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définition - Jolly_Roger

Jolly Roger (n.)

1.a flag usually bearing a white skull and crossbones on a black background; indicates a pirate ship

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Jolly_Roger

Jolly Roger (n.)

black flag, blackjack, pirate flag

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dictionnaire analogique

Wikipedia

Jolly Roger

                   
  The traditional "Jolly Roger" of piracy.

The Jolly Roger is any of various flags flown to identify a ship's crew as pirates. The flag most commonly identified as the Jolly Roger today is the skull and crossbones, a flag consisting of a human skull above two long bones set in an x-mark arrangement on a black field. This design was used by several pirates, including Captains Edward England and John Taylor.[1] Some Jolly Roger flags also include an hourglass, another common symbol representing death in 17th- and 18th-century Europe. Despite its prominence in popular culture, plain black flags were often employed by most pirates in the 17th-18th century.[2] Historically, the flag was flown to frighten pirates' victims into surrendering without a fight, since it conveyed the message that the attackers were outlaws who would not consider themselves bound by the usual rules of engagement—and might, therefore, slaughter those they defeated (since captured pirates were usually hanged, they did not have much to gain by asking quarter if defeated). The same message was sometimes conveyed by a red flag, as discussed below.

Since the decline of piracy, various military units have used the Jolly Roger, usually in skull-and-crossbones design, as a unit identification insignia or a victory flag to ascribe to themselves the proverbial ferocity and toughness of pirates. In a non-naval context the skull and crossbones motif has additional meanings, for example, to signify a hazard such as poison.

Contents

  Origins

The origin of the pirate flag has been lost. It is thought that pirates originally used a red flag, which was also common in naval warfare, to signal that no quarter would be given. This red flag was called Joli Rouge (pretty red) by the French, and may have been corrupted into English as Jolly Roger. From the red flag it seems that individual pirates began to develop their own personal flags in order to terrify their foes into a quick surrender. In contrast with the well known red flag, they used the black flag of quarantine and disease as the base, with the universal symbol for death, the skull and bones, and modified it to suit their individual tastes. The skull and bones was also used in captains' logbooks to indicate the death of a sailor.

Not everyone agrees on this. Some historians[who?] think the term Jolly Roger is more likely a reference to the English use of 'Roger' as a term for fornication. Stud bulls in England were commonly named Roger. This implied that if the victim did not surrender, they would be 'Rogered'.

A third possibility is that Jolly Roger derived from 'Old Roger' as a term for the devil.

  Term

The name "Jolly Roger" goes back to at least Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates, published in Britain in 1724.[3]

Johnson specifically cites two pirates as having named their flag "Jolly Roger": Bartholomew Roberts in June, 1721[4] and Francis Spriggs in December 1723.[5] While Spriggs and Roberts used the same name for their flags, their flag designs were quite different, suggesting that already "Jolly Roger" was a generic term for black pirate flags rather than a name for any single specific design. Neither Spriggs' nor Roberts' Jolly Roger consisted of a skull and crossbones.[6]

Richard Hawkins, captured by pirates in 1724, reported that the pirates had a black flag bearing the figure of a skeleton stabbing a heart with a spear, which they named "Jolly Roger".[7]

Despite this tale, it is assumed by most that the name Jolly Roger comes from the French words joli rouge, meaning "pretty red" and referring to a plain red flag which was flown to indicate that the ship would fight to the death, with no quarter given or expected.[8] During the Elizabethan era "Roger" was a slang term for beggars and vagrants who "pretended scholarship."[9] "Sea Beggars" had been a popular name for Dutch privateers since the 16th century. Another theory states that "Jolly Roger" is an English corruption of "Ali Raja," supposedly a 17th century Tamil pirate. Yet another theory is that it was taken from a nickname for the devil, "Old Roger".[10] The "jolly" appellation may be derived from the apparent grin of a skull.

  Design

The first record of the skull-and-crossbones design being used by pirates is found in a December 6, 1687 entry in a log book held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France. The entry describes pirates using the flag, not on a ship but on land.[11]

"And we put down our white flag, and raised a red flag with a Skull head on it and two crossed bones (all in white and in the middle of the flag), and then we marched on."

  1725 engraving of Stede Bonnet with a Jolly Roger in Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates.

17th and 18th century colonial governors usually required privateers to fly a specific version of the British flag, the 1606 Union Jack with a white crest in the middle, also distinguishing them from naval vessels.[12] Before this time, British privateers such as Sir Henry Morgan sailed under English colours.[7]

Black flags are known to have been used by pirates at least five years before the name "Jolly Roger" became popularized. Contemporary accounts show Captain Martel's pirates using a black flag in 1716,[13] Edward Teach, Charles Vane, and Richard Worley in 1718,[14] and Howell Davis in 1719.[15] An even earlier use of a black flag with skull, crossbones, and hourglass is attributed to pirate captain Emanuel Wynn in 1700, according to a wide variety of secondary sources.[16] Reportedly, these secondary sources are based on the account of Captain John Cranby of the HMS Poole and are verified at the London Public Record Office.

With the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714, many privateers turned to piracy. They still used red and black flags, but now they decorated them with their own designs. Edward England, for example, flew three different flags: from his mainmast the black flag depicted above; from his foremast a red version of the same; and from his ensign staff the English National flag.

Just as variations on the Jolly Roger’s design existed, red flags sometimes incorporated yellow stripes or images symbolic of death.[10] Colored pennants and ribbons could also be used alongside flags.

While pirates used the red, or bloody, flag as well as black flags, there was a distinction between the two. In the mid-18th century, Captain Richard Hawkins confirmed that pirates gave quarter beneath the black flag, while no quarter was given beneath the red flag.[7]

  Jolly Roger gallery

The gallery below showing pirate flags in use from 1693 (Thomas Tew's) to 1724 (Edward Low's) appears in multiple extant works on the history of piracy.[17] All the secondary sources cited in the gallery below are in agreement except as to the background color of Every's flag.


  Other Jolly Rogers

Sources exist describing the Jolly Rogers of other pirates than the ones above; also, the pirates described above sometimes used other Jolly Rogers than those shown above. However, no pictures of these alternate Jolly Rogers are easily located.

  • John Phillips. At the hanging of two of John Phillips' pirates, the Boston News-Letter reported "At one end of the gallows was their own dark flag, in the middle of which an anatomy, and at one side of it a dart in the heart, with drops of blood proceeding from it; and on the other side an hour-glass."[31]
  • Edward Low. Low used at least two other flags besides his famous red skeleton. One was "a white Skeliton in the Middle of it, with a Dart in one Hand striking bleeding Heart, and in the other, an Hour-Glass."[32] The other was described by George Roberts, a prisoner of Low, as a call to council among Low's ships: "a green silk flag with a yellow figure of a man blowing a trumpet on it."[33]
  • Francis Spriggs is reported to have flown a Jolly Roger identical to one of Low's, from whom he had deserted: "a white Skeliton in the Middle of it, with a Dart in one Hand striking bleeding Heart, and in the other, an Hour-Glass."[32]
  • Walter Kennedy. The Jolly Roger flag pictured above for Kennedy was flown at his ensign staff, i.e. at the stern of his ship. Kennedy also flew a jack (at the bow of the ship) and a pennant (a long narrow flag flown from the top of a mast). Both Kennedy's jack and his pennant had "only the head and cross bones."[34]
  • Florida Strait pirates. On May 2, 1822, the Massachusetts brigantine Belvidere fended off an attack by a pirate schooner in the Florida Strait. The pirates "hoisted a red flag with death's head and cross under it." Neither the pirate schooner's name nor her captain was identified by the Belvidere.[35]
  • In 1780 a pirate flag was captured in battle off the North African coast by Lt Richard Curry, who later became an admiral. The flag is red with a yellow skull and crossbones.[36]
  • In 1783, William Falconer reported that the "[t]he colours usually displayed by pirates are laid to be a black field, with a death's head, a battle-axe and hour-glass," but does not state which pirate or pirates allegedly showed this device.[37]

  Use in practice

  The Jolly Roger raised in an illustration for Gilbert and Sullivan's The Pirates of Penzance

Pirates did not fly the Jolly Roger at all times. Like other vessels, pirate ships usually stocked a variety of different flags, and would normally fly false colors or no colors until they had their prey within firing range.[38] When the pirates' intended victim was within range, the Jolly Roger would be raised, often simultaneously with a warning shot.

The flag was probably intended as communication of the pirates' identity, which may have given target ships an opportunity to change their mind and surrender without a fight. For example in June 1720 when Bartholomew Roberts sailed into the harbour at Trepassey, Newfoundland with black flags flying, the crews of all 22 vessels in the harbour abandoned them in panic.[39] If a ship then decided to resist, the Jolly Roger was taken down and a red flag was flown, indicating that the pirates intended to take the ship by force and without mercy. Richard Hawkins reports that "When they fight under Jolly Roger, they give quarter, which they do not when they fight under the red or bloody flag."[40]

In this view of models, it was important for a prey ship to know that its assailant was a pirate, and not a privateer or government vessel, as the latter two generally had to abide by a rule that if a crew resisted, but then surrendered, it could not be executed:

An angry pirate therefore posed a greater danger to merchant ships than an angry Spanish coast guard or privateer vessel. Because of this, although, like pirate ships, Spanish coast guard vessels and privateers were almost always stronger than the merchant ships they attacked, merchant ships may have been more willing to attempt resisting these "legitimate" attackers than their piratical counterparts. To achieve their goal of taking prizes without a costly fight, it was therefore important for pirates to distinguish themselves from these other ships also taking prizes on the seas.[41]

Flying a Jolly Roger was a reliable way of proving oneself a pirate. Just possessing or using a Jolly Roger was considered proof that one was a criminal pirate rather than something more legitimate; only a pirate would dare fly the Jolly Roger, as he was already under threat of execution.[42]

  Modern uses

  By submarines

  The personnel of the British submarine HMS Utmost showing off their Jolly Roger in February 1942. The markings on the flag indicate the boat's achievements: nine ships torpedoed (including one warship), eight 'cloak and dagger' operations, one target destroyed by gunfire, and one at-sea rescue

Following the introduction of submarines in several navies, Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson, the First Sea Lord of the British Royal Navy, stated that submarines were "underhanded, unfair, and damned un-English", and that he would convince the British Admiralty to have the crews of enemy submarines captured during wartime be hanged as pirates.[43]

In September 1914, the British submarine HMS E9 successfully torpedoed the German criuser SMS Hela.[44] Remembering Wilson's statements, commanding officer Max Horton instructed his sailors to manufacture a Jolly Roger, which was flown from the submarine as she entered port.[43][44] Each successful patrol saw Horton's submarine fly an additional Jolly Roger until there was no more room for flags, at which point Horton then had a large Jolly Roger manufactured, onto which symbols indicating E9's achievements were sewn.[44] A small number of other submarines adopted the practice:[44] HMS E12 flew a red flag with the skull and crossbones on return from a foray into the Dardanelles in June 1915,[45] and the first known photograph of the practice was taken in July 1916 aboard HMS H5.[46]

The practice restarted during World War II. In October 1941, following a successful patrol by HMS Osiris, during which she sank the Italian destroyer Palestro the submarine returned to Alexandria, but was ordered to remain outside the boom net until the motorboat assigned to the leader of the 1st Submarine Flotilla had come alongside.[45][47] The flotilla leader wanted to recognise the boat's achievement, so had a Jolly Roger made and delivered to Osiris.[47](I) After this, the commanders of submarine flotillas began to hand out the flags to successful submarines.[47] Although some sources claim that all British submarines used the flag,[48] the practice was not taken up by those submarine commanders who saw it as boastful and potentially inaccurate, as sinkings could not always be confirmed.[44] During the war, British submarines were entitled to fly the Jolly Roger on the day of their return from a successful patrol: it would be hoisted as the boat passed the boom net, and remain raised until sunset.[47]

  Polish submarine ORP Sokół returning to base in 1944. A Jolly Roger flag and two captured Nazi flags are flying from the periscope mast

Symbols on the flag indicated the history of the submarine, and it was the responsibility of the boat's personnel to keep the flag updated.[44][47] The Royal Navy Submarine Museum (which, as of 2004, possessed fifteen Jolly Rogers) recognises 20 unique symbols.[49] A bar denotes the torpedoing of a ship: red bars indicated warships, white bars represented merchant vessels, and black bars with a white "U" stood for U-boats.[49][50] A dagger indicated a 'cloak and dagger' operation: typically the delivery or recovery of shore parties from enemy territory.[48][50] Stars (sometimes surrounding crossed cannon) stood for occasions where the deck gun was fired.[48] Minelaying operations were shown by the silhouette of a sea mine: a number inside the mine indicated how many such missions.[48] A lighthouse or torch symbolised the boat's use as a navigational marker for an invasion force.[50] Rescue of personnel from downed aircraft or sunken ships was marked by a lifebuoy.[48] Unique symbols are used to denote one-off incidents: for example, the Jolly Roger of HMS Proteus included a can-opener, referencing an incident where an Italian destroyer attempted to ram the submarine, but ended up worse off because of damage to the destroyer's hull by the submarine's hydroplanes.[51]

Flying the Jolly Roger continued in the late 20th century and on into the 21st: HMS Conqueror raised the flag decorated with the sillouette of a cruiser to recognise her successful attack on the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano during the Falklands War of 1982, while HMS Turbulent flew a flag carrying crossed tomahawks (representing the launching of Tomahawk cruise missiles) on returning from a 2003 Iraq War deployment.[49][52] In April and again in June 2011 HMS Triumph returning from Operation Ellamy also flew a Jolly Roger adorned with Tomahawk axes, six in total, to indicate the missiles fired by the submarine in the operation.

The practice, while commonly associated with British submarines, is not restricted to them. During World War II, Allied submariners working with Royal Navy fleets adopted the process from their British counterparts.[53] While operating in the Mediterranean, the Polish submarines ORP Sokół and ORP Dzik were presented with Jolly Rogers by General Władysław Sikorski, and continued to update it during the war.[54][55] At least one British surface ship recorded their U-boat kills through silhouettes on a Jolly Roger.[56] The Australian submarine HMAS Onslow flew the Jolly Roger in 1980, following her successful participation in the Kangaroo 3 wargame as an opposing submarine.[57] The flag bore the silhouettes of the seven surface ships involved in the exercise: Onslow had successfully 'sunk' all seven.[57]

  In U.S. military aviation

  90th Bomb Group Insignia-319th Bomb Squadron
  Grumman F-14 Tomcat of fighter squadron VF-84
  Chetnik flag. The flag reads: "For King and Fatherland - Freedom or Death"

Four squadrons of the 90th Bombardment Group of the Fifth Air Force under General George C. Kenney, commanded by Colonel Art Rogers were known as the Jolly Rogers. Easily distinguished by the white skull and crossed bombs, from 1943, the four squadrons all displayed the insignia on the twin tail fins of their B-24 heavy bombers (heavies) with different color backgrounds for each squadron. The 319th's tail fin background was blue, the 320th's red, the 321st, green, and the 400th, the most graphic of the four, black.[58] The skull and crossed bombs remains the heritage insignia of the group's successor, the 90th Operations Group.

The 90th Bombardment Group, commanded by Col. Rogers, known as the Jolly Rogers, used the Skull and Crossed bombs insignia. The Skull and Crossed bones was used by an outfit called Russell's Raiders.[citation needed]

Several United States Navy squadrons have used the Jolly Roger insignia, VF-17/VF-5B/VF-61, VF-84 and VF-103, since redesignated as VFA-103.[citation needed]

  In fiction

  • The 1982 anime series Macross—and the Americanized version Robotech—featured a transformable aerospace fighter with a passing resemblance to the F-14. Some aircraft bore a paint scheme inspired by VF-84. Elite pilots were members of "Skull Squadron," and the vertical stabilizers their aircraft bore a white jolly roger on a black field with a yellow strip along the top and a white stripe on the leading edge.[59]
  • In Flashpoint, the logo of the SRU is Henry Every's Jolly Roger with the bones replaced with swords.
  • In J. M. Barrie's 1911 novel Peter Pan, Jolly Roger was the name of Captain Hook's ship.
  • The 2009 Coen Brothers film A Serious Man, featured a motel called the Jolly Roger that had a skull and crossbones on the sign.
  • In the 1996 movie Independence Day, the virus that Jeff Goldblum uploads to the alien mothership is called jollyroger.exe
  • In the pirate manga series One Piece, flags of Jolly Roger present throughout the story and the skull design usually represents the captain of the ship. For example, the manga's protagonist, Monkey D Luffy, always wear a straw hat, and so his pirate flag is a Jolly Roger with a straw hat.
  • In the movie Down Periscope, the USS Stingray flew the Jolly Roger when they fired flares in Charleston[disambiguation needed] Harbour and when XO Pascal is made to walk the plank
  • Pirates of the Caribbean is a series of fantasy-adventure which is all about pirates, basically focusing on Jack Sparrow (played by Johnny Depp). The films represent various Jolly Roger flags.

  In music

On the cover of the 2006 Iron Maiden album, A Matter of Life and Death, a version of a Jolly Roger depicting a helmeted skull and two assault rifles instead of bones is displayed hanging from a tank.

The re-issued version of the Megadeth album, Killing Is My Business... and Business Is Good!, shows a stylized Vic Rattlehead skull on top of crossed swords and crossed bones.

Also on the cover of Michael Jackson's Dangerous album it can be seen on the left sde with the alteration of a skull over two swords.

"Pirate" Metal band Running Wild often reference the Jolly Roger and other pirate related themes in their music.

  By the pirate movement

Before changing to a stylized 'P', the Pirate Party used the Jolly Roger as its symbol; it is still used extensively in the Pirate movement. The Piratbyrån and The Pirate Bay also use either the skull and crossbones symbol, or derivatives of it, such as the logo of Home Taping Is Killing Music.

  In professional sports

A number of sports teams have been known to use variations of the Jolly Roger, with one of the best known in current use, an adaptation of Calico Jack's pirate flag, with a red background instead of the black, being that of the National Football League's Tampa Bay Buccaneers, with an American football over the crossing area of the two swords.

The supporters of FC St. Pauli, a sports club from Hamburg, Germany, best known for its association football team, have adopted a variation of Richard Worley's flag as their own unofficial emblem. Also, the Jolly Roger is the popular icon of all University College Cork (Ireland) sports teams.

It is also used in a statement by Pittsburgh Pirates Announcer Greg Brown when the Pirates win a game. Brown is known for his call "Raise the Jolly Roger" after every Pirates win. This is keeping in line with Pirate broadcasters, such as former announcers Lanny Frattare and Bob Prince, who like to end a Pirate win with a similar statement.

Another such variation is the Oakland Raiders, it uses a head with facial features, wearing an eye patch and a helmet, crossed swords behind the helmet completes the image.

All these variations are seen as the logos of sporting teams in (Scotland): The Braehead Paisley Pirates/Paisley Pirates of the Scottish National League Ice Hockey the and Paisley Buccaneers and Riversdale Pirates of the Scottish Recreational Ice Hockey Conference The East Kilbride Pirates American Football team in BAFA Division 1 The Edinburgh Buccaneers Basketball club of the Scottish Men's National League

The South African football or soccer team Orlando Pirates also has the classic Jolly Roger as their logo.

  In business

The early development team of the Apple Macintosh used a pirate flag to maintain a "rebellious" spirit.[60]

  See also

  References

  Explanatory notes

^(I) One account states that Horton, now Commander in Chief Submarines, was visiting at the time of Osiris' return, and influenced the flotilla leader's decision.[45]

  Citations

  1. ^ "Pirate Flags". Tinpan.fortunecity.com. http://tinpan.fortunecity.com/lennon/897/flags.html. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  2. ^ Regular black flags mostly employed by pirates.
  3. ^ A general history of the robberies & murders of the most notorious pirates. By Charles Johnson
  4. ^ Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, p. 250.
  5. ^ Johnson (1724), pp. 411–12.
  6. ^ Bartholomew Roberts' Jolly Roger in June 1721 is simply described as "their black flag," which may or may not be the same Roberts is described as flying earlier on pp. 243–44, the man standing on a Barbadian's head and a Martinican's head (see the gallery). Spriggs' Jolly Roger is described as follows: "a black Ensign was made, which they called Jolly Roger, with the same device that Captain Low carried, viz. a white Skeliton in the Middle of it, with a Dart in one Hand striking a bleeding Heart, and in the other, an Hour-Glass."
  7. ^ a b c David Cordingly (1995). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates, New York: Random House, p. 117.
  8. ^ origin of jolly roger term.
  9. ^ I. Marc Carlson (2004-06-09). "Elizabethan Slang". Personal.utulsa.edu. http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~marc-carlson/history/elizlng.html. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  10. ^ a b David Cordingly (1995). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates, New York: Random House, p. 118.
  11. ^ Pirate Flags Pirate Mythtory.
  12. ^ David Cordingly (1995). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates, New York: Random House, p. 220.
  13. ^ Johnson, p. 66.
  14. ^ Johnson, pp. 72, 147, 344.
  15. ^ Johnson, p. 187.
  16. ^ See, e.g., Angus Konstam, Pirates: 1660–1730; Douglas Botting, The Pirates; http://www.bonaventure.org.uk/ed/flags.htm; etcetera.
  17. ^ See, inter alia, Douglas Botting (1978), The Pirates, Alexandria, VA: TimeLife Books, Inc., pp. 48–49; Angus Konstam (1999), The History of Piracy, ISBN 1-55821-969-2, Italy: Lyons Press, pp. 98–101. Some of these flags are verified by contemporary accounts such as Johnson's. As to Low's flag, for instance, Johnson writes, "Low goes aboard of this ship, [the Merry Christmas], assumes the title of admiral, and hoists a black flag, with the figure of death in red, at the main-topmast head." Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates, ed. by David Cordingly (2002), Globe Pequot, ISBN 1-58574-558-8, p. 307. Likewise, Bartholomew Roberts' flag is described in the same edition of Johnson, p. 202, thus: "The jack had a man portrayed in it, with a flaming sword in his hand, and standing on two skulls, subscribed A.B.H. and A.M.H." Roberts' other flag, showing a man and a skeleton holding up an hourglass, appears in an engraving on p. 278 of Johnson's original 1724 text (reproduced here). Kennedy's flag is as described by one of his victims, Captain J. Evans of the Greyhound Galley, according to a letter written to Johnson in the second edition of the History (1726), on p. 331 (note, however, that this capture was in 1716, and thus probably does not refer to the same Walter Kennedy who sailed first with Roberts and then on his own account from 1720–23). For Wynn's flag, see the preceding footnote. The origin of the flags for Blackbeard, Tew, Every, Condent, Worley and Bonnet are far more obscure. Ed Foxe believes that the versions of the latter six pirates' Jolly Rogers shown in the secondary sources are taken from an undated, unsourced manuscript in Britain's National Maritime Museum. [1]
  18. ^ Botting, p. 49; Konstam, p. 101.
  19. ^ Botting, p. 49; Konstam, p. 100–01.
  20. ^ Botting, p. 49; Konstam, p. 99; Johnson (1726), p. 331.
  21. ^ a b Botting, p. 49; Konstam, p. 100; Johnson (1724), p. 278.
  22. ^ Botting, p. 48, Konstam, The History of Pirates, p. 98.
  23. ^ Pirate Mythtory, Ed Foxe, 2004
  24. ^ Botting, p. 49; Konstam, p. 98.
  25. ^ Botting, p. 48; Konstam, p. 99.
  26. ^ Botting, p. 49, Konstam, p. 98; Frank Sherry, Raiders and Rebels, New York: Hearst Marine Books, 1986, ISBN 0-688-04684-3, illustrated p. 97, ascribed p. 98.
  27. ^ The red version of this flag appears in Angus Konstam, Pirates: 1660–1730, Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1998, ISBN 1-85532-706-6, p. 44. Black versions appear in Botting, p. 48; Konstam, The History of Pirates, p. 99; Sherry, illustrated p. 97, ascribed p. 96.
  28. ^ Botting, p. 48; Konstam, The History of Pirates, p. 101; Sherry, illustrated p. 97, ascribed p. 96.
  29. ^ Botting, p. 49; Konstam, The History of Pirates, p. 100. Johnson (1724), p. 344, says only that Worley "made a black Ensign, with a white Death's Head in the Middle of it, and other Colours suitable to it," without specifying whether these "other Coulours" were the crossed bones that appear in Botting and Konstam.
  30. ^ Botting, p. 48; Konstam, The History of Pirates, p. 100, see also Origins of the Design, above.
  31. ^ John R. Stephens (2006), Captured by Pirates: 22 Firsthand Accounts of Murder and Mayhem on the High Seas," ISBN 0-7607-8537-6, p. 305.
  32. ^ a b Johnson (1724), p. 411–12.
  33. ^ Stephens, p. 168.
  34. ^ Stephens, p. 144.
  35. ^ Stephens, p. 140.
  36. ^ "Rare Jolly Roger goes on display at Portsmouth's navy museum". BBC News. 14 December 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-hampshire-16164191. 
  37. ^ William Falconer (1783), An Universal Dictionary of the Marine, s.v. "Pirate."
  38. ^ This practice is considered deceitful today, but in the period of sail it was the standard practice for all ships. There was no other way to approach an enemy or victim on the open sea if they didn't want to fight.
  39. ^ Burl, Aubery Black Bart pp. 133–4.
  40. ^ Cordingly, p. 117. Cordingly cites only one source for pages 116–119 of his text: Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, America and West Indies, volumes 1719–20, no. 34.
  41. ^ p. 10, "Pirational Choice: The Economics of Infamous Pirate Practices", Peter T. Leeson.
  42. ^ "Ships attacking under the death head's toothy grin were therefore considered criminal and could be prosecuted as pirates. Since pirates were criminals anyway, for them, flying the Jolly Roger was costless. If they were captured and found guilty, the penalty they faced was the same whether they used the Jolly Roger in taking merchant ships or not – the hangman's noose... For legitimate ships, however, things were different. To retain at least a veneer of legitimacy, privateers and Spanish coast guard ships could not sail under pirate colors. If they did, they could be hunted and hanged as pirates." p. 12, Leeson 2008.
  43. ^ a b Richards & Smith, Onslow's Jolly Roger, p. 10
  44. ^ a b c d e f Compton-Hall, Submarines at War 1939–45, p. 62
  45. ^ a b c Submariners – Traditions and Values, at Defence Jobs
  46. ^ Mackay, A Precarious Existence, p. 115
  47. ^ a b c d e Admiralty, His Majesty's Submarines, p. 43
  48. ^ a b c d e Sumner, The Royal Navy 1939–45, p. 12
  49. ^ a b c Richards & Smith, Onslow's Jolly Roger, p. 11
  50. ^ a b c Allaway, Hero of the Upholder, p. 110
  51. ^ Allaway, Hero of the Upholder, pp. 110–1
  52. ^ Norton-Taylor, Crusie missile sub back in UK
  53. ^ Compton-Hall, Submarines at War 1939–45, p. 64
  54. ^ Bartelski, Sokol – Operational history
  55. ^ Bartelski, Dzik – Operational history
  56. ^ Williamson, U-Boats Vs Destroyer Escorts, p. 59
  57. ^ a b Richards & Smith, Onslow's Jolly Roger, pp. 11–12
  58. ^ Birdsall, Steve. Flying Buccaneers. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977. ISBN 0-385-03218-8.
  59. ^ Macross Mecha Manual
  60. ^ "Pirate Flag". http://folklore.org/StoryView.py?story=Pirate_Flag.txt. 

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Dictionnaire et traducteur pour mobile

⇨ Nouveau : sensagent est maintenant disponible sur votre mobile

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sensagent's office

Raccourcis et gadgets. Gratuit.

* Raccourci Windows : sensagent.

* Widget Vista : sensagent.

dictionnaire et traducteur pour sites web

Alexandria

Une fenêtre (pop-into) d'information (contenu principal de Sensagent) est invoquée un double-clic sur n'importe quel mot de votre page web. LA fenêtre fournit des explications et des traductions contextuelles, c'est-à-dire sans obliger votre visiteur à quitter votre page web !

Essayer ici, télécharger le code;

SensagentBox

Avec la boîte de recherches Sensagent, les visiteurs de votre site peuvent également accéder à une information de référence pertinente parmi plus de 5 millions de pages web indexées sur Sensagent.com. Vous pouvez Choisir la taille qui convient le mieux à votre site et adapter la charte graphique.

Solution commerce électronique

Augmenter le contenu de votre site

Ajouter de nouveaux contenus Add à votre site depuis Sensagent par XML.

Parcourir les produits et les annonces

Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu.

Indexer des images et définir des méta-données

Fixer la signification de chaque méta-donnée (multilingue).


Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet.

Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

boggle

Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

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