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définition - Gunma_Prefecture

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Wikipedia

Gunma Prefecture

                   
Gunma Prefecture
Japanese transcription(s)
 • Japanese 群馬県
 • Rōmaji Gunma-ken

Symbol of Gunma Prefecture
Country Japan
Region Kantō
Island Honshu
Capital Maebashi
Government
 • Governor Masaaki Osawa
Area
 • Total 6,363.16 km2 (2,456.83 sq mi)
Area rank 21st
Population (March 1, 2008)
 • Total 2,014,608
 • Rank 19th
 • Density 317/km2 (820/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code JP-10
Districts 7
Municipalities 35
Flower Japanese azalea (Rhododendron japonicum)
Tree Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii)
Bird Copper pheasant (Phasianus soemmerringii)
Fish Sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis)
Website www.pref.gunma.jp

Gunma Prefecture (群馬県 Gunma-ken?) is a prefecture of Japan located in the northwest corner of the Kantō region on Honshu island.[1] Its capital is Maebashi.[2]

Contents

  History

The remains of a Paleolithic man[citation needed] were found at Iwajuku, Gunma Prefecture, in the early 20th century and there is a public museum there.

Japan was without horses until around the fifth century CE. The ancient province of Gunma was a center of the horsebreeding and trading activities for the newly immigrated continental peoples. The arrival of horses and the remains of horse-tackle coincides with the arrival of a large migration from the mainland. From this point forward, the horse became a vital part of Japanese military maneuvers, quickly displacing the older Yayoi tradition of fighting on foot.

When Mount Haruna erupted in the late 6th century, Japan was still in the pre-historical phase (prior to the importation of the Chinese writing system during the Nara period). The Gunma Prefectural archaeology unit in 1994 was able to date the eruption through zoological anthropology at the corral sites that were buried in ash.

In the past, Gunma was joined with Tochigi Prefecture and called Kenu Province. This was later divided into Kami-tsu-ke (Upper Kenu, Gunma) and Shimo-tsu-ke (Lower Kenu, Tochigi). The area is sometimes referred to as Jomo (上毛, Jōmō). For most of Japanese history, Gunma was known as the province of Kozuke.[3]

In the early period of contact between western nations and Japan, particularly the late Tokugawa, it was referred to by foreigners as the "Joushu States", inside (fudai, or loyalist) Tokugawa retainers and the Tokugawa family symbol is widely seen at public buildings, temples and shrines.

The first modern silk factories were built with Italian and French assistance at Annaka in the 1870s.

In the early Meiji period, in what was locally called the Gunma Incident of 1884, a bloody struggle between the idealistic democratic westernizers and the conservative Prussian-model nationalists took place in Gunma and neighboring Nagano. The modern Japanese army gunned down farmers with new repeating rifles built in Japan. The farmers in Gunma were said to be the first victims of the Murata rifle.

In the twentieth century, the Japanese aviation pioneer Nakajima Chikushi of Oizumi, Gunma Prefecture, founded the Nakajima Aircraft Company. At first, he produced mostly licensed models of foreign designs, but beginning with the all-Japanese Nakajima 91 fighter plane in 1931, his company became a world leader in aeronautical design and manufacture, with its headquarters at Ota, Gunma Ken. The factory now produces Subaru motorcars and other products under the name of Fuji Heavy Industries.

In the 1930s, German architect Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Königsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul) lived and conducted research for a while in Takasaki, Gunma Ken.

The Girard Incident, which disturbed US-Japanese relations in the 1950s, occurred in Gunma in 1957, at Soumagahara Base near Shibukawa.

Four modern prime ministers are from Gunma, namely, Takeo Fukuda, Yasuhiro Nakasone, Keizo Obuchi, and Yasuo Fukuda, the son of Takeo.

  Map of Gunma Prefecture

  Geography

One of only eight landlocked prefectures in Japan, Gunma is the northwestern-most prefecture of the Kantō plain. Except for the central and southeast areas, where most of the population is concentrated, it is mostly mountainous. To the north are Niigata and Fukushima prefectures, while to the east lies Tochigi. To the west lies Nagano prefecture, and Saitama is to the south.

Some of the major mountains in Gunma are Mount Akagi, Mount Haruna, Mount Myōgi, Mount Nikkō-Shirane and Mount Asama, which is located on the Nagano border. The first three are known as the "Three Mountains of Jōmō", and are also featured in racing scenes of the anime and manga Initial D. Major rivers include the Tone River, the Agatsuma River, and the Karasu River.

  Cities

Twelve cities are located in Gunma Prefecture:

  Towns and villages

Towns and villages in each district:

Higashiagatsuma
Kusatsu
Naganohara
Nakanojō
Takayama
Tsumagoi
Kanra
Nanmoku
Shimonita
Shintō
Yoshioka
Chiyoda
Itakura
Meiwa
Ōizumi
Ōra
Tamamura
Kanna
Ueno
Katashina
Kawaba
Minakami
Shōwa

  Mergers

  Climate

Because Gunma is situated in inland Japan, the difference in temperature in the summer compared to the winter is large, and there is less precipitation. This is because of the kara-kaze ("empty wind"), a strong, dry wind which occurs in the winter when the snow falls on the coasts of Niigata. The wind carrying clouds with snow are obstructed by the Echigo Mountain Range, and it also snows there, although the high peaks do not let the wind go past them. For this reason, the wind changes into the kara-kaze.

  • Climate in Maebashi
    • Average yearly precipitation: 1,163 mm
    • Average yearly temperature: 14.2 degrees Celsius

  Economy

Gunma's modern industries include transport equipment and electrical equipment, concentrated around Maebashi and the eastern region nearest Tokyo. More traditional industries include sericulture and agriculture. Gunma's major agricultural products include cabbages and konjacs. Gunma produces 90% of Japan's konjacs, and two-thirds of the farms in the village of Tsumagoi are cabbage farms. Also, the city of Ōta is famous for car industry, notably the Subaru factory.

  Culture

Gunma has a traditional card game called Jomo Karuta (上毛かるた). Both children and old people can enjoy this card game. Mitsuru Adachi, one of the most famous Japanese manga writers, well known for "Touch" and "H2",was born in Gunma.

The hometown of Takumi Fujiwara, protagonist of anime and manga series Initial D is in Gunma.

Kiyoshi Ogawa, a Kamikaze pilot who led the attack on the USS Bunker Hill was born in Gunma

Gunma is home to two of Japan's four Melody Roads, which is made from grooves cut into the ground, which when driven over causes a tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels into the car body.[4][5] It consist of 2,559 grooves cut into a 175 meter stretch of existing roadway. When driven over at 50 km/h it produce the tune of "Memories of Summer".[6]

  Education

  Universities

  Sports

The sports teams listed below are based in Gunma.

  Football (soccer)

  Rugby

Gunma is also famous for its ski resorts in the mountains, which attract many tourists.

  Tourism

Many places in Gunma are famous for their hot spring resorts. Another draw to the mountainous Gunma is the ski resorts.

Other attractions include:

  Transportation

  Railroad

  Roads

  Expressways

  National highways

  Prefectural symbols

The prefectural symbol consists of the first kanji of the word 'Gunma' surrounded by three stylized mountains symbolizing the three important mountains of Gunma Prefecture: Mount Haruna, Mt. Akagi, and Mt. Myogi.

For Marketing, The Prefectural Government also uses Yuma-chan, a small super deformed drawing of a horse character wearing green cap. He is used on promotional posters, banners and other notable printed matierals from the Prefectural Government. Other agencies and companies formally or informally use variations of his likeness and other horse shaped characters when making signs or notices for work on buildings, roads, and other public notices.

  Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Gumma-ken" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 267 at Google Books; "Kantō" in p. 479 at Google Books.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Maebashi" in p. 600 at Google Books.
  3. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" in p. 470 at Google Books.
  4. ^ Johnson, Bobbie (13 November 2007). "Japan's melody roads play music as you drive". The Guardian (Farringdon Road, London, England: GMG): p. 19 (International section). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/nov/13/japan.gadgets. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 
  5. ^ "Your car as a musical instrument - Melody Roads". Noise Addicts. 29 September 2008. http://www.noiseaddicts.com/2008/09/car-musical-instrument-melody-roads-japan/. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 
  6. ^ "Singing Roads - Take a Musical Trip in Japan". ITN. 5 December 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTsoP3WWgU4. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 

  References

  External links

Coordinates: 36°22′N 139°7′E / 36.367°N 139.117°E / 36.367; 139.117

   
               

 

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