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Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

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Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

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Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
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# Internet Movie Database

URL IMDb homepage on February 20, 2011 imdb.com Yes Online database for movies, television, and video games Registration is optional for members to participate in discussions, comments, ratings and voting. English, French, German, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Amazon.com Col Needham October 17, 1990 47 (August 2012)[1] Active

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information related to films, television programs, actors, production crew personnel, video games and fictional characters featured in visual entertainment media. It is one of the most popular online entertainment destinations, with over 100 million unique users each month and a solid and rapidly growing mobile presence.[2] IMDb was launched on October 17, 1990, and in 1998 was acquired by Amazon.com. As of 19 July 2012, IMDb had 2,257,258 films and 4,737,424 personalities in its database.[3]

## History

### History before website

IMDb originated from an on-paper list started as a hobby by an English film fan Col Needham in early 1987. Although many fans maintained such lists, several even being published in book form from the 1960s onward, IMDb began with a usenet posting Needham titled "Those Eyes", on the subject of actresses with beautiful eyes. Several others who could access the early internet, with similar interests, responded with additions or different lists of their own. On October 17, 1990, Needham, a professional computer programmer not affiliated with the visual media except by avocations, posted a simple software package to the USENET newsgroup rec.arts.movies, which allowed others of that group to create and search a basic movie and TV database. The original database was built from the lists of credits that Needham and two other readers had begun to publish on the rec.arts.movies group. Other film fans began to participate in the collection of data on the Usenet newsgroup rec.arts.movies.

Needham soon started a (male) "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", and Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST", which would later be renamed the "Actress List". Both this and the Actors List had been restricted to people who were still alive and working, but retired people began to be added, and Needham also started what was then (but did not remain) a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". The goal now was to make the lists as inclusive as the list managers could manage. In late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham then developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, and the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database", but by 1993 had been moved out of the usenet group as an independent website underwritten by Needham and his colleagues. Users were invited to contribute data which they may have collected and verified, on a volunteer basis, which greatly increased the amount and types of data to be stored or for which sections needed to be added. As the site thereby grew in content exponentially, and began including full production crews, uncredited performers and other demographic data, Needham's group allowed for some advertising to support ongoing operations of the site, including the hiring some paid full-time data managers for particularly popular sections. All the primary staff came (and still come) from the burgeoning computer industry and/or training schools, not with education or extensive hobby expertise in the visual media, however. In 1998, unable to secure sufficient funding via limited advertising and financial contributions of substance from the data contributors and site users, and unable to raise support from the visual media industries or academia, Needham sold the IMDb to Amazon.com, on condition that its operation would remain in the hands of Needham and his small cadre of managers, who soon were able to move into full-time paid staff positions with the cash influx from Amazon.

### On the web

The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material, as well as trivia, biographies, and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data; and a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. Later in the year it moved onto the World Wide Web (a network in its infancy at that time) under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database. The database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in the UK. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994 the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, meaning that people no longer had to email the specific list maintainer with their updates. However, the structure remained that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Its management also continued to be in the hands of a small contingent of underpaid or volunteer "section managers" who were receiving ever-growing quantities of information on films from around the world and across time from contributors of widely varying levels of expertise and informational resources. Despite the annual claims of Needham, in a year-end report newsletter to the Top 50 contributors, that "fewer holes" must now remain for the coming year, the amount of information still missing from the database was vastly underestimated. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth.

The website is Perl-based.[4] As of May 2011, the site has been filtered in China for more than one year,[citation needed] although many users address it through proxy server or by VPN.

On October 17, 2010 IMDb launched original video (www.imdb.com/20) in celebration of its 20th anniversary.[5]

### As an independent company

In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. Founder Col Needham became the primary owner as well as the identified figurehead. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising, licensing and partnerships.

### As Amazon.com subsidiary

In 1998, Jeff Bezos, founder, owner and CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Col Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company.[6] This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use the IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes.

IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002 it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals. IMDbPro was announced and launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory.

As an additional incentive for users, as of 2003, if users are identified as being one of "the top 100 contributors" in terms of amounts of hard data submitted, they receive complimentary free access to IMDbPro for the following calendar year; for 2006 this was increased to the top 150 contributors, and for 2010 to the top 250.[7] In 2008 IMDb launched their first official foreign language version with the German IMDb.de. Additionally in 2008 IMDb acquired two other companies. Withoutabox and Box Office Mojo.

### Copyright, vandalism, and error issues

All volunteers who contribute content to the database technically retain copyright on their contributions but the compilation of the content becomes the exclusive property of IMDb with the full right to copy, modify, and sublicense it and they are verified before posting.[24] Credit is not given on specific title or filmography pages to the contributor(s) who have provided information. Conversely, a credited text entry, such as a plot summary, may be "corrected" for content, grammar, sentence structure, perceived omission or error, by other contributors without having to add their names as co-authors. Due to the process of having the submitted data or text reviewed by a section manager, IMDb is different from database projects like Wikipedia, Discogs, or OpenStreetMap in that contributors cannot add, delete, or modify the data or text on whim, and the manipulation of data is controlled by IMDb technology and salaried staff.[25] The advantage is, there is less incentive for vandals to attack the system.[citation needed]

The Java Movie Database (JMDB)[26] is reportedly creating an IMDb_Error.log file that lists all the errors found while processing the IMDb plain text files. A Wiki alternative to IMDb is omdb (Open Media Database) whose content is also contributed by users but licensed under CC-by and the GFDL. Since 2007, IMDb has been experimenting with wiki-programmed sections for complete film synopses, parental guides, and FAQs about titles as determined by (and answered by) individual contributors.

### Data format and access

IMDb does not provide an API for automated queries. However most of the data can be downloaded as compressed plain text files and the information can be extracted using the command-line interface tools provided.[27] Beside that there is the Java based GUI application available that is able to process the compressed plain text files and allow to search and display the information.[26] This GUI application supports different languages but the movie related data is of course English as made available by IMDb. A Python package called IMDbPY can also be used to process the compressed plain text files into a number of different SQL databases, enabling easier access to the entire dataset for searching or data mining.[28]

### Film titles

The IMDb has sites in English as well as versions translated completely or in part into other languages (Portuguese, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romanian and Spanish). The non-English language sites display film titles in the specified language. While originally the IMDb's English-language sites displayed titles according to their original country-of-origin language, in 2010 the IMDb began displaying titles by either their US or UK AKA, depending on the user's location. For those who wish to use the English-language sites and still see titles listed by their original title users can update their site settings with that preference or use the IMDb's AKA website.

## Censorship

IMDB.com is currently (May, 2012) blocked in China. People who try to access IMDB in China directly will get a message similar to "This webpage is not available – The connection to imdb.com was interrupted." But IMDB in other languages (such as IMDB.fr, IMDB.de, IMDB.it, etc.) are still accessible.

## References

1. ^ "Imdb.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
2. ^ "Top Ten Internet Companies | CelebJunkyz.com | Celebrity News Celebrity Gossip Celebrity Blog". CelebJunkyz.com. 2009-08-19. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
3. ^ "Stats". IMDb. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
4. ^ What software/hardware are you using to run the site?
5. ^ Ehlrich, Brenna. "IMDb Turns 20, Launches Original Video to Celebrate". mashable.com. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
6. ^ "News Release". PR Newswire Europe Ltd.. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
7. ^ Needham, Col (2011-01-01). "IMDb announcement: Top 250 Contributors for 2010". IMDb Contributors Top Contributors. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
8. ^ "Acting unions criticise IMDb in age row". BBC. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
9. ^ "Actress Sued Amazon For Revealing Age 40 Identified As Huong Junie Hoang". News.sky.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
10. ^ "Character Help Overview". IMDb. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
11. ^ Hoffman, Harrison (15 September 2008). "IMDb now serves full-length videos". cnet. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
12. ^ Modine, Austin (16 September 2008). "IMDb adds full-length streaming movies (Show your US ID card at the door)". The Register. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
13. ^ IMDb Charts: IMDb Bottom 100
14. ^ Jonas Brothers: The 3D Concert Experience (2009) – User ratings
15. ^ "Top 250 movies as voted by our users". IMDb. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
16. ^ "Types of titles excluded from the Top 250". IMDb. Retrieved 2007-04-25.
17. ^ The user votes average on film X is 9.4, so it should appear in your top 250 films listing, yet it doesn't. Why?
18. ^ Ragnar Norberg, Department of Statistics (PDF). Credibility Theory. London School of Economics. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
19. ^ "Bottom 100". IMDb. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
20. ^ Each TV episode uses the same message board for the whole series
21. ^ Lycos Europe and IMDb sign sales agreement for 9 European markets. Lycos Europe press release, July 10, 2006
22. ^ IMDb Resume FAQ: Can I subscribe only for one month or one year?. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
23. ^ IMDb Resume FAQ: Is there any difference between a regular IMDb name page and an IMDb name page created via IMDb Resume?. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
24. ^ IMDb Copyright and Conditions of Use
25. ^ The Plain Text Data Files IMDb – Alternate Interfaces
26. ^ a b "Java Movie Database (JMDB)". Jmdb.de. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
27. ^ "Alternate Interfaces". IMDb. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
28. ^ "IMDbPY". IMDbPY. Retrieved 2011-02-14.

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