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définition - Nerve

nerve (n.)

1.fortitude and determination"he didn't have the guts to try it"

2.any of the vascular bundles or ribs that form the branching framework of conducting and supporting tissues in a leaf or other plant organ

3.the courage to carry on"he kept fighting on pure spunk" "you haven't got the heart for baseball"

4.any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body

5.a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger or pain without showing fear

6.(informal)impudent aggressiveness"I couldn't believe her boldness" "he had the effrontery to question my honesty"

nerve (v.)

1.get ready for something difficult or unpleasant

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Merriam Webster

nervenerve (nẽrv), n. [OE. nerfe, F. nerf, L. nervus, akin to Gr. ney^ron sinew, nerve; cf. neyra` string, bowstring; perh. akin to E. needle. Cf. Neuralgia.]
1. (Anat.) One of the whitish and elastic bundles of fibers, with the accompanying tissues, which transmit nervous impulses between nerve centers and various parts of the animal body.

☞ An ordinary nerve is made up of several bundles of nerve fibers, each bundle inclosed in a special sheath (the perineurium) and all bound together in a connective tissue sheath and framework (the epineurium) containing blood vessels and lymphatics.

2. A sinew or a tendon. Pope.

3. Physical force or steadiness; muscular power and control; constitutional vigor.

he led me on to mightiest deeds,
Above the nerve of mortal arm.
Milton.

4. Steadiness and firmness of mind; self-command in personal danger, or under suffering; unshaken courage and endurance; coolness; pluck; resolution.

5. Audacity; assurance. [Slang]

6. (Bot.) One of the principal fibrovascular bundles or ribs of a leaf, especially when these extend straight from the base or the midrib of the leaf.

7. (Zoöl.) One of the nervures, or veins, in the wings of insects.

Nerve cell (Anat.), a neuron, one of the nucleated cells with which nerve fibers are connected; a ganglion cell is one type of nerve cell. -- Nerve fiber (Anat.), one of the fibers of which nerves are made up. These fibers are either medullated or nonmedullated. In both kinds the essential part is the translucent threadlike axis cylinder which is continuous the whole length of the fiber. -- Nerve stretching (Med.), the operation of stretching a nerve in order to remedy diseases such as tetanus, which are supposed to be influenced by the condition of the nerve or its connections.

NerveNerve (nẽrv), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nerved (nẽrvs); p. pr. & vb. n. Nerving.] To give strength or vigor to; to supply with force; as, fear nerved his arm.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Nerve

voir aussi

locutions

-Nerve Block • Nerve Cells • Nerve Compression Syndrome, Thoracic Outlet • Nerve Compression Syndromes • Nerve Compression Syndromes, External • Nerve Compression Syndromes, Internal • Nerve Conduction • Nerve Crossover • Nerve Crush • Nerve Degeneration • Nerve Endings • Nerve Endings, Presynaptic • Nerve Endings, Sensory • Nerve Entrapments • Nerve Fibers • Nerve Fibers, Myelinated • Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated • Nerve Growth Cone Membrane Protein GAP-43 • Nerve Growth Factor • Nerve Growth Factor 1 • Nerve Growth Factor 2 • Nerve Growth Factor Receptor p75 • Nerve Growth Factor Receptor, Low-Affinity • Nerve Growth Factor Receptors • Nerve Growth Factor alpha Subunit • Nerve Growth Factor beta Subunit • Nerve Growth Factor gamma Subunit • Nerve Growth Factor-Inducible Large External Glycoprotein • Nerve Growth Factors • Nerve Impulses • Nerve Injury, Facial • Nerve Net • Nerve Pain • Nerve Regeneration • Nerve Root Avulsion • Nerve Root Compression • Nerve Root Disorder • Nerve Root Inflammation • Nerve Sheath Neoplasms • Nerve Sheath Tumors • Nerve Sheath Tumors, Peripheral • Nerve Tissue • Nerve Tissue Neoplasms • Nerve Tissue Protein S 100 • Nerve Tissue Proteins • Nerve Transfer • Nerve Transmitter Substances • Nerve root and plexus compressions in diseases classified elsewhere • Nerve root and plexus compressions in intervertebral disc disorders • Nerve root and plexus compressions in neoplastic disease • Nerve root and plexus compressions in other diseases classified elsewhere • Nerve root and plexus compressions in other dorsopathies • Nerve root and plexus compressions in spondylosis • Nerve root and plexus disorder, unspecified • Nerve root and plexus disorders • Nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders • Nerve-Muscle Preparation • have the nerve • lose one's nerve • nerve agent • nerve block anaesthesia • nerve block anesthesia • nerve cell • nerve center • nerve centre • nerve compression • nerve deafness • nerve end • nerve ending • nerve entrapment • nerve fiber • nerve fibre • nerve gas • nerve growing factor • nerve growth factor • nerve impulse • nerve o.s. • nerve o.s. to • nerve pathway • nerve plexus • nerve tissue • nerve tract • nerve-growth factor • nerve-racking • nerve-wracking

-Abducens nerve • Accessory nerve • Accessory obturator nerve • Accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve • Adrenergic nerve fibre • Anococcygeal nerve • Anterior ethmoidal nerve • Anterior interosseous nerve • Anterior root of spinal nerve • Anterior superior alveolar nerve • Auditory nerve • Auricular branch of vagus nerve • Auriculotemporal nerve • Axillary nerve • Axillary nerve dysfunction • Buccal branch of the facial nerve • Buccal nerve • Cervical branch of the facial nerve • Coccygeal nerve • Cochlear nerve • Common fibular nerve • Common palmar digital nerves of median nerve • Congenital fourth nerve palsy • Cranial nerve nucleus • Cutaneous branches of the radial nerve • Deep branch of the radial nerve • Deep fibular nerve • Deep petrosal nerve • Digastric branch of facial nerve • Dopaminergic nerve fibre • Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve • Dorsal nerve • Dorsal nerve cord • Dorsal nerve of the penis • Dorsal scapular nerve • External laryngeal nerve • External nasal nerve • External respiratory nerve of Bell • Facial nerve • Femoral nerve • Frontal nerve • Glossopharyngeal nerve • Gluteal nerve • Great auricular nerve • Greater occipital nerve • Greater palatine nerve • Greater petrosal nerve • Greater splanchnic nerve • Hiatus for greater petrosal nerve • Hypoglossal nerve • I Got Nerve • Iliohypogastric nerve • Ilioinguinal nerve • Inferior ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve • Inferior ganglion of vagus nerve • Inferior gluteal nerve • Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm • Inferior palpebral nerve • Infraorbital nerve • Infratrochlear nerve • Intercostobrachial nerve • Internal laryngeal nerve • Internal respiratory nerve of Bell • Lacrimal nerve • Laryngeal nerve • Lateral brachial cutaneous nerve • Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm • Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh • Lateral pectoral nerve • Lateral plantar nerve • Lateral pterygoid nerve • Lateral root of median nerve • Lesser auricular nerve • Lesser occipital nerve • Lesser petrosal nerve • Lingual nerve • Long thoracic nerve • Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor • Lower subscapular nerve • Lumboinguinal nerve • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor • Mandibular nerve • Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve • Masseteric nerve • Maxillary nerve • Medial cutaneous nerve of arm • Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm • Medial pectoral nerve • Medial plantar nerve • Medial pterygoid nerve • Medial root of median nerve • Median nerve • Meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve • Mental nerve • Merkel nerve • Merkel nerve ending • Middle meningeal nerve • Middle superior alveolar nerve • Muscular branches of the radial nerve • Mylohyoid nerve • Nasociliary nerve • Nasopalatine nerve • Nerve Filter • Nerve Net • Nerve Recordings • Nerve Software • Nerve War • Nerve agent • Nerve block • Nerve conduction velocity • Nerve fiber • Nerve fiber layer • Nerve growth factor • Nerve induction • Nerve net • Nerve of pterygoid canal • Nerve plexus • Nerve potential • Nerve root • Nerve signal • Nerve terminal • Nerve to obturator internus • Nerve to quadratus femoris • Nerve to the Piriformis • Nerve to the stapedius • Nerve to the subclavius • Obturator nerve • Oculomotor nerve • Olfactory nerve • Ophthalmic nerve • Optic Nerve (CD-ROM) • Optic nerve • Optic nerve glioma • Optic nerve sheath meningioma • Palmar branch of the median nerve • Palmar branch of ulnar nerve • Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation • Perforating cutaneous nerve • Perineal nerve • Petrosal nerve • Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve • Pharyngeal nerve • Phrenic nerve • Plantar nerve • Posterior auricular nerve • Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm • Posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm • Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh • Posterior ethmoidal nerve • Posterior interosseous nerve • Posterior root of spinal nerve • Posterior superior alveolar nerve • Proper palmar digital nerves of median nerve • Pudendal nerve • Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve • Radial nerve • Sciatic nerve • Sensory nerve • Sixth nerve palsy • Spinal nerve • Spinal nerve roots • Stylohyoid branch of facial nerve • Subcostal nerve • Suboccipital nerve • Superficial branch of the radial nerve • Superficial fibular nerve • Superior ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve • Superior ganglion of vagus nerve • Superior gluteal nerve • Superior labial nerve • Superior laryngeal nerve • Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm • Supratrochlear nerve • Sural nerve • Tabun (nerve agent) • Temporal branches of the facial nerve • The Nerve Agents • The Nerve Agents (EP) • Thoracodorsal nerve • Tibial nerve • Transverse cervical nerve • Trigeminal nerve • Trigeminal nerve nuclei • Trochlear nerve • Twisted Nerve • Twitch of the Death Nerve • Tympanic nerve • Ulnar nerve • Upper subscapular nerve • Vagus Nerve Stimulation Therapy System • Vagus nerve • Vagus nerve stimulation • Ventral nerve cord • Vestibular nerve • Vestibulocochlear nerve • Zygomatic branches of the facial nerve • Zygomatic nerve • Zygomaticofacial nerve • Zygomaticotemporal nerve

dictionnaire analogique

 

MESH root[Thème]

nerve [MeSH]





nerve (n.)



nerve (n.)



Wikipedia

Nerve

                   
  Nerves (yellow)

A nerve, is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs.

In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin.

Each nerve is a cordlike structure that contains many axons. These axons are often referred to as "fibres". Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. Finally, the entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium.

Contents

  Anatomy

Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted:

Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system:

  Cross-section of a nerve

Each nerve is covered externally by a dense sheath of connective tissue, the epineurium. Underlying this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons. Perineurial septae extend into the nerve and subdivide it into several bundles of fibers. Surrounding each such fiber is the endoneurium. This forms an unbroken tube which extends from the surface of the spinal cord to the level at which the axon synapses with its muscle fibers, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, delicate, meshwork of collagen fibers. Nerves are bundled along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have fairly high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibers are surrounded by a low protein liquid called endoneurial fluid. The endoneurium has properties analogous to the blood–brain barrier, in that it prevents certain molecules from crossing from the blood into the endoneurial fluid. In this respect, endoneurial fluid is similar to cerebro-spinal fluid in the central nervous system. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation or (injury), the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation. This increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, and thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury.

  Physiology

A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses (known as nerve impulses or action potentials) carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve. These impulses are extremely fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and then back to electrical.[1][2]

Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function:

  • Sensory nerves conduct sensory information from their receptors to the central nervous system, where the information is then processed. Thus they are synonymous with afferent nerves.
  • Motor nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system to muscles. Thus they are synonymous with efferent nerves.[1][2]

  Clinical importance

Damage to nerves can be caused by physical injury or swelling (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome), autoimmune diseases (e.g. Guillain-Barré syndrome), infection (neuritis), diabetes or failure of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve. A pinched nerve occurs when pressure is placed on a nerve, usually from swelling due to an injury or pregnancy. Nerve damage or pinched nerves are usually accompanied by pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis. Patients may feel these symptoms in areas far from the actual site of damage, a phenomenon called referred pain. Referred pain occurs because when a nerve is damaged, signalling is defective from all parts of the area from which the nerve receives input, not just the site of the damage. Neurologists usually diagnose disorders of the nerves by a physical examination, including the testing of reflexes, walking and other directed movements, muscle weakness, proprioception, and the sense of touch. This initial exam can be followed with tests such as nerve conduction study and electromyography (EMG).

  Cancer

Cancer can spread along nerves; this is known as perineural spread and often is associated with a worse prognosis.

  Growth and stimulation

Nerve growth normally ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling."[3]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b c Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzppatrick D et al. (2008). Neuroscience (4th ed.). Sinauer Associates. pp. 11–20. ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7. 
  2. ^ a b c Marieb EN, Hoehn K (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th ed.). Pearson. pp. 388–602. ISBN 0-8053-5909-5. 
  3. ^ Yale Study Shows Way To Re-Stimulate Brain Cell Growth ScienceDaily (Oct. 22, 1999) — Results Could Boost Understanding Of Alzheimer's, Other Brain Disorders
   
               

 

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