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définition - LGBT_rights_by_country_or_territory

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Wikipedia

LGBT rights by country or territory

                   
 
Homosexual acts legal
  Same-sex marriage
  Marriage recognized but not performed
  Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)
  Same-sex unions not recognized
Homosexual acts illegal
  Minimal penalty
  Heavy penalty
  Up to life in prison
  Up to death


Rings indicate local or case-by-case application.
  Signatories to the UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity are colored in blue and signatories to the opposing statement in green. Data are current as of June 2012.

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex sexual activity or identity.

LGBT-related laws include but are not limited to: government recognition of same-sex relationships, LGBT adoption, sexual orientation and military service, immigration equality, anti-discrimination laws, hate crime laws regarding violence against LGBT people, sodomy laws, anti-lesbianism laws, and higher ages of consent for same-sex activity.

In 2011, the United Nations passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, and followed up with a report documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination.[1][2]

Contents

History of LGBT-related laws

Ancient India

Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[3] There are several instances in ancient Indian epic poetry of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses. There are several stories of depicting love between same sexes especially among kings and queens. Kamasutra, the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. Transsexuals are also venerated e.g. Lord Vishnu as Mohini and Lord Shiva as Ardhanarishwara (which means half woman).[4]

Ancient Israel and the Near East

The ancient Law of Moses (the Torah) forbids men lying with men (intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities being soon destroyed after that. The death penalty was prescribed.

Middle Assyrian Law Codes dating 1075 BC states: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch.[citation needed]

Ancient Rome

The "conquest mentality" of the ancient Romans shaped Roman homosexual practices.[5] In the Roman Republic, a citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[6] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[7] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his masculinity or social standing.[8] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalites on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor.[9] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law.

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[10] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[11] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.[12]

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[13] A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[14] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[15]

In the Roman army of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[16] as a violation of military discipline.[17] The Greek historian Polybius (2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death.[18] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[19] Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves;[20] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[21] By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[22]

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[23] The emperor Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[24]

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[25] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[26] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[27]

Feudal Japan

In feudal Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The Samurai period was one in which homosexuality was seen as particularly positive. In Japan, the younger partner in a pederastic relationship was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. Homosexuality was later briefly criminalized due to Westernization.[28]

China

Laws prohibiting homosexuality were also passed in China. (China neither adopted an Abrahamic religion nor was colonized, except for Hong Kong and Macau which were colonized with Victorian era social mores and maintain separate legal system from the rest of China.) Homosexuality was not decriminalized there until 1997.[29] Prior to 1997, homosexual in mainland China was found guilty included in a general definition under the vague vocabulary of hooliganism, there are no specifically anti-homosexual laws.[30]

LGBT-related laws by country or territory

In modern times nine countries have no official heterosexist discrimination. They are Argentina, Belgium, Canada,[31][32] Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, and Spain. This full non-discrimination includes the rights of marriage and adoption. Portugal has also marriage rights for same-sex couples but this right does not include same-sex adoption. The Canadian Blood Services’ policy indefinitely defers any man who has sex with another man, even once, since 1977.[33] In the U.S., mandated by federal law Pub.L. 103-160 (10 U.S.C. § 654), the U.S. armed forces’ policy on homosexuality in the military, commonly known as Don’t ask, don’t tell, prohibited coming out ("a statement that a member is homosexual or bisexual" or anything that would reveal sexual orientation, i.e. talking about a boyfriend, girlfriend, or attractions) because it was considered tantamount to "a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts". More than 13,500 service members were discharged from the military under the 1993 law. However, the policy was repealed by Congress in December 2010. In the Senate, repeal passed by a majority of 63–33, including six Republicans voting in favour of gays serving openly in the military. The repeal was effective September 20th, 2011. Also in the U.S., LGBT people face different laws for certain medical procedures than other groups. For example, gay men have been prohibited from giving blood since 1983,[34][35] and George W. Bush's FDA guidelines barred them from being sperm donors as of 2005, even though all donated sperm is screened for sexually-transmitted diseases.[36][37]

Africa


Northern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Algeria Algeria No Illegal (Penalty: Fine - up to 2 years prison)[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Egypt Egypt No Not specifically outlawed, other laws may apply[38] No No No No No Unknown
Libya Libya No Illegal (Penalty: up to 5 years prison).[38] No No No Unknown No No
Morocco Morocco (incl. Western Sahara) No Illegal (Penalty: up to 3 years) No No No Unknown No Unknown
South Sudan South Sudan No Illegal (Penalty: Up to 10 years.) No No Constitutional ban since 2011 No No No No
Sudan Sudan No Illegal (Penalty: 5 years up to death penalty.) No No No No No No
Tunisia Tunisia No Illegal (Penalty: Fine - 3 years) No No No Unknown No Unknown

Western Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Benin Benin Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Yes Legal[38] No No Constitutional ban since 1991 No Unknown No Unknown
Cape Verde Cape Verde Yes Legal since 2004[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
The Gambia Gambia No Illegal (Penalty: up to 14 years[39]) No No No Unknown No Unknown
Ghana Ghana No Male illegal
YesFemale legal[38]
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Guinea Guinea No Illegal (Penalty: 6 months to 3 years prison)[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Yes Legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Liberia Liberia No Illegal (Penalty: Fine) No No No Unknown No Unknown
Mali Mali Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Mauritania Mauritania No Illegal (Penalty: Death penalty) No No No Unknown No Unknown
Niger Niger Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Nigeria Nigeria No Male illegal
No Female illegal in areas under Sharia
Yes Female legal in areas not under Sharia.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Senegal Senegal No Illegal (Penalty: 1 month to 5 years prison) No No Unknown No Unknown
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Togo Togo No Illegal No No No Unknown No Unknown

Middle Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Ascension Island Ascension Island Yes Legal[38] Unknown No No Yes Yes (as part of the Military of the United Kingdom) Yes Yes (under the United Kingdom Equality Act 2010) Unknown
Cameroon Cameroon No Illegal (Penalty: Fine to 5 years prison) No No No Unknown No Unknown
Central African Republic Central African Republic Yes Legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Chad Chad Yes Legal since 1967 No No No Unknown No Unknown
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) Yes Legal[38] No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No Unknown No Unknown
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Gabon Gabon Yes Legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Saint Helena Saint Helena Yes Legal[38] Unknown No No Yes (as part of the Military of the United Kingdom) Yes Yes (under the United Kingdom Equality Act 2010) Unknown
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Was expected to be legalized sometime in 2011. Unknown if that happened.[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown

Eastern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Burundi Burundi No Illegal since 2009[40] No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No Unknown No Unknown
Djibouti Djibouti Unclear[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Eritrea Eritrea No Illegal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Ethiopia Ethiopia No Illegal[38] No No Unknown No Unknown
Kenya Kenya No Male illegal (Penalty: up to 14 years' imprisonment)
Yes Female not specifically covered by the Penal Code
No Constitution since 2010 specifically mentions only opposite sex marriage[41] No Homosexuals and unmarried couples prohibited[42] Unknown No Unknown
Rwanda Rwanda Yes Legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban in Article 26 since 2003 No Unknown No Unknown
Somalia Somalia No Illegal[38] No No No No Unknown
Uganda Uganda No Illegal No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No No No No
Tanzania Tanzania No Illegal (Penalty: up to life imprisonment)[38] No No A couple must be married to adopt a child jointly. No specific prohibition against an LGBT person adopting as a sole applicant.[43] Unknown No Unknown

Indian Ocean States

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Comoros Comoros No Illegal[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Madagascar Madagascar Yes Legal No No No Unknown No Unknown
Mauritius Mauritius No Male illegal
Yes Female legal (national debate over repeal of the law).[38][44]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[45] Unknown
Réunion Réunion (Overseas department of France) Yes Legal since 1791 Yes Civil solidarity pact
since 1999
No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Unknown
Seychelles Seychelles No Male illegal
Yes Female legal (decriminalisation proposed)
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[46] Unknown

Southern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Angola Angola No Not specifically outlawed, other laws may apply (Penalty: Labour camps for habitual offenders).[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Botswana Botswana No Illegal (Penalty: Fine - 7 years) No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[46] Unknown
Lesotho Lesotho No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Malawi Malawi No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Mozambique Mozambique Yes Legal[47] No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[45] Unknown
Namibia Namibia No Illegal (not enforced)[38][48] No No No Unknown No Unknown
South Africa South Africa Yes Male legal since 1998 (retroactive to 1994), female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998 Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Legal since 2002 (joint and step-parent) Yes Since 1998 Yes Bans all discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, including hate speech Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment
Swaziland Swaziland No Male illegal
Yes Female legal. Pending law includes outlawing lesbian sex conduct.[38]
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Zambia Zambia No Male illegal (Penalty: up to 14 years)
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Unknown No Unknown

Partially recognised states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Western Sahara Western Sahara (80% controlled by Morocco) No Illegal (Penalty: up to 3 years prison) No No No No No No
Somaliland Somaliland No Illegal (Penalty: expulsion from country, prison - up to life, in various regions and districts; death penalty)
No No No No No


The Americas

Tables:

Northern America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bermuda Bermuda (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Yes Legal since 1994 (Age of consent discrepancy) No No Unknown Yes No No
Canada Canada Yes Legal since 1969 (Age of consent discrepancy[49]) + UN decl. sign. Yes Yes Legal since 2003, nationwide since 2005 Yes[50][51] Yes Since 1992[52] YesBans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech YesSex changes legally recognised, but only after sex reassignment surgery; Explicit anti-discrimination protections only in NWT and Ontario, implicit elsewhere;[53][54]
Mexico Mexico Yes Legal since 1872[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes PACS in Coahuila since 2007.
All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in Mexico City.[55]
No/Yes Legal in Mexico City since 2010 and in Quintana Roo since 2012.[56][57]
All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in Mexico City.[55]
No/Yes Joint adoption legal in Mexico City (2010)[56] and Coahuila.[58]
Nationwide, single gay persons may adopt.[59]
Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged on the grounds of "immorality."[60] Yes Nationwide since 2003.[61] No/Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[62]
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre et Miquelon (overseas collectivity of France) Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
United States United States Yes Legal nationwide since 2003.
+ UN decl. sign.
See Lawrence v. Texas
No / Yes Varies by state, but not recognized by federal gov't.

(Legal in California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, Nevada, Oregon, Rhode Island and Wisconsin)

No / Yes Varies by state, but not recognized by federal gov't.

(Legal in Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, Washington and the District of Columbia)

No / Yes Single gay persons may adopt, laws on couples vary by state Yes Since 2011 No / Yes No federal protections. Banned in 20 states. Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009. See Matthew Shepard Act No / Yes No federal protections. Banned in 13 states. Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009. See Matthew Shepard Act

Central America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti- discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belize Belize No Male: Illegal since 2003 (Penalty: 10 year prison sentence) Yes
Female: Legal; Foreign gay males and females barred from country by immigration law
No No No No No No
Costa Rica Costa Rica Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No N/A Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
El Salvador El Salvador Yes Legal + UN decl. sign. No No No Yes Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Guatemala Guatemala Yes Legal+ UN decl. sign. No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Honduras Honduras Yes Legal since 1899[38] + UN decl. sign. No No Constitutional ban No Constitutional ban No No
Nicaragua Nicaragua Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[38]
Panama Panama Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No

Caribbean islands

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Anguilla Anguilla (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes No No
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda No Illegal (Penalty: 15 year prison sentence) No No No No No No
Aruba Aruba (Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Yes Legal No Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised No Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
The Bahamas Bahamas Yes Legal since 1991 (Age of consent discrepancy) No No No Yes No No
Barbados Barbados No Illegal (Penalty: life sentence) No No No No No No
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Yes Legal since 2000 No No Unknown Yes Unknown No
Cuba Cuba Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.
No (but proposed) No No No Yes[63] Yes
Dominica Dominica No Illegal (Penalty: 10 year prison sentence)
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No No
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Yes + UN decl. sign. No No Constitutional ban No No No No
Grenada Grenada No Male illegal (Penalty: 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (Overseas department of France) Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité
since 1999
No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Haiti Haiti Yes Legal since 1986 No No No No No No
Jamaica Jamaica No Illegal (Penalty: 10 years hard labor)
Yes Female legal.
No No No No No No
Martinique Martinique (Overseas department of France) Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité
since 1999
No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Montserrat Montserrat Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes No
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (Commonwealth of the United States) Yes Legal since 2003 No No No Yes since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis No Male illegal (Penalty: 10 years)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia No Male illegal (Penalty: fine and/or 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Illegal (Penalty: fine and/or 10 year prison sentence) No No No No No No
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago No Illegal (Penalty: 25 year prison sentence) No No No No No No
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes No
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands (Insular area of the United States) Yes Legal since 1984 No No No Yes since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well

South America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti- discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Argentina Argentina Yes Legal since 1887[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Unregistered cohabitation throughout the country. Yes Legal since 2010.[64] Yes Legal since 2010. Yes Since 2009.[65] Yes/No The Constitution of Argentina prohibits all forms of discrimination, though sexual orientation is not explicited Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission[66]
Bolivia Bolivia Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No (Proposed) No Constitutional ban No Constitutional ban Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Bans all discrimination based on gender identity[67]
Brazil Brazil Yes Legal since 1830[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions since 2004. Yes/No Yes Legal since 2010. Yes Gays and lesbians to serve openly in military. Yes/No The Constitution of Brazil prohibits all forms of discrimination, though sexual orientation is not explicited.[68] Yes Transgenders can change their legal gender and name since 2009, though surgery is required.[69][70]
Chile Chile Yes Legal since 1999[38] (Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.
No (Pending) No (Pending) No Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[71][72] Yes[73] Yes
Colombia Colombia Yes Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2007 No/Yes from 20 July, 2013 under a Constitutional Court ruling if Congress does not act. No single person, no matter her/his sexual orientation may adopt. First case of step-child adoption, Court ordered.[74] Yes since 1999. Since 2009: the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech [75] Yes[76] Since 1993. The name's gender can be changed easily in the National ID Card, to change the sex field a surgery is required.
Ecuador Ecuador Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes[77] Civil unions recognized since 2009 No Constitutional ban No Constitutional ban Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Bans all discrimination based on gender identity
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (overseas territory of the UK) Yes Legal No No Yes Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Unknown
French Guiana French Guiana Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Unknown
Guyana Guyana No Male illegal (Penalty: life imprisonment)
Yes Female legal.
No No No Unknown No Added to constitution in 2004, but withdrawn afterwards by the government. Unknown
Paraguay Paraguay Yes Legal since 1880[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No Constitutional ban since 1992[78] No Constitutional ban since 1992[78] No Unknown No Unknown
Peru Peru Yes Legal since 1836-37[38] No No No Yes since 2009[79] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Penalized with 2-4 years in jail. Yes Possible via Civil Code and Legal Process, but no specific law.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Yes Legal No No Yes Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Unknown
Suriname Suriname Yes Legal since 1869[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Uruguay Uruguay Yes Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions since 2008.[80] No But proposed.[81] Yes Since 2009.[82] Yes Since 2009.[83] Yes Legal protection since 2004.[84] Yes Legal protection since 2004.[84]

Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[85]

Venezuela Venezuela Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes (since 1999) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[38] No

Asia

Central Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[38] No No No[86] No No
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Yes Legal since 1998[38] No No No Unknown No No
Tajikistan Tajikistan Yes Legal since 1998[38] No No No Unknown No No
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan No Male illegal (Penalty: up to 2 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Unknown No No
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan No Male illegal (Penalty: up to 3 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Unknown No No

Western Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bahrain Bahrain ? Unclear[38] No No No No No No
Iraq Iraq Yes Legal since 2003 No No No No No
Israel Israel Yes Legal since 1963 de facto
1988 de jure[87]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Unregistered cohabition Legal No/Yes Cannot be performed in the country, but foreign same-sex marriages are recognised Yes[88][89] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes[citation needed]
Jordan Jordan Yes Legal since 1951
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Kuwait Kuwait No Illegal (Penalty: fines, men under 21 face prison sentences up to 10 years, men over 21 face prison sentences up to 7 years) No No No No No No
Lebanon Lebanon No Illegal (Penalty: minimal, unknown); very lax enforcement[38] No No No No No No
Oman Oman No Illegal (Penalty: fines, prison sentence up to 3 years; however, only enforced when dealing with "public scandal") No No No No No No
Palestinian territories Palestinian territories (Gaza) No Male illegal (Penalty: up to 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No Unknown No No
Palestinian territories Palestinian territories (West Bank) Yes Legal since 1951[38] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Qatar Qatar No Illegal (Penalty: fines, prison sentence up to 5 years) No No No No No No
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia No Illegal (Penalty: death or prison/fines/whipping) No No No No No No
Syria Syria No Illegal (Penalty: prison sentence up to 3 years; law de facto suspended) No No No No No No
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates No Illegal (Penalty: deportation, fines, prison time or death sentence) No No No No No No
Yemen Yemen No Illegal (Penalty: flogging or death) No No No No No No

South Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Afghanistan Afghanistan No Illegal No No No No No No
Bangladesh Bangladesh No Illegal No No No No No No
Bhutan Bhutan No Illegal (Penalty: prison sentence up to 1 year; no cases of penalty actually enforced) No No No No No No
India India Yes Legal since 2009 Delhi High Court ruling NoNo explicit recognition.[90] No No explicit recognition.[90] No No[91] No No. There are no laws to protect from discrimination.
Iran Iran No Illegal (Penalty: Death) No No No No No Transsexuality in Iran is legal if accompanied by a sex change operation; however, transsexuals still report societal intolerance.[92]
Maldives Maldives ? Criminal code does not criminalize same-sex sexual relations; sharia law may apply, but no applications have been reported No No No No[citation needed] No No
Nepal Nepal Yes Legal since 2007[38] + UN decl. sign. No No Under consideration No Under consideration Yes Yes Supreme Court ruled discrimination laws apply to homosexuals Yes "Third gender" cards have been issued since September 2007, legally protected class[93]
Pakistan Pakistan No Illegal (Penalty: 2 years to life sentence) No No No No No Yes 'Third gender' officially protected from discrimination by Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2010
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka ? Status unclear - British-enacted sodomy law may apply, never implemented No No No No[citation needed] No No

East Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
China China Yes Legal since 1997 No No No Unknown No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Hong Kong Hong Kong Yes Legal since 1991 (equal age of consent of 16 for both heterosexual and homosexual sex since 2006) No No No The People's Republic of China is in charge of Hong Kong's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Hong Kong. No No
Japan Japan Yes Legal since 1880 (was illegal from 1873-1880; before that there were no laws forbidding sodomy)
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Foreign same-sex marriages recognized.[94] No Yes[95] No No nationwide protections, but some cities ban some anti-gay discriminations[38] Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery and in case that the transsexual has no child under 20 years old
Macau Macau Yes Legal since 1996 No No No Unknown (China responsible for defence) No Unknown
Mongolia Mongolia Yes Legal since 2002 No No No Unknown No Unknown
North Korea North Korea Yes (showing public affection is frowned upon even for heterosexual couples) No No No No No Unknown although there are heavily obeyed gender roles for both male and female. See Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle
South Korea South Korea Yes Legal No No No Yes Due to conscription, but gays subject to discrimination No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Taiwan Taiwan Yes Legal No No Pending law allows civil unions or same-sex marriage. No Yes Due to military draft Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (in work and education) Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery

Southeast Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Brunei Brunei No Illegal (Penalty: fine or prison sentence up to 10 years) No No No No No No
Burma Burma No Illegal (Penalty: up to life sentence) No No No No No No
Cambodia Cambodia Yes Legal No No Technically prohibited, though there has been at least one recorded case of a legally registered and recognized same-sex marriage Yes Unknown No Unknown
East Timor East Timor Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No Unknown
Indonesia Indonesia Yes Legal[96] except for Muslims in Aceh Province[97] No No No Unknown No Unknown
Laos Laos Yes Legal No No No Unknown No Unknown
Malaysia Malaysia No Illegal (Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2-20 years), or whippings) No No No No No No
Philippines Philippines Yes Legal.[98][99] except for Muslims in Marawi City No[99] No[99] Yes[100] No Since 2009 Yes No national protections, but Quezon City and Albay have anti-discrimination ordinances[101] No National bill pending but still not made into law Unknown
Singapore Singapore No Male illegal (Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence; no plan to repeal 377A and not enforced since 1999)

Yes Female legal

No No No Yes Due to conscription, but gays are not allowed to go to command school or serve in sensitive units. No No
Thailand Thailand Yes Legal since 1956 No No No Yes Since 2005 No Unknown
Vietnam Vietnam Yes Legal (no laws against homosexuality have ever existed) No (Proposed) No (Proposed for 2013)[102] No Unknown No Unknown

Europe

European Union

EU Flag See: LGBT rights in the European Union
European Union law forbids discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. All EU states are required to legalise homosexuality and implement anti-discrimination laws.[103][104]

Central Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Austria Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2010 No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Croatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2003 No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[105][106] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination, The Law on volunteering, Electronic media Law (all including both gender identity and gender expression)
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2006. No No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Germany Germany Yes Legal since 1969 (since 1968 in East Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2001 No No/Yes Step-child adoption only (full joint adoption proposed) Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2009 No Constitutional ban since 2012[107] No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2011 No No N/A No
Poland Poland Yes Never punished. Legal until 18th century, criminalized in 19th by laws of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, legal again since 1932
+ UN decl. sign.
No (proposed) No Constitution defines marriage as "a union of a man and a woman"[108] No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Sex change legal; birth certificate is amended after the reassignment surgery
Slovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.
No (proposed) No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Slovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2006 No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Sex change is legal: new documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity.[109]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Geneva, Vaud, Valais and Ticino: legal since 1798. Nationwide since 1942
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2007 No No Single gay persons may adopt. (full joint-adoption proposed) Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination

Eastern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[110] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2002
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[111] No
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Unknown No
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994 No No Constitutional ban since 1994. No No Banned from military service No
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Bulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 1991. No Single gay persons may adopt. Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[106]
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995 No No Constitutional ban since 1994. No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 2007. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[112] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Romania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106]
Russia Russia (incl. all constituent regions) Yes Legal since 1993. Previously legal from 1917 to 1930. No No No Yes No Some regions ban the "propaganda" of homosexualism
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal since 1994
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitution defines marriage as "a union of a man and a woman" No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[113] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991 No No Constitution defines marriage as "a union of a man and a woman" No Yes No

Northern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Denmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 1989. First country to legalise same-sex unions. Replaced in 2012 by gender neutral marriage law. Yes Legal since 2012 Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[38][106]
Estonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Single persons may adopt. Two people can adopt a child only if they are married.[114] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[106]
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark) Yes Legal since 1933 No No No Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[106]
Finland Finland Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2002 No (under consideration)[115] Yes/ No Step-child adoption only (full joint adoption under consideration) Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[106] Yes Legal sex change is possible without stelirization[116]
Greenland Greenland (constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark) Yes Legal since 1933
+UN decl. sign via Denmark.
Yes Legal since 1996 No Yes / No Step-child adoption only Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 1996 Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Legal since 2006 N/A Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106] Yes Sex changes are legal and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
Republic of Ireland Ireland Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2011 No Supreme Court decision pending No Single gay persons may adopt. Step Child adoption under consideration. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106] No Legislation to recognise gender identity pending after High Court ruling in favour.
Isle of Man Isle of Man Yes Legal since 1992 Yes Legal since 2011 No Yes Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender Recognition Act 2009[2]
Latvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 2006 No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Lithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 1992 No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 1993 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[117][106] Yes Sex changes are legal and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
Sweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 1995 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[38] Yes Sterilization (Sweden is pursuing to ban sterilization for transgender people by legislation in 2012) and divorce necessary for legal gender change.
United Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Legal since 1967 in England and Wales, 1981 in Scotland and 1982 in Northern Ireland
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil partnership since 2005 No (under consideration) Yes Legal since 2002 in England and Wales, 2009 in Scotland and unclear in Northern Ireland Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[118][38] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004

Southern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1790
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2005 No Yes Legal since 2005 N/A Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106]
Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.
No(proposed) No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Gibraltar Gibraltar (overseas territory of the UK) Yes Legal since 1993 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Greece Greece Yes Legal since 1951 (Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.
No(proposed) No No (proposed)[119] Yes[120] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes
Italy Italy Yes Legal since 1890
+ UN decl. sign.
No(proposed) No No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Sex changes are legal and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[121]
Malta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.
No (proposed) No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Sex changes are legal and documents can be amended to the recognised gender
Portugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2001 Yes Legal since 2010 No Single gay persons may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, according to Constitution[106] Yes Sex changes are legal and documents can be amended to the recognised gender, simplified in 2011.
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No
Spain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 1998 Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106] Yes La Ley de Identidad de Género (Gender Identity Law), enacted in 2007.
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[38] No No No Yes No Committee formed in March 2010 to draft a discrimination clause including sexual orientation.[122] It will soon be discussed in the parliament.[123] Yes
Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal[38] No No No Unknown No

Western Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belgium Belgium Yes Legal since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2000 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106]
France France Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil solidarity pact
since 1999
No (under consideration)[124] No Single gay persons may adopt (under consideration) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[38][106]
Guernsey Guernsey (incl. Alderney Alderney, Herm Herm and Sark Sark) Yes legal since 1983 No (proposed) No Yes Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[125] Yes[125]
Jersey Jersey Yes legal since 1990 Yes Legal since 2012 No Yes Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[3]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2004 No (proposed) No Single gay persons may adopt (step-child only proposed) Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793 No No No Yes France responsible for defence No
Netherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 1998 Yes Legal since 2001. First country to legalise same-sex marriage. Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[106] Yes

Partially recognised states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Republic of Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal since 1970 (as part of Serbia) No No. No Yes Yes But not implemented, LGBT people are highly discriminated, no open/legal LGBT organisation.
Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic Northern Cyprus (recognised only by the Republic of Turkey) No Male illegal (Expected to be decriminalised in 2012),
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No No No

Oceania

Australasia

LGBT rights in: Homosexual acts legal? Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Australia Australia (including territories of  Christmas Island,  Cocos (Keeling) Islands,  Norfolk Island) Yes Legal nationwide since 1994.

+ UN decl. sign.

Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2009

Civil Union schemes in ACT, Tasmania, Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales

Only transsexual persons allowed to marry (All States) (Proposed)

banned under the Marriage Act 1961

Yes/No Single gay persons may adopt; joint adoption in ACT, New South Wales and Western Australia.

Stepchild adoption in Tasmania and Queensland.

Yes since 1992 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Covered by all state and territory laws only.
New Zealand New Zealand Yes Legal since 1986.

+ UN decl. sign.

Yes Legal since 2005. No(Proposed)

banned under the Marriage Act 1955

No Single gay persons may adopt. Yes since 1993 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Covered under the "sex discrimination" provision of the Human Rights Act 1993 since 2006.

Melanesia

LGBT rights in: Homosexual acts legal? Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
East Timor East Timor (terminology "Oceania" varies on border definitions) Yes Legal since 1975[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No No
Fiji Fiji Yes Legal since 2010[126]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No banned under the Marriage Act 2002 No Unknown No 1997 constitution that banned all anti-gay discrimination has been repealed. Unknown
New Caledonia New Caledonia (overseas collectivity of France) Yes Legal Yes PACS since 2009 No No Yes French responsibility Unknown
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea No Illegal[38] No No No No No No
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands No Illegal[38] No No No No No No
Vanuatu Vanuatu Yes Legal since 2007[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Unknown No No

Micronesia

LGBT rights in: Homosexual acts legal? Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Guam Guam (unincorporated territory of the United States) Yes Legal since 1979 No (proposed) No Yes Legal since 2002 Yes since 2011 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, also US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Yes Legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Kiribati Kiribati No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No No No No
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Yes Legal since 2005[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes since 2011 No
Nauru Nauru No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38](legalisation proposed under a new Criminal Code)
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Australia's responsibility No No
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands Yes since 1983 No No No Yes since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Palau Palau No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No No

Polynesia

LGBT rights in: Homosexual acts legal? Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
American Samoa American Samoa (unincorporated territory of the United States)[127] Yes Legal since 1899 No No No Yes since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Easter Island Easter Island (overseas territory of Chile) Yes Legal since 1998 No No No No No
Cook Islands Cook Islands (part of the realm of New Zealand) No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No Yes New Zealand's responsibility No No
French Polynesia French Polynesia (overseas collectivity of France) Yes Legal No No No Yes French responsibility Unknown

-

Hawaii Hawaii (State of the United States United States) Yes Since 1972 Yes Reciprocal beneficiary rights since 1997; civil union from 2012 No Constitutional and statute ban since 1998 Yes From 2012 (under civil union law) Yes Since 2011 Yes Bans discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation Yes Bans discrimination on the basis of gender identity/expression
Niue Niue (part of the realm of New Zealand) Yes Legal since 2007[38] No No No Has no military forces Unknown
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands (overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Yes Legal since 1967 No No Yes Yes Yes Bans most anti-gay discrimination
Samoa Samoa No Legalisation proposed under a new Criminal Code[4]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Has no military forces No No
Tokelau Tokelau (part of the realm of New Zealand) Yes Legal 2007[38] No No No Has no military forces No No
Tonga Tonga No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
No No No No No No
Tuvalu Tuvalu No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Has no military forces No Unknown
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna (overseas collectivity of France) Yes Legal Yes PACS since 2009 No No Yes French responsibility Unknown


See also

References

  1. ^ Jordans, Frank (June 17, 2011). "U.N. Gay Rights Protection Resolution Passes, Hailed As 'Historic Moment'". Associated Press. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/17/un-gay-rights-protection-resolution-passes-_n_879032.html. 
  2. ^ "UN issues first report on human rights of gay and lesbian people". United Nations. 15 December 2011. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=40743. 
  3. ^ ritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex, p. 40
  4. ^ http://galva108.org/deities.html
  5. ^ Eva Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World (Yale University Press, 1992, 2002, originally published 1988 in Italian), p. xi; Marilyn B. Skinner, introduction to Roman Sexualities (Princeton University Press, 1997), p. 11.
  6. ^ Thomas A.J. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 326.
  7. ^ Catharine Edwards, "Unspeakable Professions: Public Performance and Prostitution in Ancient Rome," in Roman Sexualities, pp. 67–68.
  8. ^ Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (Oxford University Press, 1983, 1992), p. 225, and "Not before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the cinaedus and the Roman Law against Love between Men," Journal of the History of Sexuality 3.4 (1993), p. 525.
  9. ^ Plutarch, Moralia 288a; Thomas Habinek, "The Invention of Sexuality in the World-City of Rome," in The Roman Cultural Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 39; Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 545–546. Scholars disagree as to whether the Lex Scantinia imposed the death penalty or a hefty fine.
  10. ^ Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999, 2010), p. 304, citing Saara Lilja, Homosexuality in Republican and Augustan Rome (Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 1983), p. 122.
  11. ^ Williams, Roman Homosexuality, pp. 214–215; Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," passim.
  12. ^ Catharine Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 63–64.
  13. ^ As recorded in a fragment of the speech De Re Floria by Cato the Elder (frg. 57 Jordan = Aulus Gellius 9.12.7), noted and discussed by Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," p. 561.
  14. ^ Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 562–563. See also Digest 48.5.35 [34] on legal definitions of rape that included boys.
  15. ^ Under the Lex Aquilia. See McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome, p. 314.
  16. ^ McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome, p. 40.
  17. ^ Sara Elise Phang, Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 93.
  18. ^ Polybius, Histories 6.37.9 (translated as bastinado).
  19. ^ Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers, pp. 280–285.
  20. ^ Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers, p. 3.
  21. ^ Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 112 et passim.
  22. ^ Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers, pp. 285–292.
  23. ^ Juvenal, Satire 2; Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 28.
  24. ^ Suetonius Life of Nero 28–29; Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 279ff.
  25. ^ Michael Groneberg, "Reasons for Homophobia: Three Types of Explanation," in Combatting Homophobia: Experiences and Analyses Pertinent to Education (LIT Verlag, 2011), p. 193.
  26. ^ Codex Theodosianus 9.7.3 (4 December 342), introduced by the sons of Constantine in 342.
  27. ^ Groneberg, "Reasons for Homophobia," p. 193.
  28. ^ The Beautiful Way of the Samurai Native Tradition and Hellenic Echo
  29. ^ "Xinhua - English". Web.archive.org. http://web.archive.org/web/19960101-re_/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-12/26/content_3970520.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  30. ^ 晓飞, 郭 (2007-05-01). 中国法视野下的同性恋. 知识产权出版社. ISBN 978-7-80198-697-9. 
  31. ^ Adoptive parents.ca - Adoption in Nunavut. "Adoption in Nunavut". http://www.adoptiveparents.ca/nun_issues.shtml. 
  32. ^ Adoptive Parents.ca - Adoption in Yukon. "Adoption in Yukon". http://www.adoptiveparents.ca/yk_issues.shtml. 
  33. ^ Canadian Blood Services - Société canadienne du sang. "Canadian Blood Services - Société canadienne du sang - Questions and Answers". Blood.ca. http://www.blood.ca/centreapps/internet/uw_v502_mainengine.nsf/page/Questions%20and%20Answers?OpenDocument#HT3. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  34. ^ "FDA says gay men still can’t donate blood - AIDS". MSNBC. 23 May 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18827137/. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  35. ^ Resnick, Eric (17 March 2006). "Red Cross now seeks to allow gay blood donation". Gaypeopleschronicle.com. http://www.gaypeopleschronicle.com/stories06/march/0317062.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  36. ^ FDA Recommends Barring Gay Men From Being Sperm Donors By Linda Orlando
  37. ^ American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) requires sperm donors be screened for all infections
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by State-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults
  39. ^ Gambia: Mob Violence And Murder Feared After President's Gay Beheading Threat, AllAfrica, 12 June 2008
  40. ^ Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality 27 April 2009.
  41. ^ Kenya Constitution
  42. ^ Section 158(3)(c)-(d), The Children Act, 2001
  43. ^ Sections 3-4, The Adoption of Children Act
  44. ^ The Sexual Offences Bill 2007
  45. ^ a b Africa: Outspoken activists defend continent's sexual diversity
  46. ^ a b ILGA May 2012 Report, p. 15
  47. ^ Mozambique Gay Rights Group Wants Explicit Constitutional Protections
  48. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
  49. ^ "Criminal Code (R.S., 1985, c. C-46), Section 159, Subsection (1)". Department of Justice Canada. 21 May 2010.
  50. ^ Sexual Orientation and Legal Rights (92-1E)
  51. ^ Same Sex Couple Adoption: The Situation in Canada and Australia (Research Note 29 1999-2000)
  52. ^ "Canadian Armed Forces". The Canadian Lesbian & Gay Archives. http://www.clga.ca/Material/Records/docs/details/caf.htm. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  53. ^ Northwest Territories Human Rights Act, S.N.W.T. 2002, c.18. Section 5.
  54. ^ "Ontario passes law to protect transgender people". CBC News. June 13, 2012. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/story/2012/06/13/ontario-gender-equality.html. Retrieved June 13, 2012. 
  55. ^ a b David Agren (10 August 2010). "Mexican States Ordered to Honor Gay Marriages". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/11/world/americas/11mexico.html?_r=1. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  56. ^ a b Associated Press (4 March 2010). "Mexico City's gay marriage law takes effect". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35714490/ns/world_news-americas/#storyContinued. Retrieved 6 March 2010. 
  57. ^ Varillas, Adriana (3 May 2012). "Revocan anulación de bodas gay en QRoo" (in Spanish). El Universal. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/845171.html. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  58. ^ (Spanish) José Reyes (28 November 2011). "Adopción gay será posible en Coahuila". Vanguardia. http://www.vanguardia.com.mx/adopciongayseraposibleencoahuila-1158988.html. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  59. ^ "Intercountry Adoption: Mexico". Office of Children Issues, U.S. Dept. of State. November 2009. http://adoption.state.gov/country/mexico.html. 
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  76. ^ Mora, Manuel Velandia. "Cambio de nombre es posible en Colombia". Manuel Antonio Velandia Mora Autobiografía y artículos. http://manuelvelandiaautobiografiayarticulos.blogspot.com/2007/12/el-cambio-de-nombre-es-posible-en.html. Retrieved 30 September 2010. (Spanish)
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  82. ^ Reuters (9 September 2009). "Lawmakers in Uruguay Vote to Allow Gay Couples to Adopt". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/10/world/americas/10uruguay.html. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  83. ^ Rachel Weiner (15 May 2009). "Uruguay Lifts Ban On Gays In The Military". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/05/15/uruguay-lifts-ban-on-gays_n_203996.html. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
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  86. ^ "Kazakhstan Says No to Gays in Military". Eurasianet. 13 June 2013. http://www.eurasianet.org/node/65533. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
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  89. ^ Gay couple wins right to adopt foster son
  90. ^ a b "Lesbian marriages, born of a legal loophole, stir debate in India". http://www.despardes.com/lifestyle/feb05/lesbian-marriages.htm. 
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