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allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

définition - FEAR

fear (n.)

1.an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

2.an emotion experienced in anticipation of some specific pain or danger (usually accompanied by a desire to flee or fight)

3.a feeling of profound respect for someone or something"the fear of God" "the Chinese reverence for the dead" "the French treat food with gentle reverence" "his respect for the law bordered on veneration"

4.an anxious feeling"care had aged him" "they hushed it up out of fear of public reaction"

fear (v. trans.)

1.be afraid or scared of; be frightened of"I fear the winters in Moscow" "We should not fear the Communists!"

2.regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of"Fear God as your father" "We venerate genius"

3.be uneasy or apprehensive about"I fear the results of the final exams"

4.be sorry; used to introduce an unpleasant statement"I fear I won't make it to your wedding party"

5.be afraid or feel anxious or apprehensive about a possible or probable situation or event"I fear she might get aggressive"

Fear (n.)

1.(MeSH)The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.

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Merriam Webster

FearFear (fēr), n. A variant of Fere, a mate, a companion. [Obs.] Spenser.

FearFear, n. [OE. fer, feer, fere, AS. fǣr a coming suddenly upon, fear, danger; akin to D. vaar, OHG. fāra danger, G. gefahr, Icel. fār harm, mischief, plague, and to E. fare, peril. See Fare.]
1. A painful emotion or passion excited by the expectation of evil, or the apprehension of impending danger; apprehension; anxiety; solicitude; alarm; dread.

☞ The degrees of this passion, beginning with the most moderate, may be thus expressed, -- apprehension, fear, dread, fright, terror.

Fear is an uneasiness of the mind, upon the thought of future evil likely to befall us. Locke.

Where no hope is left, is left no fear. Milton.

2. (Script.) (a) Apprehension of incurring, or solicitude to avoid, God's wrath; the trembling and awful reverence felt toward the Supreme Being. (b) Respectful reverence for men of authority or worth.

I will put my fear in their hearts. Jer. xxxii. 40.

I will teach you the fear of the Lord. Ps. xxxiv. 11.

Render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due . . . fear to whom fear. Rom. xiii. 7.

3. That which causes, or which is the object of, apprehension or alarm; source or occasion of terror; danger; dreadfulness.

There were they in great fear, where no fear was. Ps. liii. 5.

The fear of your adventure would counsel you to a more equal enterprise. Shak.

For fear, in apprehension lest.For fear you ne'er see chain nor money more.” Shak.

FearFear, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Feared (fērd); p. pr. & vb. n. Fearing.] [OE. feren, faeren, to frighten, to be afraid, AS. fǣran to terrify. See Fear, n.]
1. To feel a painful apprehension of; to be afraid of; to consider or expect with emotion of alarm or solicitude.

I will fear no evil, for thou art with me. Ps. xxiii. 4.

With subordinate clause.
I greatly fear my money is not safe. Shak.

I almost fear to quit your hand. D. Jerrold.

2. To have a reverential awe of; to be solicitous to avoid the displeasure of.

Leave them to God above; him serve and fear. Milton.

3. To be anxious or solicitous for; now replaced by fear for. [R.]

The sins of the father are to be laid upon the children, therefore . . . I fear you. Shak.

4. To suspect; to doubt. [Obs.]

Ay what else, fear you not her courage? Shak.

5. To affright; to terrify; to drive away or prevent approach of by fear. [Obs.]

Fear their people from doing evil. Robynson (More's Utopia).

Tush, tush! fear boys with bugs. Shak.

Syn. -- To apprehend; dread; reverence; venerate.

FearFear, v. i. To be in apprehension of evil; to be afraid; to feel anxiety on account of some expected evil.

I exceedingly fear and quake. Heb. xii. 21.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - FEAR

voir aussi

locutions

-3 Faces of Fear • A Problem with Fear • All Living Fear • Appeal to fear • Archetype (Fear Factory song) • Architect of Fear • Beyond Fear (album) • Beyond Fear (band) • Camp Fear • Cape Fear (1962 film) • Cape Fear (1962 movie) • Cape Fear (1991 film) • Cape Fear (1991 movie) • Cape Fear (headland) • Cape Fear Academy • Cape Fear Botanical Garden • Cape Fear Crocs • Cape Fear High School • Cape Fear Indians • Cape Fear Memorial Bridge • Cape Fear Sevens • Circus of Fear • Dares of MTV's Fear • Deep Fear • Disappear Fear • Don't Fear the Reaper (EP) • Estatic Fear • Experimental State of Fear • Face the Fear • Faces of Fear • Faces of Fear (interview book) • Fear (1946 film) • Fear (Doctor Who audio) • Fear (band) • Fear (disambiguation) • Fear (movie) • Fear (novella) • Fear (of the Unknown) • Fear Agent • Fear Before • Fear Effect • Fear Factory • Fear Factory discography • Fear Her • Fear Is on Our Side • Fear Is the Key • Fear Is the Mindkiller • Fear Itself • Fear Itself (Doctor Who) • Fear Itself (The Outer Limits) • Fear Itself (album) • Fear Itself (band) • Fear Itself (episode) • Fear My Thoughts • Fear No Evil (Slaughter album) • Fear No Evil (album) • Fear No Evil (film) • Fear No More • Fear Nothing • Fear Nothing (novel) • Fear Of The Dark (live) • Fear Strikes Out • Fear X • Fear a' bhàta • Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas • Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (film) • Fear and Misery of the Third Reich • Fear and Trembling • Fear and Whiskey • Fear daerg • Fear dot com • Fear gorta • Fear mongering • Fear of Clowns • Fear of Drowning • Fear of Flying (The Simpsons) • Fear of Flying (album) • Fear of Fours • Fear of Girls • Fear of God (band) • Fear of Music • Fear of Music (band) • Fear of Pop • Fear of a Black Planet • Fear of a Black Tangent • Fear of a Bot Planet • Fear of a Punk Planet (album) • Fear of a Punk Planet (show) • Fear of bats • Fear of bees • Fear of being buried alive • Fear of burial alive • Fear of children • Fear of commitment • Fear of crime • Fear of eating • Fear of flying (disambiguation) • Fear of intimacy • Fear of mice • Fear of needles • Fear of the Daleks • Fear of the Dark (2001 film) • Fear of the Dark (Doctor Who) • Fear of the Dark (song) • Fear of the Lord • Fear of the dark • Fear on Wheels • Fear or provocation of violence • Fear play • Fear series • Fear the Force • Fear, Emptiness, Despair • Feast of Hate and Fear • Feel the Fear • Fist of Fear, Touch of Death • Flight of Fear (Kings Dominion) • Flight of Fear (Kings Island) • Flight of Fear (roller coaster) • Flight of fear • Fools Rush In (Where Angels Fear to Tread) • Fools Rush In Where Angels Fear to Tread • Foundation's Fear • Freddie Fear • From Fear to Eternity • From Fear to Eternity (Charmed Episode) • From Fear to Eternity (Charmed episode) • Frozen with Fear • Galaxy of Fear • Getting the Fear • Gyro's 3D Fear Factory • Hand of Fear • I Live in Fear • I Will Fear No Evil • King Fear • Kyle Petty's No Fear Racing • Listening to Fear • MTV's Fear • Ministry of Fear • Mister Fear • Mogwai Fear Satan • Mortal Fear • Night of Fear • No Fear • No Mercy, No Fear • No Shame, No Fear • Non-specific fear • Nonspecific fear • Nothing Left to Fear • Nothing to Fear • Party of fear and smear • Phantoms of Fear • Primal Fear • Primal Fear (album) • Primal Fear (band) • Primal Fear (movie) • Primal Fear (novel) • Primal Fear band • Rap-Murr-Phobia (The Fear of Real Hip-Hop) • Realm of Fear • Resurrection (Fear Factory EP) • Rhythm of Fear • Sea of Fear • Shadow of Fear • Sherlock Holmes and the House of Fear • Spells of Fear • Sudden Fear • Sue Fear • Taste of Fear • The Architects of Fear • The Best of Fear Factory • The Boy Who Found Fear At Last • The Cauldron of Fear • The Face of Fear • The Fear (The Twilight Zone) • The Fear Is What Keeps Us Here • The Fear of Wages • The Friendship and the Fear • The Goalkeeper's Fear of the Penalty • The Haunt of Fear • The Language of Fear • The Lurking Fear • The Natural History of Fear • The Ordinary Fear of God • The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most • The School of Fear • The Splendour of Fear • The Story of a Boy Who Went Forth to Learn Fear • The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was • The Wages of Fear • The Web of Fear • The Youth Who Went Forth To Learn What Fear Was • To Fear a Painted Devil • Velvet Darkness They Fear • Where Angels Fear • Where Angels Fear to Tread • Where Angels Fear to Tread (Matt Redman album) • Where Angels Fear to Tread (film) • Where the mind is without fear • With Fear I Kiss the Burning Darkness

dictionnaire analogique



fear (n.)


 

émotion (fr)[Classe]

nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright[Classe]

défaut du caractère (fr)[Classe...]

(but) dans le but d'éviter (fr)[Classe]

dans le but d'éviter (fr)[Classe]

give a fright; give a scare; scare away; scare off; startle; strike terror into; cow; give a start; frighten; affright; strike fear into; strike fear/terror $iµetc$/iµ into[ClasseHyper.]

émotif, agité, pas calme (fr)[Classe]

qui manque de patience (fr)[Classe]

relatif à (fr)[Classe...]

qualificatif du caractère (fr)[Classe...]

terrify; terrorize; terrorise[Classe]

avoir peur (fr)[Classe]

hijacker; terrorist[ClasseHyper.]

saisi de peur (fr)[Classe]

(fearfully; nervously; anxiously; faint-heartedly; timorously; pusillanimously; simperingly), (nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright), (give a fright; give a scare; scare away; scare off; startle; strike terror into; cow; give a start; frighten; affright; strike fear into; strike fear/terror $iµetc$/iµ into)[Thème]

(nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright)[Thème]

(fearfully; nervously; anxiously; faint-heartedly; timorously; pusillanimously; simperingly), (nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright), (give a fright; give a scare; scare away; scare off; startle; strike terror into; cow; give a start; frighten; affright; strike fear into; strike fear/terror $iµetc$/iµ into)[termes liés]

(affectivity; softheartedness; tenderness; tenderheartedness; softness; perceptiveness; sensitivity; sensibility; sensitiveness), (air; aura; atmosphere; flavor; flavour)[termes liés]

psychology[Domaine]

Frightening[Domaine]

nerf ou au système nerveux (fr)[DomaineDescription]

EmotionalState[Domaine]

emotion - excite, shake, shake up, stimulate, stir - appal, terrify, terrorise, terrorize - coerce, compel, force, hale, oblige, pressure, pressurise, pressurize, squeeze - radical[Hyper.]

radical cell, terrorist cell[membre]

affright, cow, fright, frighten, give a fright, give a scare, give a start, scare, scare away, scare off, startle, strike fear/terror $iµetc$/iµ into, strike terror into - be reluctant to, dread, fear, not like the idea of, not look forward to - afraid - fearful - fearless, unafraid - frightening, terrorisation, terrorization - bird-scarer, bogey, bugaboo, bugbear, scarecrow, scarer, specter, spectre, strawman, straw man - fear, fearfulness, fright - panic attack, scare - affright, anxiety, apprehension, dread, fear, fearfulness, fright, funk, nerves, nerviness, nervousness, panic, scare, tension, terror - flap, panic, scare - terrorisation, terrorization - act of terrorism, terrorism, terrorist act - scourge, terror, threat[Dérivé]

terror[GenV+comp]

terroriser (fr)[PersonneQui~]

charged, keyed up, strained, strung up, tense[Similaire]

panic[Cause]

bravery, fearlessness[Ant.]

fear (n.)


fear (n.)








 

inform[Hyper.]

regret, rue, ruefulness, sorrow[Dérivé]

regret[Domaine]

regret[Hyper.]

fear (v. tr.)



Wikipedia - voir aussi

Wikipedia

Fear

                   
  A scared child shows fear in an uncertain environment.

Fear is a distressing negative sensation induced by a perceived threat. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus, such as pain or the threat of danger. Fear is apparently a universal emotion; all persons, consciously or unconsciously, have fear in some sort.[1] In short, fear is the ability to recognize danger leading to an urge to confront it or flee from it (also known as the fight-or-flight response) but in extreme cases of fear (horror and terror) a freeze or paralysis response is possible."Fear is the basic condition ... the job that we're here to do is to learn how to live in a way that we're not terrified all the time."- Luc Sante "The Heroic Nerd", 2006.[2] Some psychologists such as John B. Watson, Robert Plutchik, and Paul Ekman have suggested that fear belongs to a small set of basic or innate emotions. This set also includes such emotions as joy, sadness, and anger. Fear should be distinguished from the related emotional state of anxiety, which typically occurs without any certain or immediate external threat.

Additionally, fear is frequently related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance, whereas anxiety is the result of threats which are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable.[3] It is worth noting that fear almost always relates to future events, such as worsening of a situation, or continuation of a situation that is unacceptable. Fear can also be an instant reaction to something presently happening. All people have an instinctual response to potential danger. This emotion is described as fear and is inherent in all people.[4] Fear, whatever its source, can become a controlling factor in a person’s life.[5] Fear can channel one’s energies away from areas of perceived threats and into directions that seem safe.[6]

Contents

  Common fears

According to surveys, some of the most common fears are of ghosts, the existence of evil powers, cockroaches, spiders, snakes, heights, water, enclosed spaces, tunnels, bridges, needles, social rejection, failure, examinations and public speaking. A person may also be apprehensive and having second thoughts about committing suicide. In an innovative test of what people fear the most, Bill Tancer analyzed the most frequent online search queries that involved the phrase, "fear of...". This follows the assumption that people tend to seek information on the issues that concern them the most. His top ten list of fears consisted of flying, heights, clowns, intimacy, death, rejection, people, snakes, failure, and driving.[7]

One of the most common fears is the fear of public speaking. People may be comfortable speaking inside a room but when it becomes public speaking, fear enters in the form of suspicion that whether the words uttered are correct or incorrect because there are many to judge it. Another common fear can be of pain, or of someone damaging a person. Fear of pain in a plausible situation brings flinching, or cringing.

In a 2005 Gallup poll (U.S.A.), a national sample of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 were asked what they feared the most. The question was open ended and participants were able to say whatever they wanted. The top ten fears were, in order: terrorist attacks, spiders, death, being a failure, war, heights, criminal or gang violence, being alone, the future, and nuclear war.[8]

  Fear of the unknown

Attempting something new can be risky and can therefore be a potential source of stress.[9] For example, a high school teacher that moves up to become a professor may be fearful of all the new things that are now required of him/her. They may see the "safest" parts of a university environment as the teacher and service aspects. The research component that comes with being a professor will be completely new to them and thus they may be overwhelmed by it and become "fearful" of it. [10]

  Causes

  Though most arachnids are harmless, a person with arachnophobia may still panic or feel uneasy around one. Sometimes, even an object resembling a spider can trigger a panic attack in an arachnophobic individual. The above cartoon is a depiction of the nursery rhyme "Little Miss Muffet", in which the title character is "frightened away" by a spider.

People develop specific fears as a result of learning. This has been studied in psychology as fear conditioning, beginning with John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment in 1920, which was inspired after observing a child with an irrational fear of dogs.[11] In this study, an 11-month-old boy was conditioned to fear a white rat in the laboratory. The fear became generalized to include other white, furry objects, such as a rabbit, dog, and even a ball of cotton.[11] In the real world, fear can be acquired by a frightening traumatic accident. For example, if a child falls into a well and struggles to get out, he or she may develop a fear of wells, heights (acrophobia), enclosed spaces (claustrophobia), or water (aquaphobia). There are studies looking at areas of the brain that are affected in relation to fear. When looking at these areas (amygdala), it was proposed that a person learns to fear regardless of whether they themselves have experienced trauma, or if they have observed the fear in others. In a study completed by Andreas Olsson, Katherine I. Nearing and Elizabeth A. Phelps the amygdala were affected both when subjects observed someone else being submitted to an aversive event, knowing that the same treatment awaited themselves, and when subjects were subsequently placed in a fear-provoking situation.[12] This suggests that fear can develop in both conditions, not just simply from personal history.

The experience of fear is affected by historical and cultural influences. For example, in the early 20th century, many Americans feared polio, a disease that cripples the body part it affects, leaving that body part immobilized for the rest of one's life. There are also consistent cross-cultural differences in how people respond to fear. Display rules affect how likely people are to show the facial expression of fear and other emotions.

Although fear is learned, the capacity to fear is part of human nature. Many studies have found that certain fears (e.g. animals, heights) are much more common than others (e.g. flowers, clouds). These fears are also easier to induce in the laboratory. This phenomenon is known as preparedness. Because early humans that were quick to fear dangerous situations were more likely to survive and reproduce, preparedness is theorized to be a genetic effect that is the result of natural selection.

From an evolutionary psychology perspective, different fears may be different adaptations that have been useful in our evolutionary past. They may have developed during different time periods. Some fears, such as fear of heights, may be common to all mammals and developed during the mesozoic period. Other fears, such as fear of snakes, may be common to all simians and developed during the cenozoic time period. Still others, such as fear of mice and insects, may be unique to humans and developed during the paleolithic and neolithic time periods (when mice and insects become important carriers of infectious diseases and harmful for crops and stored foods).[13]

Fear is high only if the observed risk and seriousness both are high and is low if one or the other of the seen risk or seriousness is low.[14]

  Diagnosing Fear

Fear can affect us on our daily lives if it gets out of control in one's consciousness. Anxiety-it's what is known as future-oriented fear because we cannot control what will happen next. Panic- When one is intimidated of a certain thing that reminds them of their fear, and experiencing an alarm response.[15] There can be many physiological changes in the body associated with fear, these changes can be summarized by the "fight or flight" response. This is our innate response for coping with danger, it works by accelerating the heart rate, dilating the blood vessels, increasing muscle tension and breathing rate. As the name suggests, this primitive mechanism helps an organism survive by either running away or fight off the danger. After the series of physiological changes, only then does the consciousness realize an emotion of fear. [16]

  The absence of fear

Although fear is one of the crucial evolutionary mechanisms for individual survival, in certain situations psychologically normal humans can behave without feeling fear, with a total neglect of potentially lethal risk. A classical situation is when a child is attacked by a predatory animal (or an armed human), and a parent starts an all-out fight against the much stronger attacker, totally neglecting his or her personal safety. This mechanism is present among many species, most notably when a mother behaves fearlessly towards much stronger opposition in order to save her offspring. Jordania uses the term aphobia for the temporary loss of fear, induced by the release of neurochemicals in the brain which leads to a specific altered state of consciousness. Jordania calls this state the battle trance.[17] According to him, aphobia supersedes the individual's instinctive fear for selfish survival and well-being, when more evolutionarily important subjects than that individual's own life are in danger. These can be the life of a child, family members, or members of a soldier's unit. Sometimes saving unknown humans or animals can also trigger the temporary loss of fear. Strong religious feelings can also induce aphobia (for example, when martyrs sacrifice themselves without the feeling of fear or pain). Jordania suggested that battle trance and associated loss of fear and pain (known as analgesia) were designed in the course of evolution by forces of natural selection as a survival mechanism, as individual hominids were too weak to stand against the formidable African ground predators after they descended from the relatively safe trees to the ground. The state of battle trance, which can be induced by rhythmic drumming, singing, dancing, body painting, and the use of certain substances, allowed them to lose their individuality, obtain collective identity, and to fight together as a unit without feeling fear and pain, neglecting their personal safety for the evolutionarily more important reason. Unlike the feel of pain, which can be fully absent in some human conditions, there is no such condition as congenital absence of fear (although psychopaths are known to have a much lessened feeling of fear).[18]

  Fears in culture

The awareness of the end and its existence is in other words the fear of death. The fear of death ritualized the lives of our ancestors. These rituals were designed to reduce that fear; they helped collect the cultural ideas that we now have in the present. These rituals also helped preserve the cultural ideas. The results and methods of human existence had been changing at the same time that social formation was changing. One can say that the formation of communities happened because people lived in fear. The result of this fear forced people to unite to fight dangers together rather than fight alone.

If one were to look into religion, they would find that it is filled with different fears that humans have had throughout many centuries. The fears don’t just go on the metaphysical levels (including the problems of life and death) but move onto moral dimensions as well. Death was a boundary to people that is seen as a transition to another world. This world would always be different depending on how each individual lived their lives. The origin of this intangible fear comes from other sources that are not found in the present world. In a sense we can assume 'that fear was a big influence on things such as morality.

Our fears are portrayed through sources such as books, movies. For example, many horror movies and books include characters who fear the antagonist of the plot. Fear is also found in mythological folklore and folklore superstitions. One of the important characteristics of historical and mythical heroes across the cultures is to be fearless in the face of big and often lethbed Suppression of amygdala activity can also be achieved by pathogens. Rats infected with the toxoplasmosis parasite become less fearful of cats, sometimes even seeking out their urine-marked areas. This behavior often leads to them being eaten by cats. The parasite then reproduces within the body of the cat. There is evidence that the parasite concentrates itself in the amygdala of infected rats.[19] In a separate experiment, rats with lesions in the amygdala did not express fear or anxiety towards unwanted stimuli. These rats pulled on levers supplying food that sometimes sent out electrical shocks. While they learned to avoid pressing on them, they did not distance themselves away from these shock-inducing levers.[20]

Several brain structures other than the amygdala have also been observed to be activated when individuals are presented with fearful vs. neutral faces, namely the occipitocerebellar regions including the fusiform gyrus and the inferior parietal / superior temporal gyri.[21] Interestingly, fearful eyes, brows and mouth seem to separately reproduce these brain responses.[21] Scientist from Zurich studies show that the hormone oxytocin related to stress and sex reduces activity in your brain fear center[22] Process of fear -The thalamus collects sensory data from the senses -Sensory cortex receives data from thalamus and interprets it -Sensory cortex organizes information for dissemination to hypothalamus (fight or flight), amygdala (fear), hippocampus (memory)

  Fear of death

Psychologists have addressed the hypothesis that fear of death motivates religious commitment, and that it may be alleviated by assurances about an afterlife. Empirical research on this topic has been equivocal.[citation needed] According to Kahoe and Dunn, people who are most firm in their faith and attend religious services weekly are the least afraid of dying. A survey of people in various Christian denominations showed a negative correlation between fear of death and religious concern.[23]

In another study, data from a sample of white, Christian men and women were used to test the hypothesis that traditional, church-centered religiousness and de-institutionalized spiritual seeking are distinct ways of approaching fear of death in old age. Both religiousness and spirituality were related to positive psychosocial functioning, but only church-centered religiousness protected subjects against the fear of death.[24]

Fear of death is also known as death anxiety. This may be a more accurate label because, like other anxieties, the emotional state in question is long lasting and not typically linked to a specific stimulus. The analysis of fear of death, death anxiety, and concerns over mortality is an important feature of existentialism and terror management theory. Fear of death most likely has its roots in fear of the unknown, as what happens beyond cannot be proven by those still living.[25]

Fear of death is also known as Thanatophobia.[25]

One famous psychological theory of this topic is Terror Management Theory. More details in http://www.psych-it.com.au/Psychlopedia/article.asp?id=74

Shelly Kagan exames the philosophical background of whether fear of death make sense (not about the actual kind of emotional reaction). In this context he states in one of his lectures, that there are certain conditions to fear in general to make sense:[26]

  • fear requires something bad, as the object of fear and
  • there's got to be a nonnegligible chance of the bad state of affairs happening, to their mind

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Burnham,H.(1932)
  2. ^ Matthews. (2012)
  3. ^ Öhman, A. (2000). Fear and anxiety: Evolutionary, cognitive, and clinical perspectives. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.). Handbook of emotions. (pp.573–593). New York: The Guilford Press.
  4. ^ "What is fear & the cause of fear-ways of overcoming fear naturally". Native Remedies. http://www.nativeremedies.com/ailment/overcoming-fears-info.html. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Burton, L. D. Fear. (p.113)
  6. ^ Burton, Larry D. (May 2011). "Fear". journal of research on christian education v. 20 (2): 113–14. 
  7. ^ Tancer, B. (2008). Click: What millions of people are doing online and why it matters. New York: Hyperion.
  8. ^ Gallup Poll: What Frightens America's Youth, March 29, 2005 Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  9. ^ Burton.(2011)
  10. ^ Burton, L. (2011). Fear. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 20, 113-116. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/doi/pdf/10.1080/10656219.2011.592801
  11. ^ a b Bellows, Alan. "Doctor Watson's Phobia Factory". Damn Interesting. Alan Bellows. http://www.damninteresting.com/doctor-watsons-phobia-factory/#more-970. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  12. ^ Andreas Olsson, Katherine I. Nearing, Elizabeth A. Phelps, Learning fears by observing others: the neural systems of social fear transmission: http://scan.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2007/03/15/scan.nsm005.full.pdf+html
  13. ^ Bracha, H. (2006). "Human brain evolution and the "Neuroevolutionary Time-depth Principle:" Implications for the Reclassification of fear-circuitry-related traits in DSM-V and for studying resilience to warzone-related posttraumatic stress disorder". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30 (5): 827–853. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.01.008. PMID 16563589.  edit
  14. ^ M. Warr, M.Stafford. (1984). Fear of victimization: A look at the proximate causes. Social forces 61(4), 1033-1043.
  15. ^ "Fear". Native Remedies, LLC.. http://www.nativeremedies.com/ailment/overcoming-fears-info.html#question2. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  16. ^ Edmundson, Laurel Duphiney. "The Neurobiology of Fear". Serendip. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro00/web2/Edmundson.html. Retrieved 9 April 2012. 
  17. ^ Joseph Jordania, Why do Humans Sing? Music in Human Evolution, Logos, 2011
  18. ^ Robert Hare. 1999. Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us. The Guilford Press
  19. ^ Berdoy M, Webster J, Macdonald D (2000). Fatal Attraction in Rats Infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B267:1591–1594. doi:10.1098/rspb.2000.1182 PMID 11007336
  20. ^ Larkin, M. (1997). Amygdala differentiates fear response. The Lancet, 350, 268. Retrieved from http://journals1.scholarsportal.info.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/tmp/8923111508641667557.pdf
  21. ^ a b Radua, Joaquim; Phillips, Mary L.; Russell, Tamara; Lawrence, Natalia; Marshall, Nicolette; Kalidindi, Sridevi; El-Hage, Wissam; McDonald, Colm et al. (2010). "Neural response to specific components of fearful faces in healthy and schizophrenic adults". NeuroImage 49 (1): 939–946. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.08.030. PMID 19699306. 
  22. ^ Fear not." Ski Mar.-Apr. 2009: 15. Gale Canada In Context. Web. 29 Sep. 2011
  23. ^ Kahoe, R. D., & Dunn, R. F. (1976). "The fear of death and religious attitudes and behavior". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 14 (4): 379–382. DOI:10.2307/1384409. JSTOR 1384409. 
  24. ^ Wink, P. (2006). "Who is afraid of death? Religiousness, spirituality, and death anxiety in late adulthood". Journal of Religion, Spirituality, & Aging 18 (2): 93–110. DOI:10.1300/J496v18n02_08. 
  25. ^ a b Phobias.about.com
  26. ^ Lecture 22 - Fear of Death in PHIL 176: Death Yale Open Course
  • Hinton, D. E., Lewis-Fernadex, R., and Pollack, M. H.. (2009). A Model of the Generation of Ataque de Nervios: The Role of Fear of Negative Affect and Fear of Arousal Symptoms. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 15(3): 264-275.
  • Mears, D. P. and Stewart, E. A.. (2010). Interracial Contact and Fear of Crime. Journal of Criminal Justice. 38(1): 34-41.
  • Sanders, M. J., Stevens, S. and Boeh, H.. (2010). Stress Enhancement of Fear Learning in Mice is Dependent Upon Stressor Type: Effects of Sex and Ovarian Hormones. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 94(2): 254-262.
  • Burton, L. D. Fear. Journal of Research on Christian Education v. 20 no. 2 (May 2011) p. 113-16

Gower, Paul L. (2004). Psychology of Fear. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. p. 24. </ref>

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