HH-60 Pave Hawk
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|HH-60 / MH-60 Pave Hawk|
|USAF HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter|
|Role||Combat Search and Rescue helicopter|
|Manufacturer||Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation|
Active duty: 68
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Unit cost||US$15.8 million|
|Developed from||Sikorsky S-70|
The Sikorsky MH-60G/HH-60G Pave Hawk is a twin turboshaft engine helicopter in service with the United States Air Force. It is a derivative of the UH-60 Black Hawk and the US Air Force PAVE electronic systems program. The HH/MH-60 is a member of the Sikorsky S-70 family.
The MH-60G Pave Hawk's primary mission is insertion and recovery of special operations personnel, while the HH-60G Pave Hawk's primary mission is combat search and rescue (CSAR) of downed pilots. Both versions conduct day or night operations into hostile environments. Because of its versatility, the HH-60G may also perform peace-time operations. Such tasks include civil search and rescue, emergency aeromedical evacuation (MEDEVAC), disaster relief, international aid, counter-drug activities and NASA space shuttle support.
Design and development
In 1981, the U.S. Air Force chose the UH-60A Black Hawk to replace its HH-3E Jolly Green Giant helicopters. After acquiring some UH-60s, the Air Force began upgrading each with an air refueling probe, and additional fuel tanks in the cabin. The machine guns were changed from 7.62 mm (0.308 in) M60s to 0.50 in (12.7 mm) XM218s. These helicopters were referred to as "Credible Hawks" and entered service in 1987.
Afterwards the Credible Hawks and new UH-60As were upgraded and designated MH-60G Pave Hawk. These upgrades were to be done in a two step process. But funding only allowed 16 Credible Hawks to receive the second step equipment. These helicopters were allocated to special operations use. The remaining 82 Credible Hawks received the first step upgrade equipment and were used for combat search and rescue. In 1991, the search and rescue Pave Hawks were redesignated HH-60G.
The Pave Hawk is a highly-modified version of the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk. It features an upgraded communications and navigation suite that includes an integrated inertial navigation/global positioning/Doppler navigation systems, satellite communications, secure voice, and Have Quick communications.
All HH-60Gs have an automatic flight control system, night vision goggles lighting and forward looking infrared system that greatly enhances night low-level operations. Additionally, some Pave Hawks have color weather radar and an engine/rotor blade anti-ice system that gives the HH-60G an all-weather capability.
Pave Hawk mission equipment includes a retractable in-flight refueling probe, internal auxiliary fuel tanks, two crew-served (or pilot-controlled) 7.62 mm miniguns or .50-caliber machine guns and an 8,000 pound (3,600 kg) capacity cargo hook. To improve air transportability and shipboard operations, all HH-60Gs have folding rotor blades.
HH-60G rescue equipment includes a hoist capable of lifting a 600 pound (270 kg) load from a hover height of 200 feet (60 m), and a personnel locating system that is compatible with the PRC-112 survival radio and provides range and bearing information to a survivor's location.
A limited number of Pave Hawks are equipped with an over-the-horizon tactical data receiver that is capable of receiving near real-time mission update information.
The U.S. Air Force HH-60G Pave Hawk is operated by the Air Combat Command (ACC), U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE), Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), Air Education and Training Command (AETC), the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and the Air National Guard (ANG).
During Operation Desert Storm, Pave Hawks provided combat search and rescue coverage for coalition Air Forces in western Iraq, Saudi Arabia, coastal Kuwait and the Persian Gulf. They also provided emergency evacuation coverage for U.S. Navy sea, air and land (SEAL) teams penetrating the Kuwaiti coast before the invasion.
All MH-60Gs subsequently divested by AFSOC, redesignated as HH-60Gs in 1991 and transferred back to Air Combat Command (ACC) and ACC-gained Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and Air National Guard (ANG) units.
During Operation Allied Force, the Pave Hawk provided continuous combat search and rescue coverage for NATO air forces, and successfully recovered two U.S. Air Force pilots who were isolated behind enemy lines.
In March 2000, three Pave Hawks deployed to Hoedspruit Air Force Base in South Africa, to support international flood relief operations in Mozambique. The HH-60Gs flew 240 missions in 17 days and delivered more than 160 tons of humanitarian relief supplies.
Air Force Pave Hawks from the Pacific Theatre also took part in a massive humanitarian relief effort in early 2005 in Sri Lanka to help victims of the tsunami. In the fall of 2005, Pave Hawks from various Air Force commands participated in rescue operations of Hurricane Katrina survivors, rescuing thousands of stranded people.
Currently, Pave Hawks regularly operate in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom supporting Army and Marine Corps ground combat operations and standby search and rescue support for U.S. and Coalition fixed-wing combat aircraft supporting those ground operations.
- HH-60A: Prototype for the HH-60D rescue helicopter. A modified UH-60A primarily designed for combat search and rescue. It is equipped with a rescue hoist with a 200 ft (60.96 m) cable that has a 600 lb (270 kg) lift capability, and a retractable in-flight refueling probe.
- HH-60D Night Hawk: Prototype of combat rescue variant for the US Air Force.
- HH-60E: Proposed search and rescue variant for the US Air Force.
- HH-60G Pave Hawk: Search and rescue helicopter for the US Air Force. UH-60A Credible Hawk were updated to MH-60G Pave Hawk configuration in a two-phase program.
- MH-60G Pave Hawk: Special Operations, search and rescue model for the US Air Force. Equipped with long-range fuel tanks, air-to-air refueling capability, FLIR, improved radar. Powered by T-700-GE-700/701 engines.
- Maplehawk: Proposed search and rescue version for the Canadian Forces to replace aging CH-113 Labradors. The CF opted for the CH-149 Cormorant instead.
- HH-60M : a search and rescue version of UH-60M with a glass cockpit and more powerful engines.
Section information from USAF 2008 Almanac
- Davis-Monthan AFB, AZ -- 920th Rescue Wing, 305th RQS (AFRC) and 23d Wing, (55 RQS) (ACC)
- Kadena AB, Japan -- 18th Wing (33d RQS) (PACAF)
- Kirtland AFB, NM -- 58th Special Operations Wing (512 RQS) (AETC)
- Kulis ANGB, Alaska -- 176th Wing, (210 RQS) (Alaska ANG)
- RAF Lakenheath, UK -- 48th Fighter Wing (56th RQS) (USAFE)
- Moffett Field ANGB, CA -- 129th Rescue Wing (California ANG)
- Moody AFB, GA -- 23d Wing, (41 RQS) (ACC)
- Nellis AFB, NV -- 23d Wing, (66 RQS) (ACC)
- Francis S. Gabreski Airport ANGB, NY -- 106th Rescue Wing (New York ANG)
- Patrick AFB, FL -- 920th Rescue Wing (301 RQS) (AFRC)
- Hurlburt Field, FL -- 46th Test Wing (413 FLTS) (AFMC)
- Crew: 4 (2 pilots, flight engineer, gunner)
- Capacity: max. crew 6, 8-12 troops, plus litters and/or other cargo
- Length: 64 ft 10 in (17.1 m)
- Rotor diameter: 53 ft 8 in (14.1 m)
- Height: 16 ft 8 in (5.1 m)
- Empty weight: 16,000 lb (7,260 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 22,000 lb (9,900 kg)
- Powerplant: 2× two General Electric T700-GE-700/701C free-turbine turboshafts, 1,630 shp (1,220 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 195 knots (224 mph, 360 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 159 kt (184 mph, 294 km/h)
- Range: 373 mi (internal tanks), or 508 mi (with external tanks) ()
- Service ceiling: 14,000 ft (m)
- INS/GPS/Doppler navigation
- SATCOM satellite communications
- Secure/anti-jam communications
- PLS range/steering radio to compatible survivor radios
- Automatic flight control
- NVG night vision goggle lighting
- FLIR forward looking infra-red radar
- Color weather radar
- Engine/rotor blade anti-ice system
- Retractable In-flight refueling probe
- Integral rescue hoist
- RWB combat enhancement
- IR infra-red jamming unit
- flare/chaff countermeasure dispensing system
- ^ Mehuron, Tamar A., Assoc. Editor (May 2008). format = "2009 USAF Almanac - Equipment". Air Force Magazine (Air Force Association) 92 (5): p. 48. issn = 0730-6784. http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Magazine%20Documents/2009/May%202009/0509facts_fig.pdf format =. All figures are as of 30 Sept. 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i HH-60G Pave Hawk Factsheet. United States Air Force. October 2007. Accessed 17 February 2009.
- ^ a b c Eden, Paul. "Sikorsky H-60 Black Hawk/Seahawk", Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1904687849.
- ^ a b Bishop, Chris. Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk. Osprey, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84176852-6.
- ^ a b c Young, Susan H.H., Staff Editor (May 2008). ""HH-60G Pave Hawk", 2008 USAF Almanac - Gallery of USAF Weapons" (pdf). Air Force Magazine (Air Force Association) 91 (5): 155–156. issn = 0730-6784. http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Magazine%20Documents/2008/May%202008/0508weapons.pdf.
- ^ Gempis, Master Sgt. Val. "Kadena Airmen help Sri Lanka tsunami victims", Air Force Print News, 18 January 2005.
- ^ a b DoD 4120-15L, Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles, US DoD, 12 May 2004.
- ^ Warwick, Graham (2008-09-27). "Level Playing Field?". Flight International (Reed Business Information). http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/1997/08/27/14939/level-playing-field.html. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
- Leoni, Ray D. Black Hawk, The Story of a World Class Helicopter, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. ISBN 978-1-56347-918-2.
- Tomajczyk, Stephen F. Black Hawk, MBI, 2003. ISBN 0-7603-1591-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: HH-60 Pave Hawk|
- USAF HH-60G Pave Hawk fact sheet
- HH-60 page and MH-60 page on globalsecurity.org
- Sikorsky S-70 page on helis.com