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définition - Javascript

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-Client-side JavaScript • Comparison of JavaScript frameworks • Comparison of JavaScript-based source code editors • Epoch Javascript Calendar • Ext (JavaScript library) • Glow (JavaScript library) • JavaScript OSA • JavaScript Style Sheets • JavaScript engine • JavaScript engines • JavaScript language • JavaScript library • JavaScript programming language • JavaScript rollover • JavaScript syntax • Javascript Data Components • Javascript Simple Syndication • Javascript programming language • KDE's JavaScript engine • Lightbox (JavaScript) • List of JavaScript libraries • Midori Javascript Framework • Mozilla Narcissus JavaScript Engine • Narcissus (JavaScript engine) • Prototype JavaScript Framework • Raphaël (JavaScript Library) • Rhino (JavaScript engine) • Server-side JavaScript • SpiderMonkey (JavaScript engine) • Tamarin (JavaScript engine) • Unobtrusive JavaScript • V8 (JavaScript engine)

Wikipedia

JavaScript

                   
JavaScript
JavaScript-logo.png
Unofficial logo from JSConf EU 2011
Paradigm(s) Multi-paradigm: scripting, object-oriented (prototype-based), imperative, functional[1]
Appeared in 1995
Designed by Brendan Eich
Developer Netscape Communications Corporation, Mozilla Foundation
Stable release 1.8.5[2] (March 22, 2011; 14 months ago (2011-03-22))
Typing discipline dynamic, weak, duck
Major implementations KJS, Rhino, SpiderMonkey, V8, WebKit, Carakan, Chakra
Influenced by C, Java, Perl, Python, Scheme, Self
Influenced ActionScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, JScript .NET, Objective-J, QML, TIScript
Wikibooks logo JavaScript at Wikibooks
JavaScript
Filename extension .js
Internet media type application/javascript
text/javascript (obsolete)[3]
Uniform Type Identifier com.netscape.javascript-source[4]
Type of format Scripting language

JavaScript (sometimes abbreviated JS) is a prototype-based scripting language that is dynamic, weakly typed and has first-class functions. It is a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented,[5] imperative, and functional[1][6] programming styles.

JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript, implemented as part of a Web browser in order to give enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites. This enables programmatic access to computational objects within a host environment.

JavaScript's use in applications outside Web pages — for example in PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets — is also significant. Newer and faster JavaScript VMs and frameworks built upon them (notably Node.js) have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side web applications.

[[JavaScript uses syntax influenced by that of C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme programming languages.[7]

Contents

  History

Anyway, I know only one programming language worse than C and that is Javascript. [...] I was convinced that we needed to build-in a programming language, but the developers, Tim first, were very much opposed. It had to remain completely declarative. Maybe, but the net result is that the programming-vacuum filled itself with the most horrible kluge in the history of computing: Javascript.

  Birth at Netscape

JavaScript was originally developed in Netscape, by Brendan Eich. Battling with Microsoft over the Internet, Netscape considered their client-server solution as a distributed OS, running a portable version of Sun Microsystem's Java. Because Java was a competitor of C++ and aimed at professional programmers, Netscape also wanted a lightweight interpreted language that would complement Java by appealing to nonprofessional programmers, like Microsoft's VB.[9] (see JavaScript and Java)

Developed under the name Mocha, LiveScript was the official name for the language when it first shipped in beta releases of Netscape Navigator 2.0 in September 1995, but it was renamed JavaScript[10] when it was deployed in the Netscape browser version 2.0B3.[11]

The change of name from LiveScript to JavaScript roughly coincided with Netscape adding support for Java technology in its Netscape Navigator web browser. The final choice of name caused confusion, giving the impression that the language was a spin-off of the Java programming language, and the choice has been characterized by many as a marketing ploy by Netscape to give JavaScript the cachet of what was then the hot new web programming language.[12][13] It has also been claimed  that the language's name is the result of a co-marketing deal between Netscape and Sun, in exchange for Netscape bundling Sun's Java runtime with its then-dominant browser.

  Server-side JavaScript

Netscape introduced an implementation of the language for server-side scripting with Netscape Enterprise Server, first released in December, 1994 (soon after releasing JavaScript for browsers).[14][15] Since the mid-2000s, there has been a proliferation of server-side JavaScript implementations. node.js is one recent notable example of server-side JavaScript being used in real-world applications.[16][17]

  Adoption by Microsoft

JavaScript very quickly gained widespread success as a client-side scripting language for web pages. Microsoft introduced JavaScript support in its own web browser, Internet Explorer, in version 3.0, released in August 1996.[18][not in citation given] Microsoft's webserver, Internet Information Server, introduced support for server-side scripting in JavaScript with release 3.0 (1996). Microsoft started to promote webpage scripting using the umbrella term Dynamic HTML.

Microsoft's JavaScript implementation was later renamed JScript to avoid trademark issues. JScript added new date methods to fix the Y2K-problematic methods in JavaScript, which were based on Java's java.util.Date class.

  Standardization

In November 1996, Netscape announced that it had submitted JavaScript to Ecma International for consideration as an industry standard, and subsequent work resulted in the standardized version named ECMAScript.[19]

  Later developments

JavaScript has become one of the most popular programming languages on the web. Initially, however, many professional programmers denigrated the language because its target audience was web authors and other such "amateurs", among other reasons.[20] The advent of Ajax returned JavaScript to the spotlight and brought more professional programming attention. The result was a proliferation of comprehensive frameworks and libraries, improved JavaScript programming practices, and increased usage of JavaScript outside of web browsers, as seen by the proliferation of server-side JavaScript platforms.

In January 2009, the CommonJS project was founded with the goal of specifying a common standard library mainly for JavaScript development outside the browser.[21]

  Trademark

Today, "JavaScript" is a trademark of Oracle Corporation.[22] It is used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape Communications and current entities such as the Mozilla Foundation.[23]

  Features

The following features are common to all conforming ECMAScript implementations, unless explicitly specified otherwise.

  Imperative and structured

JavaScript supports much of the structured programming syntax from C (e.g., if statements, while loops, switch statements, etc.). One partial exception is scoping: C-style block-level scoping is not supported (instead, JavaScript has function-level scoping). JavaScript 1.7, however, supports block-level scoping with the let keyword. Like C, JavaScript makes a distinction between expressions and statements. One syntactic difference from C is automatic semicolon insertion, in which the semicolons that terminate statements can be omitted.[24]

  Dynamic

dynamic typing
As in most scripting languages, types are associated with values, not with variables. For example, a variable x could be bound to a number, then later rebound to a string. JavaScript supports various ways to test the type of an object, including duck typing.[25]
object based
JavaScript is almost entirely object-based. JavaScript objects are associative arrays, augmented with prototypes (see below). Object property names are string keys: obj.x = 10 and obj['x'] = 10 are equivalent, the dot notation being syntactic sugar. Properties and their values can be added, changed, or deleted at run-time. Most properties of an object (and those on its prototype inheritance chain) can be enumerated using a for...in loop. JavaScript has a small number of built-in objects such as Function and Date.
run-time evaluation
JavaScript includes an eval function that can execute statements provided as strings at run-time.

  Functional

first-class functions
Functions are first-class; they are objects themselves. As such, they have properties and methods, such as length and call();[26] and they can be assigned to variables, passed as arguments, returned by other functions, and manipulated like any other object.[27] Any reference to a function allows it to be invoked using the () operator.[28]
nested functions and closures
"Inner" or "nested" functions are functions defined within another function. They are created each time the outer function is invoked. In addition to that, each created function forms a lexical closure: the lexical scope of the outer function, including any constants, local variables and argument values, become part of the internal state of each inner function object, even after execution of the outer function concludes.[29]

  Prototype-based

prototypes
JavaScript uses prototypes instead of classes for inheritance. It is possible to simulate many class-based features with prototypes in JavaScript.
functions as object constructors
Functions double as object constructors along with their typical role. Prefixing a function call with new creates a new object and calls that function with its local this keyword bound to that object for that invocation. The constructor's prototype property determines the object used for the new object's internal prototype. JavaScript's built-in constructors, such as Array, also have prototypes that can be modified.
functions as methods
Unlike many object-oriented languages, there is no distinction between a function definition and a method definition. Rather, the distinction occurs during function calling; a function can be called as a method. When a function is called as a method of an object, the function's local this keyword is bound to that object for that invocation.

  Miscellaneous

run-time environment
JavaScript typically relies on a run-time environment (e.g. in a web browser) to provide objects and methods by which scripts can interact with "the outside world". In fact, it relies on the environment to provide the ability to include/import scripts (e.g. HTML <script> elements). (This is not a language feature per se, but it is common in most JavaScript implementations.)
variadic functions
An indefinite number of parameters can be passed to a function. The function can access them through formal parameters and also through the local arguments object.
array and object literals
Like many scripting languages, arrays and objects (associative arrays in other languages) can each be created with a succinct shortcut syntax. In fact, these literals form the basis of the JSON data format.
regular expressions
JavaScript also supports regular expressions in a manner similar to Perl, which provide a concise and powerful syntax for text manipulation that is more sophisticated than the built-in string functions.

  Vendor-specific extensions

JavaScript is officially managed by Mozilla Foundation, and new language features are added periodically. However, only some non-Mozilla JavaScript engines support these new features:

  • property getter and setter functions (also supported by WebKit, Opera,[30] ActionScript, and Rhino)[31]
  • conditional catch clauses
  • iterator protocol adopted from Python
  • shallow generators-coroutines also adopted from Python
  • array comprehensions and generator expressions also adopted from Python
  • proper block scope via the let keyword
  • array and object destructuring (limited form of pattern matching)
  • concise function expressions (function(args) expr)
  • ECMAScript for XML (E4X), an extension that adds native XML support to ECMAScript

  Syntax and semantics

As of 2011, the latest version of the language is JavaScript 1.8.5. It is a superset of ECMAScript (ECMA-262) Edition 3. Extensions to the language, including partial ECMAScript for XML (E4X) (ECMA-357) support and experimental features considered for inclusion into future ECMAScript editions, are documented here.[32]

  Simple examples

There is no built-in I/O functionality in JavaScript; the runtime environment provides that. In a web browser, here is the simplest "hello world" example:

alert("Hello world!");

A simple recursive function:

function factorial(n) {
    if (n === 0) {
        return 1;
    }
    return n * factorial(n - 1);
}

Anonymous function (or lambda) syntax and closure example:

function displayClosure() {
    var count = 0;
    return function () {
        return ++count;
    };
}
var inc = displayClosure();
inc(); // returns 1
inc(); // returns 2
inc(); // returns 3

Variadic function demonstration (arguments is a special variable).

function sum() {
    var i, x = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < arguments.length; ++i) {
        x += arguments[i];
    }
    return x;
}
sum(1, 2, 3); // returns 6

  More advanced example

This sample code showcases various JavaScript features.

/* Finds the lowest common multiple of two numbers */
function LCMCalculator(x, y) { // constructor function
    var checkInt = function (x) { // inner function
        if (x % 1 !== 0) {
            throw new TypeError(x + " is not an integer"); // throw an exception
        }
        return x;
    };
    this.a = checkInt(x);
    // ^ semicolons are optional
    this.b = checkInt(y);
}
// The prototype of object instances created by a constructor is
// that constructor's "prototype" property.
LCMCalculator.prototype = { // object literal
    constructor: LCMCalculator, // when reassigning a prototype, set the constructor property appropriately
    gcd: function () { // method that calculates the greatest common divisor
        // Euclidean algorithm:
        var a = Math.abs(this.a), b = Math.abs(this.b), t;
        if (a < b) {
            // swap variables
            t = b;
            b = a;
            a = t;
        }
        while (b !== 0) {
            t = b;
            b = a % b;
            a = t;
        }
        // Only need to calculate GCD once, so "redefine" this method.
        // (Actually not redefinition - it's defined on the instance itself,
        // so that this.gcd refers to this "redefinition" instead of LCMCalculator.prototype.gcd.)
        // Also, 'gcd' === "gcd", this['gcd'] === this.gcd
        this['gcd'] = function () {
            return a;
        };
        return a;
    },
    // Object property names can be specified by strings delimited by double (") or single (') quotes.
    "lcm" : function () {
        // Variable names don't collide with object properties, e.g. |lcm| is not |this.lcm|.
        // not using |this.a * this.b| to avoid FP precision issues
        var lcm = this.a / this.gcd() * this.b;
        // Only need to calculate lcm once, so "redefine" this method.
        this.lcm = function () {
            return lcm;
        };
        return lcm;
    },
    toString: function () {
        return "LCMCalculator: a = " + this.a + ", b = " + this.b;
    }
};
 
//define generic output function; this implementation only works for web browsers
function output(x) {
    document.body.appendChild(document.createTextNode(x));
    document.body.appendChild(document.createElement('br'));
}
 
// Note: Array's map() and forEach() are defined in JavaScript 1.6.
// They are used here to demonstrate JavaScript's inherent functional nature.
[[25, 55], [21, 56], [22, 58], [28, 56]].map(function (pair) { // array literal + mapping function
    return new LCMCalculator(pair[0], pair[1]);
}).sort(function (a, b) { // sort with this comparative function
    return a.lcm() - b.lcm();
}).forEach(function (obj) {
    output(obj + ", gcd = " + obj.gcd() + ", lcm = " + obj.lcm());
});

The following output should be displayed in the browser window.

LCMCalculator: a = 28, b = 56, gcd = 28, lcm = 56<br>
LCMCalculator: a = 21, b = 56, gcd = 7, lcm = 168<br>
LCMCalculator: a = 25, b = 55, gcd = 5, lcm = 275<br>
LCMCalculator: a = 22, b = 58, gcd = 2, lcm = 638<br>

  Use in web pages

The most common use of JavaScript is to write functions that are embedded in or included from HTML pages and that interact with the Document Object Model (DOM) of the page. Some simple examples of this usage are:

  • Loading new page content or submitting data to the server via AJAX without reloading the page (for example, a social network might allow the user to post status updates without leaving the page)
  • Animation of page elements, fading them in and out, resizing them, moving them, etc.
  • Interactive content, for example games, and playing audio and video
  • Validating input values of a web form to make sure that they are acceptable before being submitted to the server.
  • Transmitting information about the user's reading habits and browsing activities to various websites. Web pages frequently do this for web analytics, ad tracking, personalization or other purposes.[33]

Because JavaScript code can run locally in a user's browser (rather than on a remote server), the browser can respond to user actions quickly, making an application more responsive. Furthermore, JavaScript code can detect user actions which HTML alone cannot, such as individual keystrokes. Applications such as Gmail take advantage of this: much of the user-interface logic is written in JavaScript, and JavaScript dispatches requests for information (such as the content of an e-mail message) to the server. The wider trend of Ajax programming similarly exploits this strength.

A JavaScript engine (also known as JavaScript interpreter or JavaScript implementation) is an interpreter that interprets JavaScript source code and executes the script accordingly. The first JavaScript engine was created by Brendan Eich at Netscape Communications Corporation, for the Netscape Navigator web browser. The engine, code-named SpiderMonkey, is implemented in C. It has since been updated (in JavaScript 1.5) to conform to ECMA-262 Edition 3. The Rhino engine, created primarily by Norris Boyd (formerly of Netscape; now at Google) is a JavaScript implementation in Java. Rhino, like SpiderMonkey, is ECMA-262 Edition 3 compliant.

A web browser is by far the most common host environment for JavaScript. Web browsers typically use the public API to create "host objects" responsible for reflecting the Document Object Model (DOM) into JavaScript. The web server is another common application of the engine. A JavaScript webserver would expose host objects representing an HTTP request and response objects, which a JavaScript program could then manipulate to dynamically generate web pages.

Because JavaScript is the only language that the most popular browsers share support for, it has become a target language for many frameworks in other languages, even though JavaScript was never intended to be such a language.[34] Despite the performance limitations inherent to its dynamic nature, the increasing speed of JavaScript engines has made the language a surprisingly feasible compilation target.

  Example script

Below is a minimal example of a standards-conforming web page containing JavaScript (using HTML 4.01 syntax) and the DOM:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
  <head><title>simple page</title></head>
  <body>
    <h1 id="header">This is JavaScript1</h1>
    <script type="text/javascript">
      document.body.appendChild(document.createTextNode('Hello World!'));
      var h1 = document.getElementById("header"); // holds a reference to the <h1> tag
      h1 = document.getElementsByTagName("h1")[0]; // accessing the same <h1> element
    </script>
    <noscript>Your browser either does not support JavaScript, or has JavaScript turned off.</noscript>
  </body>
</html>

  Compatibility considerations

Because JavaScript runs in widely varying environments, an important part of testing and debugging is to test and verify that the JavaScript works across multiple browsers.

The DOM interfaces for manipulating web pages are not part of the ECMAScript standard, or of JavaScript itself. Officially, the DOM interfaces are defined by a separate standardization effort by the W3C; in practice, browser implementations differ from the standards and from each other, and not all browsers execute JavaScript.

To deal with these differences, JavaScript authors can attempt to write standards-compliant code which will also be executed correctly by most browsers; failing that, they can write code that checks for the presence of certain browser features and behaves differently if they are not available.[35] In some cases, two browsers may both implement a feature but with different behavior, and authors may find it practical to detect what browser is running and change their script's behavior to match.[36][37] Programmers may also use libraries or toolkits which take browser differences into account.

Furthermore, scripts may not work for some users. For example, a user may:

  • use an old or rare browser with incomplete or unusual DOM support,
  • use a PDA or mobile phone browser which cannot execute JavaScript,
  • have JavaScript execution disabled as a security precaution,
  • use a speech browser due to, for example, a visual disability.

To support these users, web authors can try to create pages which degrade gracefully on user agents (browsers) which do not support the page's JavaScript. In particular, the page should remain usable albeit without the extra features that the JavaScript would have added. An alternative approach that many find preferable is to first author content using basic technologies that work in all browsers, then enhance the content for users that have JavaScript enabled. This is known as progressive enhancement.

  Accessibility

Assuming that the user has not disabled its execution, client-side web JavaScript should be written to enhance the experiences of visitors with visual or physical disabilities, and certainly should avoid denying information to these visitors.[38]

Screen readers, used by the blind and partially sighted, can be JavaScript-aware and so may access and read the page DOM after the script has altered it. The HTML should be as concise, navigable and semantically rich as possible whether the scripts have run or not. JavaScript should not be totally reliant on mouse-specific events so as to deny its benefits to users who either cannot use a mouse or who choose to favor the keyboard for whatever reason. Equally, although hyperlinks and webforms can be navigated and operated from the keyboard, accessible JavaScript should not require keyboard events either. There are device-independent events such as onfocus and onchange that are preferable in most cases.[38]

JavaScript should not be used in a way that is confusing or disorienting to any web user. For example, using script to alter or disable the normal functionality of the browser, such as by changing the way the back-button or the refresh event work, is usually best avoided. Equally, triggering events that the user may not be aware of reduces the user's sense of control as do unexpected scripted changes to the page content.[39]

Often the process of making a complex web page as accessible as possible becomes a nontrivial problem where issues become matters of debate and opinion, and where compromises are necessary in the end. However, user agents and assistive technologies are constantly evolving and new guidelines and relevant information are continually being published on the web.[38]

  Security

JavaScript and the DOM provide the potential for malicious authors to deliver scripts to run on a client computer via the web. Browser authors contain this risk using two restrictions. First, scripts run in a sandbox in which they can only perform web-related actions, not general-purpose programming tasks like creating files. Second, scripts are constrained by the same origin policy: scripts from one web site do not have access to information such as usernames, passwords, or cookies sent to another site. Most JavaScript-related security bugs are breaches of either the same origin policy or the sandbox.

  Cross-site vulnerabilities

A common JavaScript-related security problem is cross-site scripting, or XSS, a violation of the same-origin policy. XSS vulnerabilities occur when an attacker is able to cause a target web site, such as an online banking website, to include a malicious script in the webpage presented to a victim. The script in this example can then access the banking application with the privileges of the victim, potentially disclosing secret information or transferring money without the victim's authorization. A solution to XSS vulnerabilities is to use HTML escaping whenever displaying untrusted data.

Some browsers include partial protection against reflected XSS attacks, in which the attacker provides a URL including malicious script. However, even users of those browsers are vulnerable to other XSS attacks, such as those where the malicious code is stored in a database. Only correct design of Web applications on the server side can fully prevent XSS.

XSS vulnerabilities can also occur because of implementation mistakes by browser authors.[40]

Another cross-site vulnerability is cross-site request forgery or CSRF. In CSRF, code on an attacker's site tricks the victim's browser into taking actions the user didn't intend at a target site (like transferring money at a bank). It works because, if the target site relies only on cookies to authenticate requests, then requests initiated by code on the attacker's site will carry the same legitimate login credentials as requests initiated by the user. In general, the solution to CSRF is to require an authentication value in a hidden form field, and not only in the cookies, to authenticate any request that might have lasting effects. Checking the HTTP Referrer header can also help.

"JavaScript hijacking" is a type of CSRF attack in which a <script> tag on an attacker's site exploits a page on the victim's site that returns private information such as JSON or JavaScript. Possible solutions include:

  • requiring an authentication token in the POST and GET parameters for any response that returns private information
  • using POST and never GET for requests that return private information

  Misplaced trust in the client

Developers of client-server applications must recognize that untrusted clients may be under the control of attackers. Thus any secret embedded in JavaScript could be extracted by a determined adversary, and the application author cannot assume that his JavaScript runs as intended, or at all. Some implications:

  • Web site authors cannot perfectly conceal how their JavaScript operates, because the code is sent to the client, and obfuscated code can be reverse-engineered.
  • JavaScript form validation only provides convenience for users, not security. If a site verifies that the user agreed to its terms of service, or filters invalid characters out of fields that should only contain numbers, it must do so on the server, not only the client.
  • Scripts can be selectively disabled, so JavaScript can't be relied on to prevent operations such as "save image".[41]
  • It is extremely bad practice to embed sensitive information such as passwords in JavaScript because it can be extracted by an attacker.

  Browser and plugin coding errors

JavaScript provides an interface to a wide range of browser capabilities, some of which may have flaws such as buffer overflows. These flaws can allow attackers to write scripts which would run any code they wish on the user's system.

These flaws have affected major browsers including Firefox,[42] Internet Explorer,[43] and Safari.[44]

Plugins, such as video players, Adobe Flash, and the wide range of ActiveX controls enabled by default in Microsoft Internet Explorer, may also have flaws exploitable via JavaScript, and such flaws have been exploited in the past.[45][46]

In Windows Vista, Microsoft has attempted to contain the risks of bugs such as buffer overflows by running the Internet Explorer process with limited privileges.[47] Google Chrome similarly limits page renderers in its own "sandbox".

  Sandbox implementation errors

Web browsers are capable of running JavaScript outside of the sandbox, with the privileges necessary to, for example, create or delete files. Of course, such privileges aren't meant to be granted to code from the web.

Incorrectly granting privileges to JavaScript from the web has played a role in vulnerabilities in both Internet Explorer[48] and Firefox.[49] In Windows XP Service Pack 2, Microsoft demoted JScript's privileges in Internet Explorer.[50]

Microsoft Windows allows JavaScript source files on a computer's hard drive to be launched as general-purpose, non-sandboxed programs. This makes JavaScript (like VBScript) a theoretically viable vector for a Trojan horse, although JavaScript Trojan horses are uncommon in practice.[51] (See Windows Script Host.)

  Uses outside web pages

In addition to web browsers and servers, JavaScript interpreters are embedded in a number of tools. Each of these applications provides its own object model which provides access to the host environment, with the core JavaScript language remaining mostly the same in each application.

  Embedded scripting language

  Scripting engine

  • Microsoft's Active Scripting technology supports JScript as a scripting language.[60]
  • The Java programming language, in version SE 6 (JDK 1.6), introduced the javax.script package, including a JavaScript implementation based on Mozilla Rhino. Thus, Java applications can host scripts that access the application's variables and objects, much like web browsers host scripts that access the browser's Document Object Model (DOM) for a webpage.[61][62]
  • The Qt C++ toolkit includes a QtScript module to interpret JavaScript, analogous to Java's javax.script package.[63]
  • JSDB (JavaScript for Databases) is an open-source JavaScript shell for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Unix, which extends the Mozilla JavaScript engine with file, database, email, and network objects.
  • jslibs is an open-source JavaScript shell for Windows and Linux which extends the Mozilla JavaScript engine. It has the ability to call functions in commonly used libraries like NSPR, SQLite, libTomCrypt, OpenGL, OpenAL, and librsvg.
  • Late Night Software's JavaScript OSA (aka JavaScript for OSA, or JSOSA) is a freeware alternative to AppleScript for Mac OS X. It is based on the Mozilla 1.5 JavaScript implementation, with the addition of a MacOS object for interaction with the operating system and third-party applications.[64]

  Application platform

  • ActionScript, the programming language used in Adobe Flash, is another implementation of the ECMAScript standard.
  • The Mozilla platform, which underlies Firefox, Thunderbird, and some other web browsers, uses JavaScript to implement the graphical user interface (GUI) of its various products.
  • Adobe Integrated Runtime is a JavaScript runtime that allows developers to create desktop applications.
  • myNFC.org is a JavaScript based framework that allows developers to create applications for smart phones.
  • webOS uses the WebKit implementation of JavaScript in its SDK to allow developers to create stand-alone applications solely in JavaScript.
  • CA, Inc.'s AutoShell cross-application scripting environment is built on JavaScript/SpiderMonkey with preprocessor like extensions for command definitions and custom classes for various system related tasks like file i/o, operation system command invocation and redirection and COM scripting.
  • GNOME Shell, the shell for the GNOME 3 desktop environment.[65] The Seed,[66] Gjs (from Gnome), and Kjsembed[67] (from KDE) packages are aimed to utilize these[clarification needed] needs. [68][69]
  • Qt Quick's markup language (QML) is using JavaScript for the application logic, and the declarative syntax is JavaScript-like. QML has been available since Qt 4.7.

  Development tools

Within JavaScript, access to a debugger becomes invaluable when developing large, non-trivial programs. Because there can be implementation differences between the various browsers (particularly within the Document Object Model), it is useful to have access to a debugger for each of the browsers that a web application targets.[70]

Script debuggers are available for Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, and Opera.[71]

Three debuggers are available for Internet Explorer: Microsoft Visual Studio is the richest of the three, closely followed by Microsoft Script Editor (a component of Microsoft Office),[72] and finally the free Microsoft Script Debugger which is far more basic than the other two. The free Microsoft Visual Web Developer Express provides a limited version of the JavaScript debugging functionality in Microsoft Visual Studio. Internet Explorer has included developer tools since version 8 (reached by pressing the F12 key).

Web applications within Firefox can be debugged using the Firebug add-on, or the older Venkman debugger. Firefox also has a simpler built-in Error Console, which logs and evaluates JavaScript. It also logs CSS errors and warnings.

Opera includes a set of tools called Dragonfly.[73]

WebKit's Web Inspector includes a JavaScript debugger[74] used in Safari, along with a modified version in Google Chrome.

Some debugging aids are themselves written in JavaScript and built to run on the Web. An example is the program JSLint, developed by Douglas Crockford, currently senior JavaScript architect at Yahoo! who has written extensively on the language. JSLint scans JavaScript code for conformance to a set of standards and guidelines. Web development bookmarklets and Firebug Lite provide variations on the idea of the cross-browser JavaScript console.

MiniME is an open-source JavaScript minifier, obfuscator, and code-checking tool for the .NET platform.

Pretty Diff is an algorithmic diff tool written in JavaScript for comparing white space compressed JavaScript, and several other languages, to human readable forms of similar code.

SplineTech JavaScript Debugger PRO is an independent standalone JavaScript Debugging tool for Internet Explorer.

  Versions

The following table is based on a history compilation forum post,[75] JQuery author's blog post,[76] and Microsoft's JScript version information webpage.[77]

Version Release date Equivalent to Netscape
Navigator
Mozilla
Firefox
Internet
Explorer
Opera Safari Google
Chrome
1.0 March 1996 2.0 3.0
1.1 August 1996 3.0
1.2 June 1997 4.0-4.05
1.3 October 1998 ECMA-262 1st + 2nd edition 4.06-4.7x 4.0
1.4 Netscape
Server
1.5 November 2000 ECMA-262 3rd edition 6.0 1.0 5.5 (JScript 5.5),
6 (JScript 5.6),
7 (JScript 5.7),
8 (JScript 5.8)
6.0 3.0-5 1.0-10.0.666
1.6 November 2005 1.5 + array extras + array and string generics + E4X 1.5
1.7 October 2006 1.6 + Pythonic generators + iterators + let 2.0
1.8 June 2008 1.7 + generator expressions + expression closures 3.0 11.50
1.8.1 1.8 + native JSON support + minor updates 3.5
1.8.2 June 22, 2009 1.8.1 + minor updates 3.6
1.8.5 July 27, 2010 1.8.2 + ECMAScript 5 compliance 4 9 11.60

  Related languages and features

JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation, is a general-purpose data interchange format that is defined as a subset of JavaScript's literal syntax.

jQuery and Prototype are popular JavaScript libraries designed to simplify DOM-oriented client-side HTML scripting.

Mozilla browsers currently support LiveConnect, a feature that allows JavaScript and Java to intercommunicate on the web. However, Mozilla-specific support for LiveConnect is scheduled to be phased out in the future in favor of passing on the LiveConnect handling via NPAPI to the Java 1.6+ plug-in (not yet supported on the Mac as of March 2010).[78] Most browser inspection tools, such as Firebug in Firefox, include JavaScript interpreters that can act on the visible page's DOM.

  Use as an intermediate language

As JavaScript is the most widely supported programming language you can run within web browsers, it has become an intermediate language for other languages to target. This has included ports of existing languages, and the creation of new ones. Some of these include:

  • Objective-J, a superset of JavaScript that compiles to standard JavaScript. It adds traditional inheritance and Smalltalk/Objective-C style dynamic dispatch and optional pseudo-static typing to JavaScript.
  • Processing.js, a JavaScript port of Processing, a programming language designed to write visualizations, images, and interactive content. It allows web browsers to display animations, visual applications, games and other graphical rich content without the need for a Java applet or Flash plugin.
  • CoffeeScript, an alternate syntax for JavaScript intended to be more concise and readable and adding features like array comprehensions (also available on JavaScript since version 1.7[79]) and pattern matching. Like Objective-J, it compiles to JavaScript. Ruby and Python have been cited as influential on CoffeeScript syntax.
  • Quby, a proprietary sand-boxed Ruby-like language by PlayMyCode used for building browser games.
  • OMeta, a functional language featuring pattern matching.
  • Phype, an open source PHP to JavaScript compiler.
  • TIScript, a superset of JavaScript that adds classes, namespaces, and lambda expressions.
  • ClojureScript, a Clojure to JavaScript compiler which is compatible with the advanced compilation mode of the Google Closure optimizing compiler.
  • Parenscript, a Common Lisp library that can translate into JavaScript both well-circumscribed Common Lisp code, and JavaScript rendered as "inlined" S-expressions in Common Lisp source code.
  • Py2JS, a subset of Python
  • Dart is supported by Google, and compiles to its own native language in addition to a JavaScript based one
  • Whalesong, a Racket-to-JavaScript compiler.

  JavaScript and Java

A common misconception is that JavaScript is similar or closely related to Java. It is true that both have a C-like syntax, the C language being their most immediate common ancestor language. They are both object-oriented, typically sandboxed (when used inside a browser), and are widely used in client-side Web applications. In addition, JavaScript was designed with Java's syntax and standard library in mind. In particular, all Java keywords were reserved in original JavaScript, JavaScript's standard library follows Java's naming conventions, and JavaScript's Math and Date objects are based on classes from Java 1.0.[18]

JS had to “look like Java” only less so, [it had to] be Java’s dumb kid brother or boy-hostage sidekick. Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened

However, the similarities end there. Java has static typing; JavaScript's typing is dynamic (meaning a variable can hold an object of any type and cannot be restricted). JavaScript is weakly typed ('0.0000' == 0, 0 == "", false == "", etc.) while Java is more strongly typed. Java is loaded from compiled bytecode; JavaScript is loaded as human-readable source code. Java's objects are class-based; JavaScript's are prototype-based. JavaScript also has many functional features based on the Scheme language.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b Douglas Crockford (flv). Douglas Crockford on Functional JavaScript (Tech talk). blinkx. Event occurs at 2:49. http://www.blinkx.com/video/douglas-crockford-on-functional-javascript/xscZz8XhfuNQ_aaVuyUB2A. "[JavaScript] is also coincidentally the world's most popular functional programming language. JavaScript is and has always been, at least since [version] 1.2, a functional programming language." 
  2. ^ https://developer.mozilla.org/en/JavaScript/New_in_JavaScript/1.8.5
  3. ^ RFC 4329
  4. ^ "System-Declared Uniform Type Identifiers". Mac OS X Reference Library. Apple Inc.. http://developer.apple.com/mac/library/documentation/Miscellaneous/Reference/UTIRef/Articles/System-DeclaredUniformTypeIdentifiers.html. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  5. ^ "ECMAScript Language Specification". http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-262.pdf. 
  6. ^ The Little JavaScripter shows the relationship with Scheme in more detail.
  7. ^ "ECMAScript Language Overview" (PDF). 2007-10-23. pp. 4. http://www.ecmascript.org/es4/spec/overview.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  8. ^ wikinews:Wikinews:Story preparation/Interview with Robert Cailliau
  9. ^ Severance, Charles (February 2012). "Java Script: Designing a Language in 10 Days". Computer (IEEE Computer Society) 45 (2): 7-8. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/abs/html/mags/co/2012/02/mco2012020007.htm. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Press release announcing JavaScript, "Netscape and Sun announce Javascript", PR Newswire, December 4, 1995
  11. ^ "TechVision: Innovators of the Net: Brendan Eich and JavaScript". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-02-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080208124612/http://wp.netscape.com/comprod/columns/techvision/innovators_be.html. Retrieved 2010-06-14. 
  12. ^ "Programming languages used on the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW)". Webdevelopersnotes.com. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/basics/languages_on_the_internet.php3. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  13. ^ "O'Reilly - Safari Books Online - 0596101996 - JavaScript: The Definitive Guide, 5th Edition". Safari.oreilly.com. http://safari.oreilly.com/0596101996/jscript5-CHP-1. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  14. ^ "Server-Side JavaScript Guide". Netscape Communications Corporation. 1998. http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19957-01/816-6411-10/getstart.htm. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  15. ^ Mike Morgan (1996). "Using Netscape™ LiveWire™, Special Edition". Que. http://vampire.rulez.org/onlinedoc/book/NetscapeLiveWire/ch6.htm. 
  16. ^ Template:Title = Server-Side Javascript: Back With a Vengeance
  17. ^ Template:Date = no date
  18. ^ a b Brendan Eich (3 April 2008). "Popularity". http://brendaneich.com/2008/04/popularity/. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  19. ^ ECMAScript 3rd Edition specification
  20. ^ "JavaScript: The World's Most Misunderstood Programming Language". Crockford.com. http://www.crockford.com/javascript/javascript.html. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  21. ^ Kris Kowal (1 December 2009). "CommonJS effort sets JavaScript on path for world domination". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Publications. http://arstechnica.com/web/news/2009/12/commonjs-effort-sets-javascript-on-path-for-world-domination.ars. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  22. ^ "USPTO Copyright entry #75026640". USPTO. http://tarr.uspto.gov/servlet/tarr?regser=serial&entry=75026640. 
  23. ^ "Sun Trademarks". Sun Microsystems. http://www.sun.com/suntrademarks/. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  24. ^ Flanagan 2006, p. 16.
  25. ^ Flanagan 2006, pp. 176–178.
  26. ^ Flanagan 2006, pp. 137–139.
  27. ^ Flanagan 2006, p. 134.
  28. ^ Flanagan 2006, p. 81.
  29. ^ Flanagan 2006, p. 141.
  30. ^ Robert Nyman, Getters And Setters With JavaScript – Code Samples And Demos, published 29 May 2009, accessed 2 January 2010.
  31. ^ John Resig, JavaScript Getters and Setters, 18 July 2007, accessed 2 January 2010
  32. ^ "MDN - About this Reference". Developer.mozilla.org. 2008-08-31. https://developer.mozilla.org/en/JavaScript/Reference/About#JavaScript_history. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  33. ^ "JavaScript tracking - Piwik". Piwik. http://piwik.org/docs/javascript-tracking/. Retrieved 31 March 2012 17:56 (UTC). 
  34. ^ Hamilton, Naomi (2008-06-31). "The A-Z of Programming Languages: JavaScript". computerworld.com.au. http://www.computerworld.com.au/article/255293/-z_programming_languages_javascript. 
  35. ^ Peter-Paul Koch, Object detection
  36. ^ Peter-Paul Koch, Mission Impossible - mouse position
  37. ^ Peter-Paul Koch, Browser detect
  38. ^ a b c Flanagan 2006, pp. 262–263.
  39. ^ "Creating Accessible JavaScript". WebAIM. http://www.webaim.org/techniques/javascript/. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  40. ^ MozillaZine, Mozilla Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerability Reported and Fixed
  41. ^ Right-click "protection"? Forget about it. 2008-06-17. ISSN 1797-1993. http://blog.anta.net/2008/06/17/right-click-%e2%80%9cprotection%e2%80%9d-forget-about-it/. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  42. ^ Mozilla Corporation, Buffer overflow in crypto.signText()
  43. ^ Paul Festa, CNet, Buffer-overflow bug in IE
  44. ^ SecurityTracker.com, Apple Safari JavaScript Buffer Overflow Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and HTTP Redirect Bug Lets Remote Users Access Files
  45. ^ SecurityFocus, Microsoft WebViewFolderIcon ActiveX Control Buffer Overflow Vulnerability
  46. ^ Fusion Authority, Macromedia Flash ActiveX Buffer Overflow
  47. ^ Mike Friedman, Protected Mode in Vista IE7
  48. ^ US CERT, Vulnerability Note VU#713878: Microsoft Internet Explorer does not properly validate source of redirected frame
  49. ^ Mozilla Foundation, Mozilla Foundation Security Advisory 2005-41: Privilege escalation via DOM property overrides
  50. ^ Microsoft Corporation, Changes to Functionality in Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2: Part 5: Enhanced Browsing Security
  51. ^ For one example of a rare JavaScript Trojan Horse, see Symantec Corporation, JS.Seeker.K
  52. ^ "JavaScript for Acrobat". http://www.adobe.com/devnet/acrobat/javascript.html. Retrieved 2009-08-18. 
  53. ^ "Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV". http://www.pronto.philips.com/prontoscript/index.cfm?id=1422. 
  54. ^ "Best Of All Worlds". unity3d.com. http://unity3d.com/unity/features/scripting. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  55. ^ "Technical Specification". dxstudio.com. http://www.dxstudio.com/features_tech.aspx. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  56. ^ THINK! The Maxwell Render Resourcer Center, Scripting References
  57. ^ Google Apps Script, Welcome to Google Apps Script
  58. ^ "ChatZilla! Frequently Asked Questions - 4.5. How do I write scripts?". Hacksrus.com. http://chatzilla.hacksrus.com/faq/#scripts. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  59. ^ "http://unborn.ludost.net/xcdscript/". http://unborn.ludost.net/xcdscript/. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  60. ^ Version Information (JavaScript)
  61. ^ "javax.script release notes". Java.sun.com. http://java.sun.com/javase/6/webnotes/index.html#scripting. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  62. ^ Flanagan 2006, pp. 214 et seq.
  63. ^ Nokia Corporation, QtScript Module
  64. ^ Open Scripting Architecture
  65. ^ "Behind the Scenes with Owen Taylor". The GNOME Journal. http://gnomejournal.org/article/74/behind-the-scenes-with-owen-taylor. Retrieved 2010-01-23. 
  66. ^ Devel.akbkhome.com
  67. ^ Xmelegance.org
  68. ^ Gjs Links - "code in gnome-shell" item
  69. ^ git.gnome.org/browse/gnome-shell/tree/js - location of gnome-shell JavaScript code in git.gnome.org repository
  70. ^ "Advanced Debugging With JavaScript". alistapart.com. 2009-02-03. http://www.alistapart.com/articles/advanced-debugging-with-javascript/. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  71. ^ "The JavaScript Debugging Console". javascript.about.com. 2010-05-28. http://javascript.about.com/od/problemsolving/ig/JavaScript-Debugging/. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  72. ^ JScript development in Microsoft Office 11 (MS InfoPath 2003)
  73. ^ "Opera DragonFly". Opera Software. http://www.opera.com/dragonfly/. 
  74. ^ "Introducing Drosera - Surfin' Safari". Webkit.org. 2006-06-28. http://webkit.org/blog/61/introducing-drosera/. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  75. ^ "JavaScript - JScript - ECMAScript version history". Webmasterworld.com. http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum91/68.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  76. ^ John Resig. "Versions of JavaScript". Ejohn.org. http://ejohn.org/blog/versions-of-javascript. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  77. ^ "Version Information (JScript)". Msdn.microsoft.com. http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/script56/html/js56jsoriversioninformation.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  78. ^ Java.sun.com
  79. ^ New in JavaScript 1.7
  80. ^ Zawinski, Jamie. "Every day I learn something new... and stupid (comment by Brendan Eich)". http://www.jwz.org/blog/2010/10/every-day-i-learn-something-new-and-stupid/#comment-1021. Retrieved 4 May 2012. 

  Further reading

  • Bhangal, Sham; Jankowski, Tomasz (2003). Foundation Web Design: Essential HTML, JavaScript, CSS, PhotoShop, Fireworks, and Flash. APress L. P.. ISBN 1-59059-152-6. 
  • Burns, Joe; Growney, Andree S. (2001). JavaScript Goodies. Pearson Education. ISBN 0-7897-2612-2. 
  • Duffy, Scott (2003). How to do Everything with JavaScript. Osborne. ISBN 0-07-222887-3. 
  • Flanagan, David; Ferguson, Paula (2002). JavaScript: The Definitive Guide (4th ed.). O'Reilly & Associates. ISBN 0-596-00048-0. 
  • Flanagan, David (2006). JavaScript: The Definitive Guide (5th ed.). O'Reilly & Associates. ISBN 0-596-10199-6. 
  • Goodman, Danny; Markel, Scott (2003). JavaScript and DHTML Cookbook. O'Reilly & Associates. ISBN 0-596-00467-2. 
  • Goodman, Danny; Eich, Brendan (2001). JavaScript Bible. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-7645-3342-8. 
  • Harris, Andy (2001). JavaScript Programming for the Absolute Beginner. Premier Press. ISBN 0-7615-3410-5. 
  • Heinle, Nick; Koman, Richard (1997). Designing with JavaScript. O'Reilly & Associates. ISBN 1-56592-300-6. 
  • McDuffie, Tina Spain (2003). JavaScript Concepts & Techniques: Programming Interactive Web Sites. Franklin, Beedle & Associates. ISBN 1-887902-69-4. 
  • McFarlane, Nigel (2003). Rapid Application Development with Mozilla. Prentice Hall Professional Technical References. ISBN 0-13-142343-6. 
  • Powell, Thomas A.; Schneider, Fritz (2001). JavaScript: The Complete Reference. McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN 0-07-219127-9. 
  • Shelly, Gary B.; Cashman, Thomas J.; Dorin, William J.; Quasney, Jeffrey J. (2000). JavaScript: Complete Concepts and Techniques. Cambridge: Course Technology. ISBN 0-7895-6233-2. 
  • Watt, Andrew H.; Watt, Jonathan A.; Simon, Jinjer L. (2002). Teach Yourself JavaScript in 21 Days. Pearson Education. ISBN 0-672-32297-8. 
  • Vander Veer, Emily A. (2004). JavaScript For Dummies (4th ed.). Wiley Pub.. ISBN 0-7645-7659-3. 

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