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définition - Guangzhou

Guangzhou (n.)

1.a city on the Zhu Jiangi delta in southern China; the capital of Guangdong province and a major deep-water port

2.a city on the Zhu Jiang delta in southern China; the capital of Guangdong province and a major deep-water port

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Guangzhou

Guangzhou (n.)

Canton, Kuangchou, Kwangchow

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voir aussi

Guangzhou (n.)

cantonal

locutions

-2008 Guangzhou International Women's Open • 2008 Guangzhou International Women's Open – Doubles • 2008 Guangzhou International Women's Open – Singles • 2009 Guangzhou International Women's Open • 2009 Guangzhou International Women's Open – Doubles • 2009 Guangzhou International Women's Open – Singles • 3048 Guangzhou • American International School of Guangzhou • Auto Guangzhou • Baiyun District, Guangzhou • COSCO Guangzhou • Dongshan District, Guangzhou • Fuda Cancer Hospital-Guangzhou • Guangshen Railway Corporation (Guangzhou-Shenzhen Section) • Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts • Guangzhou Auto • Guangzhou Automobile • Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group • Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport • Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (former) • Guangzhou Baiyun aircraft collision • Guangzhou Daily • Guangzhou East Railway Station • Guangzhou East Railway Station (metro) • Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone • Guangzhou F.C. • Guangzhou Gymnasium • Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center • Guangzhou Huiling • Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center • Guangzhou International Women's Open • Guangzhou Investment • Guangzhou Investment Company • Guangzhou Investment Company Limited • Guangzhou Metro • Guangzhou Military Region • Guangzhou Nansha Economic and Technological Development Zone • Guangzhou Opera House Station • Guangzhou Peasant Movement Institute • Guangzhou Pharmaceutical F.C. season 2007 • Guangzhou Pharmaceutical F.C. season 2008 • Guangzhou Pharmaceutical F.C. season 2009 • Guangzhou Railway Station • Guangzhou Railway Station (metro) • Guangzhou Science City • Guangzhou Shipyard • Guangzhou Shipyard International • Guangzhou Shipyard International Limited • Guangzhou Songri • Guangzhou South Railway Station • Guangzhou Sports University • Guangzhou Symphony Orchestra • Guangzhou TV Tower • Guangzhou Television • Guangzhou Toyota Auto City Station • Guangzhou University • Guangzhou University City • Guangzhou University Town • Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine • Guangzhou Uprising • Guangzhou West Tower • Guangzhou Zhujiang Brewery Group • Guangzhou-Baiyun Airport • Guangzhou-Foshan Metro • Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link • Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link (Mainland Section) • Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong Section • Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link Mainland Section • Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit • Guangzhou–Zhuhai Railway • Huangcun Station (Guangzhou) • Huangpu District, Guangzhou • Liede, Guangzhou • Line 1, Guangzhou Metro • Line 2, Guangzhou Metro • Line 3, Guangzhou Metro • Line 4, Guangzhou Metro • Line 5, Guangzhou Metro • Lingnan University (Guangzhou) • List of historic buildings in Guangzhou • List of tallest buildings in Guangzhou • Norwegian Consulate General Guangzhou • Olympic Sports Center Station (Guangzhou) • Opposition to the Guangzhou-Hong Kong Express Rail Link • Port of Guangzhou • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guangzhou • Sacred Heart Cathedral of Guangzhou • Second Guangzhou Uprising • Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall Station (Guangzhou) • Taishi, Guangzhou • The British School of Guangzhou • The Seven Tigers of GuangZhou • Utahloy International School of Guangzhou • West Tower (Guangzhou) • Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway • Zhenhai Tower (Guangzhou) • Zoo Station (Guangzhou)

dictionnaire analogique


Guangzhou (n.)


Wikipedia

Guangzhou

                   
Guangzhou
广州
—  Sub-provincial city  —
广州市
From top: Tianhe CBD, the Canton Tower & Chigang Pagoda, Haizhu Bridge, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Statue of Five Goats, Zhenhai Tower in Yuexiu Park, and Sacred Heart Cathedral.
Location of Guangzhou City (yellow) in Guangdong
Guangzhou is located in China
Guangzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 23°08′N 113°16′E / 23.133°N 113.267°E / 23.133; 113.267Coordinates: 23°08′N 113°16′E / 23.133°N 113.267°E / 23.133; 113.267
Country People's Republic of China
Province Guangdong
Government
 • Type Sub-provincial city
 • CPC Ctte Secretary Wan Qingliang
 • Mayor Chen Jianhua
Area[1]
 • Sub-provincial city 7,434 km2 (2,870 sq mi)
 • Urban 3,843 km2 (1,484 sq mi)
Elevation 21 m (68 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Sub-provincial city 12,700,800
 • Density 1,708/km2 (4,425/sq mi)
 • Urban 11,070,654
Demonym Guangzhouese
Cantonese
Time zone China standard time (UTC+8)
Postal code 510000
Area code(s) 20
GDP[3] 2010
 - Total CN¥1060.448 billion
(US$163.3 billion)
 - Per capita CN¥83,494
(US$12,860)
 - Growth increase 13.0%
Licence plate prefixes A
Website gz.gov.cn
Guangzhou
Guangzhou in Chinese S.svg
"Guangzhou", as written in Simplified Chinese
Simplified Chinese 广州
Traditional Chinese 廣州
Cantonese Jyutping Gwong² zau1
Cantonese Yale Gwóngjàu
Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngzhōu
Literal meaning Wide State or Capital of Guangfu

Guǎngzhōu (Chinese: 广州; Mandarin pronunciation: [kwɑ̀ŋʈʂóʊ̯]), known historically as Canton or Kwangchow,[4] is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port.[5] One of the five National Central Cities,[6] it holds sub-provincial administrative status.

Guangzhou is the third largest city in China and southern China's largest city. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 12.78 million.[7] Some estimates place the population of the entire Pearl River Delta Mega City built up area as high as 40 million including Shenzhen (10.36 million), Dongguan (8.22 million) and most parts of Foshan (7.19 million), Jiangmen (4.45 million), Zhongshan (3.12 million) and a small part of Huizhou adjoining Dongguan and Shenzhen, with an area of about 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi) (about the size of US state of New Jersey). In 2008 Guangzhou was identified as a Beta World City by the global city index produced by GaWC.[8]

Contents

  History

Guangzhou's earliest recorded name is Panyu (Chinese: 番禺; Jyutping: Pun1 Jyu4), a name borrowed from two nearby mountains anciently called Pan and Yu.[9] Its recorded history begins with China's conquering of the area during the Qin Dynasty. Panyu expanded when it became capital of the Nanyue Kingdom (南越) in 206 BC, the territory of the Nanyue Kingdom included what is now Vietnam.

The Han Dynasty annexed the Nanyue Kingdom in 111 BC and Panyu became a provincial capital and remains so today. In 226 AD, Panyu became the seat of Guang Prefecture (廣州; Guangzhou). While originally referring to prefecture only, local citizens gradually adopted the custom of using the same name for their city.[citation needed]

Although Guangzhou replaced Panyu as the name of the walled city, Panyu was still the name of the area surrounding the walled city until the end of Qing Dynasty.[citation needed]. Today, Panyu is a district of Guangzhou south of Haizhu District separated from the rest of the city by the Pearl River.

The Old Book of Tang (simplified Chinese: 唐书) described Guangzhou as important port in south of China.[10] Arab and Persian merchants arrived Guangzhou (known to them as Khanfu or Sin-Kalan) in 8th century. In that period, direct route connected Middle East and China. A Chinese prisoner, who was captured in Battle of Talas and stayed in Iraq for 12 years, returned back to China by ship in direct route from Iraq to Guangzhou.[11] Guangzhou was mentioned by various Muslim geographers in the ninth and tenth centuries, such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh.[12] According to a local Guangzhou government report on October 30, 758, which corresponded to the day of Guisi (癸巳) of the ninth lunar month in the first year of the Qianyuan era of Emperor Suzong of the Tang Dynasty.[13][14][15][16] The Arab historian Abu Zayd As-Sirafi mentioned Guangzhou several times in his book "As-Sirafi Journey" (Arabic: رحلة السيرافي). As-Sirafi provides a description about daily life, food, business dealings, and justice system in the city .As-Sirafi also reports that in 878 followers of the Chinese rebel leader Huang Chao besieged the city and massacred a large number of foreign merchants resident there in the Guangzhou massacre.[17][18][19]

From the tenth to twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Guangzhou. Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhou's foreign quarter.[20][21][22] Some scholars did not differentiate between Persian and Arab, calling them both "Dashi" (Chinese: 大食, Pinyin: Dà shí), and some say that the Chinese called all women coming from the Persian Gulf "Persian Women".[23]

The Muslim Moroccan Traveler Ibn Battuta visited Guangzhou in the 14th century in his journey around the World. He described the manufacturing process of large ships in the city.[24]

During the Northern Song Dynasty, the celebrated poet Su Shi (Shisu) visited Guangzhou's Baozhuangyan Temple and wrote the inscription "Liu Rong" (Six Banyan Trees) because of the six banyan trees he saw there. It has since been called the Temple of the 6 Banyan Trees.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in Guangzhou by sea in 1514, establishing a monopoly on the external trade out of its harbour by 1517.[25] They were later expelled from their settlements in Guangzhou (Cantão in Portuguese), but instead granted use of Macau as a trade base with the city in 1557. They would keep a near monopoly on foreign trade in the region until the arrival of the Dutch in the early 17th century.

It is believed that the romanisation "Canton" originated from the Portuguese Cantão, which was transcribed from Guangdong. Nevertheless, because at the time of the Portuguese arrival, the capital city had no specific appellation other than Shaang2 Sheng4(省城, lit. the provincial capital) by its people, the province name was adopted for the walled city by the Europeans. The etymology of Canton, as well as the similar pronunciation with the province name Guangdong might have partly contributed to the recent confusion of Canton and Guangdong by certain English speakers. However, definitive English lexica, such as Merriam–Webster's Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary and Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English do not list 'Guangdong' as a synonym (or variant) under 'Canton'.

After China gained control of Taiwan in 1683, the Qing government became more open to foreign trade. Guangzhou quickly emerged as one of the most suitable ports for international trade and before long ships arrived from all over the world.

The Portuguese in Macau, the Spanish in Manila, Arabs from the Middle East and Muslims from India were already actively trading in the port by the 1690s, when the French and English began frequenting the port through the Canton System.

Other companies were soon to follow: the Ostend General India company in 1717; Dutch East India Company in 1729; the first Danish ship in 1731, which was followed by a Danish Asiatic Company ship in 1734; the Swedish East India Company in 1732; followed by an occasional Prussian and Trieste Company ship; the Americans in 1784; and the first ships from Australia in 1788.

  The Thirteen Factories, c. 1820
  Plan of Canton (published 1910)

By the middle of the 18th century, Guangzhou had emerged as one of the world's great trading ports under the Thirteen Factories, which was a distinction it maintained until the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839 and the opening of other ports in China in 1842. The privilege during this period made Guangzhou one of the top 3 cities in the world.[26] During the war, the British captured Canton on March 18, 1841. The Second Battle of Canton was fought in May 1841.

  Street scene in Guangzhou, 1919

The plague epidemic – part of the Third Pandemic – have reached Guangzhou in 1894, causing the death of 60,000 people in a few weeks.[27] In 1918, the city's urban council was established and "Guangzhou" became the official name of the city.[citation needed] Panyu became a county's name to the southern side of Guangzhou.

In both 1930 and 1953, Guangzhou was promoted to the status of a Municipality, but each time promotion was rescinded within a year[citation needed].

Japanese troops occupied Guangzhou from October 12, 1938, to September 16, 1945, after violent bombings. In the city, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted bacteriological research unit 8604, a section of unit 731, where Japanese doctors experimented on human prisoners.

After the fall of the capital Nanjing in April 1949, the Nationalist government under the acting president Li Zongren relocated to Guangzhou.

Communist forces entered the city on October 14, 1949. This led the nationalists to blow up the Haizhu Bridge as the major link across the Pearl River and to the acting president's leaving for New York, whereas Chiang Kai-shek set up the capital for the Nationalist government in Chongqing again. The urban renewal projects of the new communist government improved the lives of some residents. New housing on the shores of the Pearl River provided homes for the poor boat people. Reforms by Deng Xiaoping, who came to power in the late 1970s, led to rapid economic growth due to the city's close proximity to Hong Kong and access to the Pearl River.

As labour costs increased in Hong Kong, manufacturers opened new plants in the cities of Guangdong including Guangzhou. As the largest city in one of China's wealthiest provinces, Guangzhou attracts farmers from the countryside looking for factory work. Cantonese links to overseas Chinese and beneficial tax reforms of the 1990s have aided the city's rapid growth.

In 2000, Huadu and Panyu were merged into Guangzhou as districts, and Conghua and Zengcheng became county-level cities of Guangzhou.

  Geography

Located in the south-central portion of Guangdong, Guangzhou spans from 112° 57' to 114° 03' E longitude and 22° 26' to 23° 56' N latitude. The city is part of the Pearl River Delta and the city centre is situated next to the Baiyun Mountain, which is locally referred to as ‘the lung of the city’ (市肺).[5][28] The total area under the city's administration is 7,434.4 square kilometres (2,870.4 sq mi), with the 10 districts occupying 3,843.43 square kilometres (1,483.96 sq mi), or 51.7% of the total, while the two county-level cities occupy the rest.

The elevation of the prefecture generally increases from southwest to northeast, with mountains forming the backbone of the city, and the ocean comprising the front.

  Climate

Located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from 13.6 °C (56.5 °F) in January to 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) in July, while The annual average temperature in Guangzhou is 22.6 °C (72.7 °F),[5] the relative humidity is approximately 68%, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over 1,700 mm (67 in).[5] Extreme temperatures have ranged from 0 °C (32 °F) to 39.1 °C (102 °F).[29] The last recorded snowfall in the city was in January 1893.[citation needed]


Climate data for Guangzhou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
18.5
(65.3)
21.6
(70.9)
25.7
(78.3)
29.3
(84.7)
31.5
(88.7)
32.8
(91.0)
32.7
(90.9)
31.5
(88.7)
28.8
(83.8)
24.5
(76.1)
20.6
(69.1)
26.3
(79.3)
Average low °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
11.7
(53.1)
15.2
(59.4)
19.5
(67.1)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
24.0
(75.2)
20.8
(69.4)
15.9
(60.6)
11.5
(52.7)
18.9
(66.0)
Rainfall mm (inches) 40.9
(1.61)
69.4
(2.732)
84.7
(3.335)
201.2
(7.921)
283.7
(11.169)
276.2
(10.874)
232.5
(9.154)
227.0
(8.937)
166.2
(6.543)
87.3
(3.437)
35.4
(1.394)
31.6
(1.244)
1,736.1
(68.35)
humidity 72 78 82 84 84 84 82 82 78 72 66 66 77.5
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.5 11.2 15.0 16.3 18.3 18.2 15.9 16.8 12.5 7.1 5.5 4.9 149.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 118.5 71.6 62.4 65.1 104.0 140.2 202.0 173.5 170.2 181.8 172.7 166.0 1,628.0
Source: China Meteorological Administration[30]



  Administrative divisions

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1953[31] 1,598,900
1964[31] 3,031,486 +89.6%
1982[31] 5,630,733 +85.7%
1990[32] 6,299,943 +11.9%
1995[32] 8,117,100 +28.8%
2000[32] 9,942,022 +22.5%
2002[32] 10,106,229 +1.7%
2010[2] 12,700,800 +25.7%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

Guangzhou is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over ten districts (区 qu) and two county-level cities (市 shi) :

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)[2]
Area
(km2)[1]
Density
(/km2)[2]
Guangzhou mcp.png
Central districts 7,727,163 1,166.37 6,625
1 Yuexiu District 越秀区 Yuèxiù Qū 1,157,277 33.80 34,239
2 Liwan District 荔湾区 Lìwān Qū 898,204 59.10 15,198
3 Haizhu District 海珠区 Hǎizhū Qū 1,558,663 90.40 17,242
4 Tianhe District 天河区 Tiānhé Qū 1,432,431 96.33 14,870
5 Baiyun District 白云区 Báiyún Qū 2,222,658 795.79 2,793
6 Huangpu District 黄埔区 Huángpù Qū 457,930 90.95 5,035
New districts 3,343,491 2,677.06 1,249
7 Panyu District 番禺区 Pānyú Qū 1,764,869 786.15 2,245
8 Huadu District 花都区 Huādū Qū 945,053 970.04 974
9 Nansha District 南沙区 Nánshā Qū 259,899 527.65 493
10 Luogang District 萝岗区 Luógāng Qū 373,670 393.22 950
County-level cities 1,630,146 3,590.97 454
11 Zengcheng 增城市 Zēngchéng Shì 1,036,731 1,616.47 641
12 Conghua 从化市 Cónghuà Shì 593,415 1,974.50 301
Total 12,700,800 7,434.40 1,708

As of April 28, 2005, the districts of Dongshan and Fangcun have been abolished and merged into Yuexiu and Liwan respectively; at the same time the district of Nansha was established out of parts of Panyu, and the district of Luogang was established out of parts of Baiyun, Tianhe, and Zengcheng, plus a part of Huangpu, making an exclave next to Huangpu.

  Development plan

In January 2009 the National People's Congress approved a development plan for the Pearl River Delta Region. On March 19, 2009 the Guangzhou Municipal Government and Foshan Municipal Government both agreed to establish a framework to merge the two cities.[33]

  Significant buildings

  Economy

Guangzhou is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2009, the GDP reached ¥911.28 billion (US $133.5 billion), per capita was ¥89,498 (US $13,111).[34]

The China Import and Export Fair, also called "Canton Fair", is held every year in April and October by Ministry of Trading. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the Fair is a major event for the city. From the 104th session, Liuhua Complex is not in use to hold Canton Fair. All the booths have been transferred to Pazhou Complex. From the 104th session, Canton Fair has been arranged in 3 phases instead of 2 phases.

  Industrial zones

The zone was founded in 2005. Its total planned area is 1.36 km2 (0.53 sq mi).[35] It is located in Nansha District and it belongs to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. The major industries encouraged in the zone include auto-mobile assembly, biotechnology and heavy industry. It is situated near to Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and Shenzhen Port.[35]

  • Guangzhou Free Trade Zone

The zone was founded in 1992. It is located in the east of Huangpu District and located near to Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. It is situated very close to Guangzhou Baiyun Airport.[36] The major industries encouraged in the zone include international trade, logistics, processing industry and computer software.

  Science City

  Malls and pedestrian streets

  Transportation

  Tianhe Sports Center Station of Guangzhou BRT

  Public transport

  Guangzhou Metro

When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro opening in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai. Currently the underground network is made up of eight lines, covering a total length of 236 km (147 mi). A long term plan is to make the city's underground system expand over 500 km (310 mi) by 2020 with 15 lines in operation.

The existing eight lines of Guangzhou Metro network:

  Buses, taxis and motorcyles

In 2010 Guangzhou introduced the second largest Bus Rapid Transit system in use, after Bogota's TransMilenio, the Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (or GBRT). The 22.5 km (13.98 mi) line currently handles more than 800.000 passengers per day, and has through-running with the city's wider bus system. Several future extensions are planned.

According to a report on the China Daily of July 6, 2007, all buses and taxis in Guangzhou will be LPG-fueled by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment.[37] At present, Guangzhou is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world. As of the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85% of all buses and taxis.

Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government has banned motorcycles in urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban will be confiscated.[38] The Guangzhou traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban.[39]

  Air transport

Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Huadu District opened on August 5, 2004. This airport is also the 2nd busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city centre and failed to meet the fast-growing air traffic demand.

Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport now has two runways, with three more planned to be built.[40]

  Railway transport

Guangzhou is the terminus of the Jingguang railway (Beijing-Guangzhou), the Guangshen railway (Guangzhou-Shenzhen), the Guangmao railway (Guangzhou-Maoming) and the Guangmeishan railway (Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou). In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway started its service, which enables multiple unit trains to cover 980 km (608.94 mi) at an average speed of 320 km/h. In January 2011, the Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway started its service at an average speed of 200 km/h (124 mph).

  Intercity transport to Hong Kong

Guangzhou is well connected to Hong Kong by train, coach and ferry. The Guangdong Through Train departs from the Guangzhou East railway station (广州东站) and arrives at the Hung Hom KCR station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately 182 km (113 mi) in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city.

  River transport

There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.

  Local products

[citation needed]

  • Canton Province Sculpture is legendary and includes Guangzhou Ivory Carvings, Jade Sculpture, Wood Sculpture and Olive Sculpture.
  • Cantonese Enamel includes Guangzhou Colorful Pottery. It has a history of over 300 years.
  • Cantonese Embroidery, namely "Yue 粤 Embroidery" (meaning literally "Guangdong embroidery")is one of the Four Famous Chinese Embroideries together with Su Embroidery, Xiang Embroidery and Shu Embroidery.
  • Canton Province Bacon is the general designation of cured meat in the Guangzhou and surrounding areas.
  • Zhujiang Beer (Pearl River Beer)

  Culture

According to the official People's Daily newspaper, Cantonese is the first language for half of the 14 million residents of the provincial capital Guangzhou, while the other half speak mainly Mandarin.[41] Other languages such as Hakka are spoken in significant numbers as well. The migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou is 40 percent of the city's total population in 2008. Most of them are rural migrants and they speak only Mandarin. They have taken on many jobs that the local citizens are unwilling to do.[42]

  Religions

Liang Fa (Leung Fat) worked in a printing company in Guangzhou in 1810 and came to know Robert Morrison (missionary) (1782-1834, a missionary sent by the London Missionary Society in Britain and the first Christian Protestant missionary in China), who translated the Bible to Chinese and needed printing of the translation. When William Milne (missionary) (1785-1822, another missionary sent by the London Missionary Society) arrived at Guangzhou in 1813 and worked with Morrison on translation of the Bible, he also came to know Liang Fa. Liang was baptized by Milne in 1816. In 1821, Liang was ordained by Morrison, thus becoming a missionary of the London Missionary Society and the first Chinese Protestant minister and evangelist.

Western Medicine was introduced to China in the 19th Century, mainly by medical missionaries sent from various Christian mission organizations, such as the London Missionary Society (Britain), the Methodist Church (Britain [43]) and the Presbyterian Church in the United States. Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873), a medical missionary sent by the London Missionary Society in 1839, set up a highly successful Wai Ai Clinic (惠愛醫館 [44] [45] in Guangzhou, China. Liang Fa, Hok Chau 周學 (also known as Lai-Tong Chau, 周勵堂) and others worked there. Liang Fa baptized Chau in 1852. The Methodist Church based in England sent missionary George Piercy [46] [47] [48] to China. In 1851, Piercy went to Guangzhou, where he worked in a trading company. In 1853, he started a church in Guangzhou. In 1877, Chau was ordained by the Methodist Church in Guangzhou, where he pastored for 39 years.

Due to the social custom that men and women should not be near to one another, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western Medicine. This resulted in a tremendous need for female doctors of Western Medicine in China. Thus, female medical missionary Dr. Mary H. Fulton (1854-1927[49]) was sent by the Foreign Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church in the United States to found the first medical college for women in China. Known as the Hackett Medical College for Women (夏葛女子醫學院[50][51]), this College was located in Guangzhou, China, and was enabled by a large donation from Mr. Edward A.K. Hackett (1851-1916) of Indiana, U.S.A. The College was dedicated in 1902 and offered a four-year curriculum. By 1915, there were more than 60 students, mostly in residence. Most students became Christians, due to the influence of Dr. Fulton. The College was officially recognized, with its diplomas marked with the official stamp of the Guangdong provincial government. The College was aimed at the spreading of Christianity and modern medicine and the elevation of Chinese women's social status. The David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children (also known as Yuji Hospital 柔濟醫院[52][53]) was affiliated with this College. The graduates of this College included CHAU Lee-sun (周理信, 1890-1979) and WONG Yuen-hing (黃婉卿), both of whom graduated in the late 1910s [54][55] and then practiced medicine in the hospitals in Guangdong province. At the end of 1932, the medical center involving the Hackett Medical College for Women and the David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children was put under the control of the Chinese government. Furthermore, it affiliated with Guangzhou Hospital and Lingnan University to form the Sun Yat-Sen Medical College in 1936.

Huaisheng Mosque is among the oldest mosques in China.[56] Buddhism has remained the most influential religion in the life of Guangzhou people.[57]

Guangzhou has a Jewish community, Guangzhou Buddhist Association, and Guangzhou Daoist Association.[58][59] There is official pressure against underground, non-registered churches in Guangzhou.[60]

  Eight Sights of Guangzhou

The Eight Sights of Guangzhou are the 8 most famous tourist attractions listed by rulers in different ages. The followings are those chosen through public appraisal and brought out in 2011.

  • Tayao Xincheng
Tayao Xincheng
Chinese 塔耀新城
Literal meaning Tower Shining Through The New Town

: Canton Tower, Chigang Pagoda, Haixinsha, Flower City Square, Twin Towers, CITIC Plaza and etc.

  • Zhushui Liuguang
Zhushui Liuguang
Chinese 珠水流光
Literal meaning Pearl River Flowing and Shining

: Pearl River (segment from Bai'etan to Pazhou), Wharves, Bai'etan, Shamian Island, Yanjiang Lu, Ersha Island, Haixinsha, Guangzhou Convention and Exhibition Center and etc.

  • Yunshan Diecui
Yunshan Diecui
Chinese 云山叠翠
Literal meaning Baiyun Mountain Green and In Arranged Well

: Baiyun Mountain, Yuntai Garden and etc.

  • Yuexiu Fenghua
Yuexiu Fenghua
Chinese 越秀风华
Literal meaning Elegance and Talent of Yuexiu Mountain

: Yuexiu Mountain, Zhenhai Tower, Five Rams Statue, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Monument and etc.

  • Guci Liufang
Guci Liufang
Chinese 古祠流芳
Literal meaning Ancient Academy Leaving A Good Name

: Chen Clan Academy and Guangdong Folk Craftwork Museum

  • Liwan Shengjing
Liwan Shengjing
Chinese 荔湾胜景
Literal meaning Wonderful Scenery of Liwan

: Litchi Bay, Liwan Lake, Arcades on Enning Lu, Xiguan Residences and etc.

  • Kecheng Jinxiu
Kecheng Jinxiu
Chinese 科城锦绣
Literal meaning Science City as Splendid as Brocade

: Guangzhou Science City

  • Shidi Changwan
Shidi Changwan
Chinese 湿地唱晚
Literal meaning Wetland Singing at Night

: Nansha Wetland Park

  Parks and gardens

  Tourist attractions

Guangzhou has a humid, hot sub-tropical climate. The annual average temperature is 21.8 ºC. Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time.[61] There are many tourist attractions around the city which include:

Western style architecture on Shamian Island  
Towers in Guangzhou's CBD (left-center) with IFC/West Tower (right) and Guangzhou Opera House (front) under construction  
Pearl River at night  
Canton Tower,[62] June 2009  
Front entrance to the Baiyun Mountain or Mount Baiyun  

  Media

Guangzhou has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both radio stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong is dedicated to Mandarin (Putonghua), however in recent years there has been an increase in Mandarin programmes in most Cantonese channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou mainly broadcast in Cantonese, and these programmes can be received in different areas of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. On the other hand, the Beijing based China National Radio broadcasts Mandarin programmes in the city. Radio Guangdong produces a 15 minute weekly English programme, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the WRN Broadcast. Daily English news programmes are also broadcasted by Radio Guangdong.

Guangzhou has some of the best Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three big newspaper companies in the city. The Guangzhou Daily Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation and Yangcheng Evening News Group dominate the newspaper market of Guangdong Province. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily. Guangzhou Daily, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue while Southern Metropolis Daily is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers, most notably that's PRD (formerly that's Guangzhou) which was started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into one of China's leading expat magazines with issues in Beijing, Shanghai and formerly Suzhou.

  Education

  Higher educational institutes

  Sun Yat-sen College of Medical Science, Sun Yat-sen University
  The main gate of Sun Yat-sen University

Universities and colleges

Note: Institutes without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

  Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre

Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre also known as Guangzhou University Town is a large university complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. This huge higher education centre occupies the entire Xiaoguwei island in Panyu District, covering an area of about 18 square kilometres. It houses new campuses from ten universities, nine of which still maintain their old campuses in downtown Guangzhou. The whole Higher Education Mega Centre can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers and 50,000 staff.[63]

Higher education institutions with campuses in the Mega Centre:

  Sports

In 2010, Guangzhou hosted the 16th Asian Games from November 12 to 27 and the first Asian Para Games from December 12 to 19, which were the largest sports events the city ever hosted.

Guangzhou also hosted the following major sports events:

Current professional sports clubs (football and basketball) based in Guangzhou include:

Sport League Tier Club Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Evergrande Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou R&F Yuexiushan Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Guangdong Sunray Cave Guangdong Provincial People's Stadium
Basketball National Basketball League 2nd Guangzhou Freemen Tianhe Stadium
Basketball National Basketball League 2nd Guangzhou Six-rice Huangpu Stadium
Volleyball Chinese Volleyball League 1st Guangdong Evergrande Women's Volleyball Club Guangzhou Sport University
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Guangdong Olympic Stadium

  International relations

  Sister cities

Guangzhou is twinned with the following cities:[64]

Country City Geographical location Date
Japan Japan Fukuoka Fukuoka May 2, 1979
United States United States Los Angeles California December 8, 1981
Philippines Philippines Manila Metro Manila November 5, 1982
Canada Canada Vancouver British Columbia March 27, 1985
Australia Australia Sydney New South Wales May 12, 1986
Italy Italy Bari Bari November 12, 1986
France France Lyon Rhône January 19, 1988
Germany Germany Frankfurt Hessen April 11, 1988
New Zealand New Zealand Auckland Auckland February 17, 1989
South Korea South Korea Gwangju Metropolitan city October 25, 1996
Sweden Sweden Linköping Östergötland November 24, 1997
South Africa South Africa Durban KwaZulu-Natal July 17, 2000
United Kingdom United Kingdom Bristol England May 23, 2001
Russia Russia Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk July 10, 2002
Peru Peru Arequipa Arequipa October 27, 2004
Indonesia Indonesia Surabaya East Java December 21, 2005
Lithuania Lithuania Vilnius Vilnius October 12, 2006
United Kingdom United Kingdom Birmingham England December 4, 2006
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Hambantota Hambantota February 27, 2007
Brazil Brazil Recife Pernambuco October 22, 2007
Finland Finland Tampere Pirkanmaa December 2, 2008
Thailand Thailand Bangkok Bangkok November 13, 2009

  Friendship cities

Guangzhou has the following friendship cities:[65]

Country City Geographical location Date
Brazil Brazil Salvador Bahia April 6, 1996
Vietnam Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City Centrally governed city April 11, 1996
Japan Japan Ōita Ōita October 9, 1997
Russia Russia Khabarovsk Khabarovsk October 15, 1997
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Dubai Dubai June 1, 2000
United States United States Guam Unincorporated organized territories March 28, 2002
Japan Japan Noboribetsu Hokkaidō May 19, 2002
Australia Australia Melbourne Victoria April 9, 2003
Egypt Egypt Alexandria Alexandria July 17, 2003
Spain Spain Barcelona Catalonia October 23, 2003
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Chuy December 1, 2004
Cuba Cuba Havana Havana June 15, 2005
Germany Germany Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia July 25, 2006

  See also

  References

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  28. ^ Baiyun Mountain Scenic Area
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  Further reading

  External links

Preceded by
Nanjing
Capital of the Republic of China (during Chinese Civil War)
1949
Succeeded by
Chongqing

   
               

 

Toutes les traductions de Guangzhou


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Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

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Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

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