 2.7 1.3 8.8 0.9 0 2.1
Tennessee 6,446,105 75.6 4.6 16.7 0.3 1.4 0.1 1.7
Texas 25,901,361 45.3 37.6 11.8 0.7 3.8 0.1 2.7
Utah 2,863,885 80.4 13.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 0.9 2.7
Vermont 685,741 94.3 1.5 1.0 0.4 1.3 0 1.7
Virginia 8,101,024 64.8 7.9 19.4 0.4 5.5 0.1 2.9
Washington 6,830,038 72.5 11.2 3.6 1.5 7.2 0.6 4.7
West Virginia 1,882,994 93.2 1.2 3.4 0.2 0.7 0 1.5
Wisconsin 5,726,986 83.3 5.9 6.3 1.0 2.3 0 1.8
Wyoming 600,626 85.9 8.9 0.8 2.4 0.8 0.1 2.2
All Data from 2010 U.S. Census Bureau[50]

^1 American Indian or Alaskan Native

^2 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

  Vital statistics of Racial and Ethnic Groups

Source: National Center for Health Statistics [51]

Non-Hispanic white:

Average population (x 1,000) Live births1 Deaths Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
19902 2,626,500 14.4 1.85
19912 2,589,878 13.9 1.82
19922 2,527,207 13.4 1.80
1993 2,472,031 13.1 1.79
1994 2,438,855 12.8 1.78
1995 2,382,638 12.5 1.78
1996 2,358,989 12.3 1.78
1997 195,900 2,333,363 1,895,461 437,902 12.2 9.7 2.5 1.79
1998 196,600 2,361,462 1,912,802 448,660 12.2 9.7 2.5 1.82
1999 197,200 2,346,450 1,953,197 393,253 12.1 9.9 2.2 1.84
2000 197,300 2,362,968 1,959,919 403,049 12.2 9.9 2.3 1.87
2001 198,000 2,326,578 1,962,810 363,768 11.9 9.9 2.0 1.85
2002 198,700 2,298,156 1,981,973 316,183 11.7 10.0 1.7 1.84
2003 199,200 2,321,904 1,979,465 342,439 11.8 9.9 1.9 1.87
2004 199,800 2,296,683 1,933,382 363,301 11.7 9.7 2.0 1.87
2005 200,400 2,279,768 1,967,142 312,626 11.6 9.8 1.8 1.87
2006 200,800 2,308,640 1,944,617 364,023 11.7 9.7 2.0 1.90
2007 201,200 2,310,333 1,939,606 370,727 11.7 9.6 2.1 1.91
2008 201,700 2,267,817 1,981,198 286,619 11.5 9.8 1.7 1.87
2009 200,000 2,212,552 1,944,606 267,946 11.2 9.6 1.6 1.83
2010 200,127 2,162,406 1,967,619 194,050 10.9 9.8 1.1 1.79

Non-Hispanic black:

Average population (x 1,000) Live births1 Deaths Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
19902 28,800 661,701 23.0 2.55
19912 29,800 666,758 22.4 2.53
19922 30,400 657,450 21.6 2.48
1993 31,000 641,273 20.7 2.41
1994 31,700 619,198 19.5 2.31
1995 32,300 587,781 18.2 2.19
1996 32,800 578,099 17.6 2.14
1997 33,400 581,431 273,381 308,050 17.4 7.4 10.0 2.14
1998 33,900 593,127 275,264 317,863 17.5 7.4 10.1 2.16
1999 34,400 588,981 281,979 307,002 17.1 7.6 9.5 2.13
2000 34,900 604,346 282,676 321,670 17.3 7.6 9.7 2.18
2001 35,400 589,917 284,343 305,574 16.6 7.5 9.1 2.11
2002 35,900 578,335 286,573 291,762 16.1 7.5 8.6 2.05
2003 36,200 576,033 287,968 288,065 15.9 7.4 8.5 2.04
2004 36,600 578,772 283,859 294,913 15.8 7.2 8.6 2.03
2005 36,900 583,759 289,163 294,596 15.8 7.3 8.5 2.03
2006 37,400 617,247 286,581 330,666 16.5 7.1 9.4 2.13
2007 37,800 627,191 286,366 340,825 16.6 7.0 9.6 2.14
2008 38,200 623,029 285,959 337,070 16.3 7.0 9.3 2.12
2009 38,700 609,584 282,982 326,602 15.7 7.2 8.5 2.05
2010 39,437 589,808 282,750 306,389 15.1 7.2 7.9 1.97

Hispanic:

Average population (x 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
19902 22,300 595,073 26.7 2.96
19912 23,500 623,085 26.5 2.96
19922 24,600 643,271 26.1 2.96
1993 25,800 654,418 25.4 2.89
1994 26,900 665,026 24.7 2.84
1995 28,200 679,768 24.1 2.80
1996 29,500 701,339 23.8 2.77
1997 30,900 709,767 95,460 614,307 23.0 3.1 19.9 2.68
1998 32,400 734,661 98,406 636,255 22.7 3.0 19.6 2.65
1999 34,000 764,339 103,740 660,599 22.5 3.1 19.4 2.65
2000 35,300 815,868 107,254 708,614 23.1 3.0 20.1 2.73
2001 37,200 851,851 113,413 738,438 22.9 3.1 19.9 2.73
2002 38,600 876,642 117,135 759,507 22.7 3.0 19.7 2.71
2003 40,000 912,329 122,026 790,303 22.8 3.1 19.8 2.74
2004 41,500 946,349 122,416 823,933 22.8 3.0 19.9 2.76
2005 43,000 985,505 131,161 854,344 22.9 3.1 19.9 2.79
2006 44,600 1,039,077 133,004 906,073 23.3 3.0 20.3 2.86
2007 46,200 1,062,779 135,519 927,260 23.0 3.0 20.1 2.84
2008 47,800 1,041,239 140,103 901,136 21.8 3.0 18.9 2.71
2009 49,200 999,548 141,576 857,972 20.3 2.9 17.4 2.53
2010 50,478 945,180 144,427 801,573 18.7 2.9 15.8 2.35

Notes:
1. The natural increase is slightly smaller than shown for non-Hispanic whites and slightly different for non-Hispanic blacks because the birth figures shown refer to mothers of that race, not the children. Most nonwhite babies of non-Hispanic white mothers are either Hispanic or black, and non-Hispanic black mothers occasionally have Hispanic children. On the other hand, all children born to Hispanic mothers are counted as Hispanic.
2. New Hampshire did not start reporting Hispanic origin until 1993, and Oklahoma until 1991, so data from those states are excluded before then.
p Preliminary data.

  Other groups

There were 22.1 million veterans in 2009.[52]

In 2010, the Washington Post estimated that there were 11 million illegal immigrants in the country.[53]

There were about 2 million people in prison in 2010.[54]

The 2000 U.S. Census counted same-sex couples in an oblique way; asking the sex and the relationship to the "main householder", whose sex was also asked. One organization specializing in analyzing gay demographic data reported, based on this count in the 2000 census and in the 2000 supplementary survey, that same-sex couples comprised between 0.99% and 1.13% of U.S. couples in 2000.[55] A 2006 report issued by The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation concluded that the number of same-sex couples in the U.S. grew from 2000 to 2005, from nearly 600,000 couples in 2000 to almost 777,000 in 2005. 4.1% of Americans aged 18–45 identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual[56]

A 2011 report by the Institute estimated that 4 million adults identify as gay or lesbian, representing 1.7% of the population over 18. A spokesperson said that, until recently, few studies have tried to eliminate people who had occasionally had behaved or had homosexual thoughts, from people who identified as lesbian or gay.[57] (Older estimates have varied depending on methodology and timing; see Demographics of sexual orientation for a list of studies.) The American Community Survey from the 2000 U.S. Census estimated 776,943 same-sex couple households in the country as a whole, representing about 0.5% of the population.[56]

Less than 1% of Americans currently serve in the Armed Forces.[58]

  Projections

U.S. Census Population projections[59]
2010 2050
Whites (includes "Some other race") 79.5% 74.0%
Non-Hispanic Whites 64.7% 46.3%
Hispanics/Latinos (of any race) 16.0% 30.2%
African Americans 12.9% 13.0%
Asian Americans 4.6% 7.8%

A report by the U.S. Census Bureau projects a decrease in the ratio of Whites between 2010 and 2050, from 79.5% to 74.0%.[59] At the same time, Non-Hispanic Whites are projected to no longer make up the majority of the population by 2042, but will remain the largest single race. In 2050 they will compose 46.3% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites made up 85% of the population in 1960.[60]

The report foresees the Hispanic or Latino population rising from 16% today to 30% by 2050, the African American percentage barely rising from 12.9% to 13.0%, and Asian Americans upping their 4.6% share to 7.8%. The U.S. has 310 million people as of October 2010, and is projected to reach 400 million by 2039 and 439 million in 2050.[22][61][62][63] It is further projected that 82% of the increase in population from 2005 to 2050 will be due to immigrants and their children.[64]

Of the nation's children in 2050, 62% are expected to be of a minority ethnicity, up from 44% today. Approximately 39% are projected to be Hispanic or Latino (up from 22% in 2008), and 38% are projected to be single-race, non-Hispanic Whites (down from 56% in 2008).[65]

In 2008, the US Census Bureau projected future censuses as follows:[22]

  • 2010: 310,232,863
  • 2020: 341,386,665
  • 2030: 373,503,674
  • 2040: 405,655,295
  • 2050: 439,010,253

  Religion

  Major religions by overall percentage.

The table below is based mainly on selected data as reported to the United States Census Bureau. It only includes the voluntary self-reported membership of religious bodies with 750,000 or more. The definition of a member is determined by each religious body.[66] As of 2004, the US census bureau reported that about 13% of the population did not identify itself as a member of any religion.[67][clarification needed]

Religious body Year reported Places of worship reported Membership
(thousands)
Number of clergy
!a 0000 -9999 -9999 -9999
African Methodist Episcopal Church 1999 no data 2500 7741
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 2002 3226 1431 3252
American Baptist Association 1998 1760 275 1740
Amish, Old Order 1993 898 227 3592
American Baptist Churches USA 1998 3800 1507 4145
Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America 1998 220 65 263
Armenian Apostolic Church 2010 153 1000 200
Armenian Catholic Church 2010 36
Assemblies of God 2009 12371 2914 34504
Baptist Bible Fellowship International 1997 4500 1200 no data
Baptist General Conference 1998 876 141 no data
Baptist Missionary Association of America 1999 1334 235 1525
Buddhism 2001 no data 1082 no data
Christian and Missionary Alliance, The 1998 1964 346 1629
Christian Brethren (Plymouth Brethren) 1997 1150 100 no data
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 1997 3818 879 3419
Christian churches and churches of Christ 1998 5579 1072 5525
Christian Congregation, Inc., The 1998 1438 117 1436
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 1983 2340 719 no data
Christian Reformed Church in North America 1998 733 199 655
Church of God in Christ 1991 15300 5500 28988
Church of God of Prophecy 1997 1908 77 2000
Church of God (Anderson, IN) 1998 2353 234 3034
Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) 1995 6060 753 3121
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints membership statistics 2005 12753 5691 38259
Church of the Brethren 1997 1095 141 827
Church of the Nazarene 1998 5101 627 4598
Churches of Christ 1999 15000 1500 14500
Conservative Baptist Association of America 1998 1200 200 no data
Community of Christ 1998 1236 140 19319
Coptic Orthodox Church 2003 200 1000 200
Cumberland Presbyterian Church 1998 774 87 634
Episcopal Church 1996 7390 2365 8131
Evangelical Covenant Church, The 1998 628 97 607
Evangelical Free Church of America, The 1995 1224 243 1936
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 1998 10862 5178 9646
Evangelical Presbyterian Church 1998 187 61 262
Free Methodist Church of North America 1998 990 73 no data
Full Gospel Fellowship 1999 896 275 2070
General Association of General Baptists 1997 790 72 1085
General Association of Regular Baptist Churches 1998 1415 102 no data
U.S. Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches 1996 368 82 590
Grace Gospel Fellowship 1992 128 60 160
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America 1998 523 1955 596
Hinduism 2001 no data 766 no data
Independent Fundamental Churches of America 1999 659 62 no data
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel 1998 1851 238 4900
International Council of Community Churches 1998 150 250 182
International Pentecostal Holiness Church 1998 1716 177 1507
Islam 2011 no data 2600 no data
Jainism no data no data 50 no data
Jehovah's Witnesses 2011 11876 1200 no data
Judaism 2006 3727 6588 no data
Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The 1998 6218 2594 5227
Mennonite Church USA 2005 943 114 no data
National Association of Congregational Christian Churches 1998 416 67 534
National Association of Free Will Baptists 1998 2297 210 2800
National Baptist Convention of America, Inc. 1987 2500 3500 8000
National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. 1992 33000 8200 32832
National Missionary Baptist Convention of America 1992 no data 2500 no data
Orthodox Church in America 1998 625 1000 700
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc. 1998 1750 1500 4500
Pentecostal Church of God 1998 1237 104 no data
Pentecostal Church International, United 2008 28351 4037 22881
Presbyterian Church in America 1997 1340 280 1642
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 1998 11260 3575 9390
Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc. 1995 2000 2500 no data
Reformed Church in America 1998 902 296 915
Religious Society of Friends 1994 1200 104 no data
Roman Catholic Church 2002 19484 66404 50,017 (1997)[68]
Romanian Orthodox Episcopate 1996 37 65 37
Salvation Army, The 1998 1388 471 2920
Scientology 2005 1300 55[69] 1
Serbian Orthodox Church 1986 68 67 60
Seventh-day Adventist Church 1998 4405 840 2454
Sikhism 1999 244 80 no data
Southern Baptist Convention 1998 40870 16500 71520
Unitarian Universalism 2001 no data 629 no data
United Church of Christ 1998 6017 1421 4317
United House of Prayer For All People no data 100 2500 no data
United Methodist Church, The 1998 36170 8400 no data
Wesleyan Church, The 1998 1590 120 1806
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 1997 1240 411 1222
~z 9999 99999999 99999999 99999999
Religions of the United States
Plurality religion by state, 2001. Data is unavailable for Alaska and Hawaii.  
Religious affiliation within each state that has the largest deviation compared to the national average, 2001.  
Percentage of state populations that identify with a religion rather than "no religion", 2001.  

  Religions of American adults

The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. The survey below, the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008, was a random digit-dialed telephone survey of 54,461 American residential households in the contiguous United States. The 1990 sample size was 113,723; 2001 sample size was 50,281.

Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?". Interviewers did not prompt or offer a suggested list of potential answers. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. If the initial answer was "Protestant" or "Christian" further questions were asked to probe which particular denomination. About one third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions.

Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. Adult Population: 1990, 2001, 2008[70]
Figures are not adjusted for refusals to reply; investigators suspect refusals are possibly more representative of "no religion" than any other group.

Source:ARIS 2008[70]
Group
1990
adults
x 1,000
2001
adults
x 1,000
2008
adults
x 1,000

Numerical
Change
1990-
2008
as %
of 1990
1990
% of
adults
2001
% of
adults
2008
% of
adults
change
in % of
total
adults
1990-
2008
Adult population, total 175,440 207,983 228,182 30.1%
Adult population, Responded 171,409 196,683 216,367 26.2% 97.7% 94.6% 94.8% -2.9%
Total Christian 151,225 159,514 173,402 14.7% 86.2% 76.7% 76.0% -10.2%
Catholic 46,004 50,873 57,199 24.3% 26.2% 24.5% 25.1% -1.2%
non-Catholic Christian 105,221 108,641 116,203 10.4% 60.0% 52.2% 50.9% -9.0%
Baptist 33,964 33,820 36,148 6.4% 19.4% 16.3% 15.8% -3.5%
Mainline Christian 32,784 35,788 29,375 -10.4% 18.7% 17.2% 12.9% -5.8%
Methodist 14,174 14,039 11,366 -19.8% 8.1% 6.8% 5.0% -3.1%
Lutheran 9,110 9,580 8,674 -4.8% 5.2% 4.6% 3.8% -1.4%
Presbyterian 4,985 5,596 4,723 -5.3% 2.8% 2.7% 2.1% -0.8%
Episcopalian/Anglican 3,043 3,451 2,405 -21.0% 1.7% 1.7% 1.1% -0.7%
United Church of Christ 438 1,378 736 68.0% 0.2% 0.7% 0.3% 0.1%
Christian Generic 25,980 22,546 32,441 24.9% 14.8% 10.8% 14.2% -0.6%
Jehovah's Witness 1,381 1,331 1,914 38.6% 0.8% 0.6% 0.8% 0.1%
Christian Unspecified 8,073 14,190 16,384 102.9% 4.6% 6.8% 7.2% 2.6%
Non-denominational Christian 194 2,489 8,032 4040.2% 0.1% 1.2% 3.5% 3.4%
Protestant - Unspecified 17,214 4,647 5,187 -69.9% 9.8% 2.2% 2.3% -7.5%
Evangelical/Born Again 546 1,088 2,154 294.5% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 0.6%
Pentecostal/Charismatic 5,647 7,831 7,948 40.7% 3.2% 3.8% 3.5% 0.3%
Pentecostal - Unspecified 3,116 4,407 5,416 73.8% 1.8% 2.1% 2.4% 0.6%
Assemblies of God 617 1,105 810 31.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.0%
Church of God 590 943 663 12.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.3% 0.0%
Other Protestant Denomination 4,630 5,949 7,131 54.0% 2.6% 2.9% 3.1% 0.5%
Seventh-Day Adventist 668 724 938 40.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.0%
Churches of Christ 1,769 2,593 1,921 8.6% 1.0% 1.2% 0.8% -0.2%
Mormon/Latter-Day Saints 2,487 2,697 3,158 27.0% 1.4% 1.3% 1.4% 0.0%
Total non-Christian religions 5,853 7,740 8,796 50.3% 3.3% 3.7% 3.9% 0.5%
Jewish 3,137 2,837 2,680 -14.6% 1.8% 1.4% 1.2% -0.6%
Eastern Religions 687 2,020 1,961 185.4% 0.4% 1.0% 0.9% 0.5%
Buddhist 404 1,082 1,189 194.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3%
Muslim 527 1,104 1,349 156.0% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.3%
New Religious Movements & Others 1,296 1,770 2,804 116.4% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 0.5%
None/ No religion, total 14,331 29,481 34,169 138.4% 8.2% 14.2% 15.0% 6.8%
Agnostic+Atheist 1,186 1,893 3,606 204.0% 0.7% 0.9% 1.6% 0.9%
Did Not Know/ Refused to reply 4,031 11,300 11,815 193.1% 2.3% 5.4% 5.2% 2.9%

  Marriage

In 2010, the median age for marriage for men was 27; for women, 26.[71]

  Income

In 2006, the median household income in the United States was around $46,000. Household and personal income depends on variables such as race, number of income earners, educational attainment and marital status.

Median income levels
Households Persons, age 25 or older with earnings Household income by race
All households Dual earner
households
Per household
member
Males Females Both sexes Asian White,
non-hispanic
Hispanic Black
$46,326 $67,348 $23,535 $39,403 $26,507 $32,140 $57,518 $48,977 $34,241 $30,134
Median personal income by educational attainment
Measure Some High School High school graduate Some college Associate's degree Bachelor's degree or higher Bachelor's degree Master's degree Professional degree Doctorate degree
Persons, age 25+ w/ earnings $20,321 $26,505 $31,054 $35,009 $49,303 $43,143 $52,390 $82,473 $70,853
Male, age 25+ w/ earnings $24,192 $32,085 $39,150 $42,382 $60,493 $52,265 $67,123 $100,000 $78,324
Female, age 25+ w/ earnings $15,073 $21,117 $25,185 $29,510 $40,483 $36,532 $45,730 $66,055 $54,666
Persons, age 25+, employed full-time $25,039 $31,539 $37,135 $40,588 $56,078 $50,944 $61,273 $100,000 $79,401
Household $22,718 $36,835 $45,854 $51,970 $73,446 $68,728 $78,541 $100,000 $96,830
Household income distribution
Bottom 10% Bottom 20% Bottom 25% Middle 33% Middle 20% Top 25% Top 20% Top 5% Top 1.5% Top 1%
$0 to $10,500 $0 to $18,500 $0 to $22,500 $30,000 to $62,500 $35,000 to $55,000 $77,500 and up $92,000 and up $167,000 and up $250,000 and up $350,000 and up
Source: US Census Bureau, 2006; income statistics for the year 2005

  Social class

Social classes in the United States lack distinct boundaries and may overlap. Even their existence (when distinguished from economic strata) is controversial. The following table provides a summary of some currently prominent academic theories on the stratification of American society:

Academic Class Models
Dennis Gilbert, 2002 William Thompson & Joseph Hickey, 2005 Leonard Beeghley, 2004
Class Typical characteristics Class Typical characteristics Class Typical characteristics
Capitalist class (1%) Top-level executives, high-rung politicians, heirs. Ivy League education common. Upper class (1%) Top-level executives, celebrities, heirs; income of $500,000+ common. Ivy league education common. The super-rich (0.9%) Multi-millionaires whose incomes commonly exceed $350,000; includes celebrities and powerful executives/politicians. Ivy League education common.
Upper middle class[1] (15%) Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees), most commonly salaried, professionals and middle management with large work autonomy. Upper middle class[1] (15%) Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees) professionals & managers with household incomes varying from the high 5-figure range to commonly above $100,000. The Rich (5%) Households with net worth of $1 million or more; largely in the form of home equity. Generally have college degrees.
Middle class (plurality/
majority?; ca. 46%)
College-educated workers with considerably higher-than-average incomes and compensation; a man making $57,000 and a woman making $40,000 may be typical.
Lower middle class (30%) Semi-professionals and craftsmen with a roughly average standard of living. Most have some college education and are white-collar. Lower middle class (32%) Semi-professionals and craftsmen with some work autonomy; household incomes commonly range from $35,000 to $75,000. Typically, some college education.
Working class (30%) Clerical and most blue-collar workers whose work is highly routinized. Standard of living varies depending on number of income earners, but is commonly just adequate. High school education.
Working class (32%) Clerical, pink- and blue-collar workers with often low job security; common household incomes range from $16,000 to $30,000. High school education. Working class
(ca. 40% - 45%)
Blue-collar workers and those whose jobs are highly routinized with low economic security; a man making $40,000 and a woman making $26,000 may be typical. High school education.
Working poor (13%) Service, low-rung clerical and some blue-collar workers. High economic insecurity and risk of poverty. Some high school education.
Lower class (ca. 14% - 20%) Those who occupy poorly-paid positions or rely on government transfers. Some high school education.
Underclass (12%) Those with limited or no participation in the labor force. Reliant on government transfers. Some high school education. The poor (ca. 12%) Those living below the poverty line with limited to no participation in the labor force; a household income of $18,000 may be typical. Some high school education.
References: Gilbert, D. (2002) The American Class Structure: In An Age of Growing Inequality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; Thompson, W. & Hickey, J. (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon; Beeghley, L. (2004). The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
1 The upper middle class may also be referred to as "Professional class" Ehrenreich, B. (1989). The Inner Life of the Middle Class. NY, NY: Harper-Colins.

  Health

In 2010, the average man weighed 194.7 pounds (88.3 kg); the average woman 164.7 pounds (74.7 kg).[72][dead link]

A nationwide study in 2010 indicated that 19.5% of teens, aged 12–19, have developed "slight" hearing loss. "Slight" was defined as an inability to hear at 16 to 24 decibels.[73]

In 2011, an estimated 1.2 millon people were living with HIV/AIDS in the United States.[74]

  Cohorts in the United States

A study by William Strauss and Neil Howe, in their books Generations and Fourth Turning, looked at generational similarities and differences going back to the 15th century and concluded that over 80 year spans, generations proceed through 4 stages of about 20 years each. The first phase consists of times of relative crisis and the people born during this period were called "artists". The next phase was a "high" period and those born in this period were called "prophets". The next phase was an "awakening period" and people born in this period were called "nomads". The final stage was the "unraveling period" and people born in this period were called "heroes". The most recent "high period" occurred in the 1950s and 1960s (hence baby boomers are the most recent crop of "prophets").[citation needed]

The most definitive recent study of the US generational cohorts was done by Schuman and Scott (1989) in 1985 in which a broad sample of adults of all ages were asked, "What world events are especially important to you?"[75] They found that 33 events were mentioned with great frequency. When the ages of the respondents were correlated with the expressed importance rankings, seven (some put 8 or 9) distinct cohorts became evident. Today the following descriptors are frequently used for these cohorts (currently mainly alive in 2000-10):

  • Depression cohort, or GI (General Issue) (born from 1905/10 to 1919/21).
    • Distinction: Currently, they represent the largest number of Nonagenarians and Centenarians alive in any time of US history.
    • Memorable events: The Great Depression, high levels of unemployment, poverty, lack of creature comforts, financial uncertainty, peak of European immigration (though started from 1840 to ended by 1920), grew up during World War I, prohibitionism, radical politics, not too religious but mostly morally conservative, shorter life spans, and stressed Americanization or acculturation into a common mainstream U.S. culture.
    • Key characteristics: strive for financial security, risk averse, waste-not-want-not attitude, strive for comfort, social cooperative, can be reactionary or hostile towards change, but are idealistic or progressive in improvements of quality of life.
  • Pre 'World War II cohort', or Greatest (born from 1920/22 to 1927/30).
    • Distinction: Established mainstream American culture in the mid-20th century.
    • Memorable events: men left to go to war and some did not return, the personal experience of the war, women working in factories, focus on defeating a common enemy, unity of peoples in a country, sacrifice (i.e. food rations and donated material), devoted to the war effort, and placed white ethnics or those of Irish, Italian, Jewish and Southern or Central European descent in prominence.
    • Key characteristics: the nobility of sacrifice for the common good, patriotism, socialism to a certain degree, team player, soldier, volunteerism, high work ethic, and some youthful experimentation in socially liberal practices but have generally been more socially conservative.
  • World War II cohort, War Babies, or Silent (born from 1925/29 to 1942/45) - others subdivide them to Crash and New Deal cohorts.
    • Distinction: Second smallest generation born in US history, the birth rate peaked low due to the Depression.
    • Memorable events: sustained economic growth, social tranquility, The Cold War, McCarthyism, anti-communism, drug culture, conformity, the rise and peak of jazz music (1940s), early rock n' roll (1950s), fear of a nuclear war, and avoidance of discomfort with high emphasis on optimism.
    • Key characteristics: conformity, social conservatism, patriotism, comparatively chaste or emphasized traditional values (i.e. manners or taboos) than younger cohorts (who disagreed with them), traditional family values, but had the nuclear family replaced the multi-generational kind, known as the "Silent" majority/generation, and had the appearance of sameness or "cookie cutter" type of sameness.
  • Baby Boomer (born from 1943/46 to 1953/57).
  • Boomer cohort #2 - "Generation Jones," born 1954/56-1965/69.[citation needed]
    • Distinction: The Peak years due to being children or teenagers when American power peaked in the global scene.
    • Memorable events: Watergate, Nixon resigns, the cold war, the oil embargo, raging inflation, Disco, gasoline shortages, the American hostage crisis of Iran (1979–81), the U.S. Bicentennial celebrations in the 1970s, and cultural shift from McCarthyist conformity to hippie idealism to Yuppie fiscal conservative and/or social liberal phases.[citation needed]
    • Key characteristics: less optimistic, fatalistic, principled, general cynicism, somewhat reactionary, easily bored, impatient, an urgent desire that things must change, born again Christian movement, yuppie social trends, challenged gender roles and racial stereotypes, and used drugs illegal since the early 20th century[76][77][78] thereby precipitating the modern War on Drugs in the 1970s and 1980s; yet often conservative & reactionary in later age.
  • Generation X cohort (born from 1964/1967 to 1979/1985).
    • Distinction: Dubbed Baby Bust they are the smallest generation born in US history.
    • Memorable events: Challenger explosion, Iran-Contra, Reaganomics, AIDS, Star Wars, MTV, home computers, video games, safe sex, divorce, single-parent families, end of Cold War-fall of Berlin Wall, Gulf War, 1992 L.A. Riots, 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing, the 1998 Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky sex scandal, and the arrival of the year 2000: new century (21st)/ new millennium (3rd).
    • Key characteristics: quest for emotional security; pragmatic; independent, informality; entrepreneurial; anti-political, paleoliberal or left-wing attitudes; fatalistic worldview; somewhat pessimist; many grew up in single-parent households and thought to be the first generation to live worse than their parents' cohorts.
  • Generation Y Cohort Millennials (born from 1977/1985 to 2000/2005).
    • Distinction: Echo Boom they are second highest birth rate generation in US history.
    • Memorable events: rise of the Internet, iPods, social network services, war on crime (reduced crime rates), cultural diversity, September 11 attacks, the Death of Osama Bin Laden, Afghanistan War and Iraq War, and affected by the 2008-09 global financial crisis or "Great Recession".
    • Key characteristics: acceptance of change, technically savvy, environmental issues, globally minded, more socially liberal than previous generations, stricter laws on minors, high tech surveillance of public places, political correctness, no expectation of military service, and increased local volunteerism or community service.
  • Generation Z Millennials, also called Homeland or Y2K babies are the generation who, at the earliest, were born after 1994/95 (more like since 2000 or even 2005) through at least the years 2010/11 and are currently children or teenagers, but they may share some of Generation Y characteristics. They may be more tolerant and accepting of social groups (i.e. homosexuality, gay rights and same-sex marriage) than recent previous generations.

  U.S. Demographic birth cohorts

  Birth rate has dropped since 1957

Subdivided groups are present when peak boom years or inverted peak bust years are present, and may be represented by a normal or inverted bell-shaped curve (rather than a straight curve). The boom subdivided cohorts may be considered as "pre-peak" (including peak year) and "post-peak". The year 1957 was the baby boom peak with 4.3 million births and 122.7 fertility rate. Although post-peak births (such as trailing edge boomers) are in decline, and sometimes referred to as a "bust", there are still a relative large number of births. The dearth-in-birth bust cohorts include those up to the valley birth year, and those including and beyond, leading up to the subsequent normal birth rate. The Baby boom began around 1943 to 1946.[citation needed]

From the decline in U.S. birth rates starting in 1958 and the introduction of the birth control pill in 1960, the Baby Boomer normal distribution curve is negatively skewed. The trend in birth rates from 1958 to 1961 show a tendency to end late in the decade at approximately 1969, thus returning to pre-WWII levels, with 12 years of rising and 12 years of declining birth rates. Pre-war birth rates were defined as anywhere between 1939 and 1941 by demographers such as the Taeuber's, Philip M. Hauser and William Fielding Ogburn.[79] From 1962 to 1964, trend analysis points to 1965 as being the first year to return to baseline birth rates, possibly referring to this cohort as "Generation X". Then came "Generation Y" sometimes a second cohort of the Baby Bust era, and finally "Generation Z" are children of Generation X, although Z shares similar characteristics of Generation Y who are akin to X-ers. But all of them are post-Boomers.[citation needed]

  Demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[80]

  A population pyramid that shows the age of the population by sex in 2000.

  Median age

36.8 years (male: 35.5 years, female: 38.1 years, 2010 est.)

  Age structure

0-14 years: 20.2% (male 31,639,127/female 30,305,704)
15–64 years: 67% (male 102,665,043/female 103,129,321)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 16,901,232/female 22,571,696) (2010 est.)

  Population growth rate

0.963% (2011 est.)

  Birth rate

  The U.S. birth rate 1934-2004.
13.5 births/1,000 population (2010 est.). This is the lowest in a century. There were 4,136,000 births in 2009.[81]
13.9 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2008)
14.3 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2007)[82]

In 2009, Time magazine reported that 40% of births were to unmarried women.[83] The following is a breakdown by race for unwed births: 17% Asian mothers, 29% white, 53% Hispanics, 66% Native Americans, and 72% black.[84]

The drop in the birth rate from 2007 to 2009 is believed to be associated with the Late-2000s recession[85]

  Death rate

8.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)

  Immigration

Inflow of New Legal Permanent Residents, Top Five Sending Countries, 2010[86]
Country 2010 Region 2010
Mexico 139,120 Americas 423,784
China 70,863 Asia 422,058
India 69,162 Africa 101,351
Philippines 58,173 Europe 88,730
Dominican Rep. 53,870 All Immigrants 1,042,625
13% of the population was foreign-born in 2009.[87]

  Net migration rate

4.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)

  Sex ratios

at birth: 1.048 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

  Infant mortality rate

total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

  Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.11 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 80.69 years (2010 est.)
  US unemployment by state in September 2009 (official, or U3 rate).[88]
  ≤4.5%
  ≤5.5%
  ≤6.5%
  ≤7.5%
  ≤8.5%
  ≤9.5%
  ≤10.5%
  ≤11.5%
  >11.5%

  Total fertility rate

2.06 children born/woman (2011 est.)

  Unemployment rate

As of July 2012 the U.S. unemployment rate was 8.3 percent (U3 Rate).[89]

As of July 2012 the U6 unemployment rate is 15 percent.[90] The U6 unemployment rate counts not only people without work seeking full-time employment (the more familiar U-3 rate), but also counts "marginally attached workers and those working part-time for economic reasons." Note that some of these part-time workers counted as employed by U-3 could be working as little as an hour a week. And the "marginally attached workers" include those who have gotten discouraged and stopped looking, but still want to work. The age considered for this calculation is 16 years and over.[91]

  Nationality

  • noun: American(s)
  • adjective: American

  See also

Lists:

Income:

Population:

  References

  1. ^ According to U.S. Poplock U.S. Popclock
  2. ^ U.S. & World Population Clocks
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  10. ^ In December 2010, the National Vital Statistics System reported that 2009 preliminary total fertility rate (TFR) in 2009 was 2,007.5 births per 1,000 women, 4 percent lower than the rate in 2008.[8] The CIA Factbook estimates the U.S. Total Fertility Rate in 2010 as 2.06.[9]
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