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définition - HUN SEN

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Wikipedia

Hun Sen

                   
Hun Sen
ហ៊ុន សែន
Hun Sen speaking at the World Economic Forum in East Asia (2010)
Prime Minister of Cambodia
Incumbent
Assumed office
30 November 1998
Monarch Norodom Sihanouk
Chea Sim (Regent)
Norodom Sihamoni
Preceded by Ung Huot
In office
1 May 1989 – 21 September 1993
Alongside Norodom Ranariddh:
2 July 1993 – 21 September 1993
President Heng Samrin
Chea Sim
Norodom Sihanouk
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Norodom Ranariddh
Prime Minister of Kampuchea
In office
14 January 1985 – 1 May 1989
President Heng Samrin
Preceded by Chan Sy
Succeeded by Position abolished
Personal details
Born (1952-08-05) 5 August 1952 (age 59)
Peam Koh Sna, Indochina
(now Cambodia)
Political party CPP
Spouse(s) Bun Rany
Styles of
Hun Sen

Royal Arms of Cambodia.svg

Spoken style Samdech Akeak Moha Sena Thapdey Techo Hun Sen (The Great Lord Protector Hun Sen)
Religious style Samdech Akeak Moha Sena Thapdey Techo Hun Sen (The Great Lord Protector Hun Sen), Khnyom Kana (spoken by himself to monks), Ngom (said by monks sometimes after saying Samdech Akeak Moha Sena Thapdey Techo Hun Sen often.)
Informal style Hun Sen

Hun Sen (Khmer: ហ៊ុន សែន; born 5 August 1952)[1] is the current Prime Minister of Cambodia and leader of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), which has governed Cambodia since the Vietnamese-backed overthrow of the Khmer Rouge in 1979. Since the restoration of multi-party democracy in 1993, the CPP has been in a coalition with the royalist Funcinpec party.

His current, full, honorary title is Samdech Akeak Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen (Khmer: សម្តេចអគ្គមហាសេនាបតីតេជោ ហ៊ុន សែន). The title "Samdech" was attached to his name in 1993 by King Norodom Sihanouk. It is only an honorary title and does not give him further powers. He has a glass eye, the result of a wound sustained during the Khmer Rouge offensive against Phnom Penh in April 1975. Hun Sen is currently the longest serving leader in South East Asia and is one of the longest serving prime ministers in the world, having been in power through various coalitions since 1985.

Contents

  Early Life

Hun Sen was born Hun Nal in the village of Peam Koh Sna, which is located within Stung Treng District, Kampong Cham Province and was the third child of six children to a peasant family. His father, Hun Neang was a resident monk in a local Wat in Kampong Cham province before disrobing to join the French resistance and married his mother, Dee Yon in the 1940s. Hun Neang's paternal grandparents were wealthy landowners of Teochew Chinese heritage.[2][3] Hun Neang inherited some of his family assets and led a relatively comfortable life, as they owned several hectares of land until a kidnapping incident forced their family to sell off much of their assets.[4] Hun Sen left his family at the age of 13 to attend a monastic school in Phnom Penh. When Lon Nol usurped power from Sihanouk in 1970 during a bloodless coup, Hun Nal gave up his education to join the Khmer Rouge.[5] Two years later, Hun Nal changed his name to Hun Sen. In 1974, Hun Sen met his future wife Bun Rany. He was wounded in the left eye the following year on the day before the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, which was later removed. The following year, Hun Sen married Bun Rany.[6]

  Political career

Hun Sen came to power with the Khmer Rouge and served as a Battalion Commander in the Eastern Region of Democratic Kampuchea (previous name of Cambodia). After falling out with the Khmer Rouge Hun Sen fled to Vietnam. [7] Hun Sen was selected by the Vietnamese for a leadership role in the rebel army and government they were creating for Cambodia. When the Khmer Rouge regime was overthrown, Hun Sen was appointed as Foreign Minister of the Vietnamese-installed People's Republic of Kampuchea/State of Cambodia (PRK/SOC) in 1979 and in 1985 he was made Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Prime Minister, after the death of Chairman Chan Sy until 1990, (with a brief interruption from 1986 until 1987). As Foreign Minister, Hun Sen was a key figure in the Paris Peace Talks, which brokered peace in Cambodia.

In 1987, Amnesty International accused Hun Sen's government of torture of thousands of political prisoners using "electric shocks, hot irons and near-suffocation with plastic bags."[8]

From 1993 until 1998 he was Co-Prime Minister with Prince Norodom Ranariddh. Norodom Ranariddh was First Prime Minister and he was Second Prime Minister. However, the actual power resided in the hands of Hun Sen because most of the high officers in Cambodia including the military were CPP members which led Norodom Ranariddh to be jealous of his Co-Prime Minister and led to a power struggle, directly resulting in the July 1997 military conflict.

In 1997, the coalition was shaken by tensions between Ranariddh and Hun Sen. FUNCINPEC began to collaborate with the remaining Khmer Rouge rebels (with whom it had been allied against Hun Sen's Vietnamese-backed government during the 1980s), aiming to absorb them into its ranks.[9]

In response, Hun Sen launched the 1997 Cambodian Coup, replacing Ranariddh with Ung Hout as the First Prime Minister and himself still as the Second Prime Minister until the CPP's victory in the 1998 election and thus becoming the country's sole Prime Minister in 1998. During that year the media broadcast him as the Strong Man of Cambodia which he later said was premature, and that the July 1997 was merely, the government taking action against the paramilitary anarchy that was sponsored and brought to Phnom Penh by Norodom Ranariddh.

In an open letter, Amnesty International condemned the summary execution of FUNCINPEC ministers and the "systematic campaign of arrests and harassment " of political opponents.[10]

The elections of July 2003 resulted in a larger majority in the National Assembly for the CPP, with FUNCINPEC losing seats to the CPP and the Sam Rainsy Party. However, CPP's majority was short of the two thirds constitutionally required for the CPP to form a government alone. This deadlock was overcome and a new CPP-FUNCINPEC coalition was formed in mid-2004. When Norodom Ranariddh was chosen to be Head of the National Assembly and Hun Sen became again sole Prime Minister of Cambodia.

  Corruption

Some political opponents of Hun Sen accuse him of being a Vietnamese puppet. This is due to his position in the government created by Vietnam while Cambodia was under Vietnamese military occupation and the fact that he was a prominent figure in the People's Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea (now known as the Cambodian People's Party), which governed Cambodia as a one-party state under Vietnamese military occupation from 1979 until elections in 1993. Hun Sen and his supporters reject such charges, saying that he represents only the Cambodian people.

  Forced evictions and Sale of Cambodian land

Hun Sen's government has been responsible for the sale of land to foreign investors in 2007-08 resulting in the eviction of thousands of residents from their homes.[11]

Hun Sen was implicated in corruption related to Cambodia's oil wealth and mineral resources in Global Witness 2009 report on Cambodia. He and his close associates were accused of carrying out secret negotiations with interested private parties and taking money from those who he would grant rights to exploit the resources. However, the credibility of this accusation has been questioned by government officials and especially Prime Minister Hun Sen, himself.[12]

  Personal life

Hun Sen is married to Bun Rany. They have six children, 3 sons and 3 daughters: Manet, Mana, Manit, Mani, Mali and Malis. The youngest, Malis was adopted. Hun Manet is a 1999 West Point Academy graduate and obtained his PhD in Economics at the University of Bristol. In 2010, Manet was promoted Major General in the Royal Cambodian Arm Forces (RCAF) and became the Deputy Commander of the Prime Minister's Body Guard headquarters.

Although Hun Sen's birthday is officially celebrated on April 4, 1951, he had revealed that his actual date of birth was August 5, 1952.[13] He had apparently lied about his date of birth to appear older when joining the Khmer Rouge as a youth.

  See also

  Footnotes

  1. ^ Premier's Biography at the Royal Government of Cambodia Homepage; accessed 24 May 2009.
  2. ^ Forest (2008), p. 178 "Sino-khmer originaire du district de Krauch Chmar 140, Hun Sèn descend par ses grands-parents paternels d'une famille de propriétaires terriens qui paraît correspondre au stéréotype du Chinois - téochiew ? - implanté en zone rurale, c'est-à-dire aisée mais sans pouvoir administratif. Par sa mère, il descendrait inversement d'une tête de réseau....."
  3. ^ Time (Magazine), Volume 136 (1990), p. 329 Beijing has not softened its hostility toward Hun Sen, but there are subtle signs that China may yet shift its position. Some officials now mention that Hun Sen's grandfather was Chinese, seeming to hint at the possibility of a new....
  4. ^ Harish C. Mehta (1999), p. 15-6
  5. ^ Harish C. Mehta (1999), p. 11, 21
  6. ^ Harish C. Mehta (1999), p. 32, 35
  7. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/07/opinion/l-cambodia-s-hun-sen-is-himself-khmer-rouge-722489.html
  8. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-8013822.html Cambodia is Said to Torture Prisoners, Boston Globe, June 4, 1987
  9. ^ Cambodia: Hun Sen and the 1997 Coup
  10. ^ http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/060.html Open letter to Second Prime Minister Hun Sen, Amnesty International, 11 July 1997
  11. ^ Cambodia, a country for sale, April 2008, The Guardian
  12. ^ http://www.globalwitness.org/media_library_detail.php/713/en/country_for_sale
  13. ^ The Cambodia Daily, April 5, 2007

  Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Chan Sy
Prime Minister of Kampuchea
1985–1989
Position abolished
New office Prime Minister of Cambodia
Served alongside: Norodom Ranariddh

1989–1993
Succeeded by
Norodom Ranariddh
Preceded by
Ung Huot
Prime Minister of Cambodia
1998–present
Incumbent
   
               

 

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