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allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

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Oakland Athletics

                   
Oakland Athletics
2012 Oakland Athletics season
Established 1901
Based in Oakland since 1968
Oakland Athletics.svg
Team logo
Oakland Athletics Insignia.svg
Cap insignia
Major league affiliations
Current uniform
ALW-Uniform-OAK.PNG
Retired numbers 9, 24, 27, 34, 42, 43, (A's)
Colors
  • Green, California Gold, White

              

Name
  • Oakland Athletics (1981–present)

(Referred to as "A's")

Other nicknames
  • The A's, The White Elephants, The Elephants, The Green and Gold
Ballpark
  • a.k.a. McAfee Coliseum (20042008)
  • a.k.a. Network Associates Coliseum (19982004)
  • a.k.a. Overstock.com Coliseum (2011)
  • a.k.a. Connie Mack Stadium (19531954)
Major league titles
World Series titles (9) 1989 • 1974 • 1973 • 1972
1930 • 1929 • 1913 • 1911
1910
AL Pennants (15) 1990 • 1989 • 1988 • 1974
1973 • 1972 • 1931 • 1930
1929 • 1914 • 1913 • 1911
1910 • 1905 • 1902
West Division titles (14) [1] 2006 • 2003 • 2002 • 2000 
1992 • 1990 • 1989 • 1988 
1981 • 1975 • 1974 • 1973 
1972 • 1971 
Wild card berths (1) 2001

[1] – In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. Oakland was one game out of first place in the West Division (despite being 12 games under .500) behind Texas when play was stopped. No official titles were awarded in 1994.

Front office
Owner(s) John Fisher [1], Lew Wolff
Manager Bob Melvin
General Manager Billy Beane

The Oakland Athletics are a Major League Baseball team based in Oakland, California. The Athletics are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League. From 1968 to the present, the Athletics have played in the O.co Coliseum.

The "Athletics" name originates from the late 19th century "athletic clubs", specifically the Philadelphia Athletics baseball club. They are most prominently nicknamed "the A's", in reference to the Gothic script "A", a trademark of the team and the old Athletics of Philadelphia. This has gained very prominent use, and in some circles is used more frequently than the full "Athletics" name. They are also known as "the White Elephants" or simply "the Elephants", in reference to then New York Giants' manager John McGraw's calling the team a "white elephant".[2] This was embraced by the team, who then made a white elephant the team's mascot, and often incorporated it into the logo or sleeve patches. During the team's 1970s heyday, management often referred to the team as The Swingin' A's, referencing both their prodigious power and to connect the team with the growing disco culture.

One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the club was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics. The team had some prominent success in Philadelphia, winning three of four World Series from 1910 to 1914 (the "First Dynasty") and two in a row in 1929 and 1930 (the "Second Dynasty"). The team's owner and manager for its first 50 years was Connie Mack, and its Hall-of-Fame players included Chief Bender, Frank "Home Run" Baker, Jimmie Foxx and Lefty Grove. After two decades of decline, however, the team left Philadelphia for Kansas City in 1955 and became the Kansas City Athletics.

After 13 mostly uneventful seasons in the Midwest, the team moved to Oakland in 1968. There a "Third Dynasty" soon emerged, with three World Championships in a row from 1972 to 1974 led by players including Catfish Hunter, Reggie Jackson, ace reliever Rollie Fingers, and colorful owner Charlie O. Finley. Finally, a "Fourth Dynasty" won three consecutive pennants and the 1989 World Series behind Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco and Dennis Eckersley. In more recent years, the A's have often been playoff contenders but have not returned to the World Series since 1990. In 2002, the A's won 20 games in a row, which broke an AL record, as shown in the film Moneyball.

Contents

  Origins

  Origin of the team name

The Athletics' name originated in the term "Athletic Club" for local gentlemen's clubs—dates to 1860 when an amateur team, the Athletic (Club) of Philadelphia, was formed. (A famous image from that era, published in Harper's Weekly in 1866, shows the Athletic players dressed in uniforms displaying the familiar blackletter "A" on the front). The team later turned professional through 1875, becoming a charter member of the National League in 1876, but were expelled from the N.L. after one season. A later version of the Athletics played in the American Association from 1882–1891.

The team name is typically pronounced /æθˈlɛtɨks/, but their longtime team owner/manager Connie Mack called them by the old-fashioned colloquial Irish pronunciation /æθəˈlɛtɨks/.[citation needed] Newspaper writers also often referred to the team as the Mackmen during their Philadelphia days, in honor of their patriarch.

  Uniform emblem

Through the seasons, the Athletics' uniforms have usually paid homage to their amateur forebears to some extent. Until 1954, when the uniforms had "Athletics" spelled out in script across the front, the team's name never appeared on either home or road uniforms. Furthermore, not once did "Philadelphia" appear on the uniform, nor did the letter "P" appear on the cap or the uniform. The typical Philadelphia uniform had only a script "A" on the left front, and likewise the cap usually had the same "A" on it. In the early days of the American League, the standings listed the club as "Athletic" rather than "Philadelphia", in keeping with the old tradition. Eventually, the city name came to be used for the team, as with the other major league clubs.

After buying the team in 1960, owner Charles O. Finley introduced new road uniforms with "Kansas City" printed on them, as well as an interlocking "KC" on the cap. Upon moving to Oakland, the "A" cap emblem was restored, although in 1970 an "apostrophe-s" was added to the cap and uniform emblem to reflect the fact that Finley was in the process of officially changing the team's name to the "A's."

Also while in Kansas City, Finley changed the team's colors from their traditional red, white and blue to what he termed "Kelly Green, Wedding Gown White and Fort Knox Gold." It was also here that he began experimenting with dramatic uniforms to match these bright colors, such as gold sleeveless tops with green undershirts and gold pants. The innovative uniforms only increased after the team's move to Oakland, which also came at the time of the introduction of polyester pullover uniforms. During their dynasty years in the 1970s, the A's had dozens of uniform combinations with jerseys and pants in all three team colors, and in fact did not wear the traditional gray on the road, instead wearing green or gold, which helped to contribute to their nickname of "The Swingin' A's." After the team's sale to the Haas family, the team changed its primary color to a more subdued forest green and began a move back to more traditional uniforms.

Currently, the team wears home uniforms with "Athletics" spelled out in script writing and road uniforms with "Oakland" spelled out in script writing, with the cap logo consisting of the traditional "A" with "apostrophe-s." The home cap is green with a gold bill and white lettering, while the road cap, debuting in 1994, is all green with gold lettering. Regardless of road or home games, the batting helmets used are green with gold brim.

Since 1994, the A's have worn green alternates jerseys with the word "Athletics" in gold. It is used on both road and home games. During the 2000's, the Athletics introduced black as one of their colors. They began wearing a black alternate jersey with "Athletics" written in green. After a brief discontinuance, the A's brought back the black jersey, this time with "Athletics" written in white with gold highlights. Commercially popular but rarely chosen as the alternate by players, in 2011 they were replaced by a new gold alternate jersey with "A's" in green on the left chest, which they also wear either at home or on the road.

The nickname "A's" has long been used interchangeably with "Athletics," dating to the team's early days when headline writers wanted a way to shorten the name. From 1972 through 1980, the team nickname was officially "Oakland A's," although, during that time, the Commissioner's Trophy, given out annually to the winner of baseball's World Series, still listed the team's name as the "Oakland Athletics" on the gold-plated pennant representing the Oakland franchise. According to Bill Libby's Book, Charlie O and the Angry A's, owner Charlie O. Finley banned the word "Athletics" from the club's name because he felt that name was too closely associated with former Philadelphia Athletics owner Connie Mack, and he wanted the name "Oakland A's" to become just as closely associated with himself. The name also vaguely suggested the name of the old minor league Oakland Oaks, which were alternatively called the "Acorns." New owner Walter Haas restored the official name to "Athletics" in 1981, but retained the nickname "A's" for marketing purposes. At first, the word "Athletics" was restored only to the club's logo, underneath the much larger stylized-"A" that had come to represent the team since the early days. By 1987, however, the word returned, in script lettering, to the front of the team's jerseys.

The A's are the only MLB team to wear white cleats, both at home and on the road, another tradition dating back to the Finley ownership.

  Elephant mascot

After New York Giants' manager John McGraw told reporters that Philadelphia manufacturer Benjamin Shibe, who owned the controlling interest in the new team, had a "white elephant on his hands," Mack defiantly adopted the white elephant as the team mascot, and presented McGraw with a stuffed toy elephant at the start of the 1905 World Series. McGraw and Mack had known each other for years, and McGraw accepted it graciously. By 1909, the A's were wearing an elephant logo on their sweaters, and in 1918 it turned up on the regular uniform jersey for the first time. Over the years the elephant has appeared in several different colors. It is currently forest green. The A’s are still sometimes, though infrequently, referred to as the "Elephants" or "White Elephants."

The elephant was retired as team mascot in 1963 by then-owner Charles O. Finley in favor of a Missouri mule (it was also rumored to have been done by Finley in order to attract fans from the then heavily Democratic constituents of Missouri by replacing the traditional Republican mascot to one associated with Democrats). In 1988, the elephant was restored as the symbol of the Athletics and currently adorns the left sleeve of home and road uniforms. The Elephant Mascot returned briefly in the mid-'80s, under the name Harry Elephante. In 1997, the elephant returned, taking its current form: Stomper.

  Franchise history

The history of the Athletics Major League Baseball franchise spans the period from 1901 to the present day, having begun in Philadelphia before moving to Kansas City in 1955 and then to its current home in Oakland, California in 1968.

  Stadium

The O.co Coliseum -- originally known as the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum, and later named as Network Associates, McAfee and Overstock.com Coliseum -- was built as a multi-purpose facility. Louisiana Superdome officials pursued negotiations with Athletics officials during the 1978–1979 baseball off-season about moving the Athletics to the Superdome in New Orleans. The Athletics were unable to break their lease at the Coliseum, and remained in Oakland.[3]

After the Oakland Raiders football team moved to Los Angeles in 1982, many improvements were made to what was suddenly a baseball-only facility. The 1994 movie Angels in the Outfield was filmed in part at the Coliseum, filling in for Anaheim Stadium.

Then, in 1995, a deal was struck whereby the Raiders would move back to Oakland for the 1995 season. The agreement called for the expansion of the Coliseum to 63,026 seats. The bucolic view of the Oakland foothills that baseball spectators enjoyed was replaced with a jarring view of an outfield grandstand contemptuously referred to as "Mount Davis" after Raiders' owner Al Davis. Because construction was not finished by the start of the 1996 season, the Athletics were forced to play their first six-game homestand at 9,300-seat Cashman Field in Las Vegas.[4]

Although official capacity was stated to be 43,662 for baseball, seats were sometimes sold in Mount Davis as well, pushing "real" capacity to the area of 60,000. The ready availability of tickets on game day made season tickets a tough sell, while crowds as high as 30,000 often seemed sparse in such a venue. On December 21, 2005, the Athletics announced that seats in the Coliseum's third deck would not be sold for the 2006 season, but would instead be covered with a tarp, and that tickets would no longer be sold in Mount Davis under any circumstances. That effectively reduced capacity to 34,077, making the Coliseum the smallest stadium in Major League Baseball. As of 2008, sections 316-318 are the only open sections for A's games, bringing the total capacity to 35,067.

The Athletics are the only remaining MLB team in the United States still sharing a stadium with an NFL team. In Canada, Toronto's Rogers Centre is shared by the Blue Jays and the Canadian Football League's Toronto Argonauts, and is also used by the Buffalo Bills on occasion.

In 2011, the Athletics had the lowest attendance in baseball, with an average attendance of 18,232. [2]

  New stadium proposals

Since the mid 2000s the A's have been in talks with Oakland and other Northern California cities about building a new baseball-only stadium. The planned stadium, Cisco Field, was originally intended to be built in Fremont, California (a location that has since been abandoned). There were talks about it remaining in Oakland and there are currently talks about building it in San Jose.

Additionally there have been some proposals about moving the team to Sacramento and renovating that city's Minor League stadium.

  Fremont

After the city of Oakland failed to make any progress toward a stadium, the A's began contemplating a move to the Warm Springs district of suburban Fremont. Fremont is about 25 miles south of Oakland; many nearby residents are already a part of the current Athletics fanbase.

On November 7, 2006, many media sources announced the Athletics would be leaving Oakland as early as 2010 for a new stadium in Fremont, confirmed the next day by the Fremont City Council. The plan was strongly supported by Fremont Mayor Bob Wasserman.[5] The team would have played in what was planned to be called Cisco Field, a 32,000-seat, baseball-only facility.[6] The proposed ballpark would have been part of a larger "ballpark village" which would have included retail and residential development. On February 24, 2009, however, Lew Wolff released an open letter regarding the end of his efforts to relocate the A's to Fremont.[7]

  Sacramento

If negotiations within the Bay Area fail, Sacramento is considered a possible destination for the team.[8] Sacramento is the home of the team's AAA affiliate, the River Cats. The River Cats' stadium, Raley Field, would need significant construction to increase seating capacity to accommodate a major league team, but would probably not need to be demolished.[9]

  San Jose

As of February 26, 2009 the city of San Jose was expected to open negotiations with the team. Although parcels of land south of Diridon Station are being acquired by the city as a stadium site, the San Francisco Giants' claim on Santa Clara County as part of their home territory would have to be dealt with before any agreement could be made.[10]

By August 2010, San Jose was "aggressively wooing" A's owner Lew Wolff. Wolff referred to San Jose as the team's "best option", but Major League Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig said he would wait on a report on whether the team could move to the area because of the Giants conflict.[11]

In September 2010, 75 Silicon Valley CEOs drafted and signed a letter to Bud Selig urging a timely approval of the move to San Jose.[12]

In May 2011 San Jose Mayor Chuck Reed sent a letter to Bud Selig asking the commissioner for a timetable of when he might decide whether the A’s can pursue this new ballpark, but Selig did not respond.[13]

Selig addressed the San Jose issue via an online town hall forum held in July, saying, “Well, the latest is, I have a small committee who has really assessed that whole situation, Oakland, San Francisco, and it is complex. You talk about complex situations; they have done a terrific job. I know there are some people who think it’s taken too long and I understand that. I’m willing to accept that. But you make decisions like this; I’ve always said, you’d better be careful. Better to get it done right than to get it done fast. But we’ll make a decision that’s based on logic and reason at the proper time.”[14]

According to the San Jose Mercury, a decision by Selig's committee was to be made before the start of the 2012 season [15], but as of Opening Day 2012 no announcement has been made as to Selig's decision, or even that a decision has been made.

  Rivals

  San Francisco Giants

The Bay Bridge Series is the name of a series games played between—and the rivalry of—the A's and San Francisco Giants of the National League. The series takes its name from the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge which links the cities of Oakland and San Francisco. Although competitive, the regional rivalry between the A's and Giants is considered a friendly one with mostly mutual companionship between the fans, as opposed to White Sox–Cubs, or Yankees–Mets games where animosity runs high. Hats displaying both teams on the cap are sold from vendors at the games, and once in a while the teams both dress in uniforms from a historic era of their franchises.

The series is also occasionally referred to as the "BART Series" for the Bay Area Rapid Transit system that links Oakland to San Francisco. However, the name "BART Series" has never been popular beyond a small selection of history books and national broadcasters and has fallen out of favor. Bay Area locals almost exclusively refer to the rivalry as the "Bay Bridge Series".

Originally, the term described a series of exhibition games played between the two clubs after the conclusion of spring training, immediately prior to the start of the regular season. It was first used to refer to the 1989 World Series in which the Athletics won their most recent championship and the first time both teams had met since they moved to the San Francisco Bay Area. Today, it also refers to games played between the teams during the regular season since the commencement of interleague play in 1997. Through 2011, the A's have won 45 games, and the Giants have won 41.[16]

  Historic Rivalries

  Philadelphia Phillies

The City Series was the name of a series of baseball games played between the Athletics and the Philadelphia Phillies of the National League that ran from 1903 through 1955. After the A's move to Kansas City in 1955, the City Series rivalry came to an end. The teams have since faced each other in Interleague play (since its introduction in 1997) but the rivalry has effectively died in the intervening years since the A's left Philadelphia.

The first City Series was held in 1883 between the Phillies and the American Association Philadelphia Athletics.[17] When the Athletics first joined the American League, the two teams played each other in a spring and fall series. No City Series was held in 1901 and 1902 due to legal warring between the National League and American League.

  Season records

This table is a partial list of the seasons completed by the Athletics. For full season records see List of Oakland Athletics seasons.

Season Wins Losses Win % Place Playoffs
2000 91 70 .565 1st in AL West Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 2–3.
2001 102 60 .630 2nd in AL West Lost ALDS to New York Yankees, 2–3.
2002 103 59 .636 1st in AL West Lost ALDS to Minnesota Twins, 2–3.
2003 96 66 .593 1st in AL West Lost ALDS to Boston Red Sox, 2–3.
2004 91 71 .562 2nd in AL West
2005 88 74 .543 2nd in AL West
2006 93 69 .574 1st in AL West Won ALDS vs. Minnesota Twins, 3–0.
Lost ALCS vs. Detroit Tigers, 0–4.
2007 76 86 .469 3rd in AL West
2008 75 86 .466 3rd in AL West
2009 75 87 .463 4th in AL West
2010 81 81 .500 2nd in AL West
2011 74 88 .457 3rd in AL West
All-Time Record 8344 8840 .486

  Quick facts

Founded in Philadelphia in 1901 when the A.L. became a Major League. Moved to Kansas City in 1955 and to Oakland in 1968.
Current uniform[18] colors: green, gold and white: 1963–present, Only MLB team that wears white cleats
Previous uniform colors: blue and white: 1901–04, 1909–49, 1951–53, 1961; blue, red and white: 1905–08, 1954–60, 1962; Blue, gold and white: 1950,
Logo design: A blackletter "A's". The team also uses an elephant logo.
Team motto: Green Collar Baseball
Playoff appearances (23): 1905, 1910, 1911, 1913, 1914, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1981, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006
Local television: CSN California
Local radio: KGMZ
Mascot: Stomper
Spring-training facility: Phoenix Municipal Stadium, Phoenix, AZ

The spring-training facility in Phoenix, Arizona, has been the home of the Oakland A's since 1982. Previous spring-training sites since they moved to Oakland in 1968 were Yuma, Arizona, and Las Vegas, Nevada, both in the 1970s.[citation needed]

  Current roster

Oakland Athletics roster
Active roster Inactive roster Coaches/Other

Pitchers

Starting rotation

Bullpen

Closer

Catchers

Infielders

Outfielders

Designated hitters

  • None specified

Pitchers

Catchers

Infielders

Outfielders


Manager

Coaches

60-day disabled list


25 Active, 15 Inactive

Injury icon 2.svg 7- or 15-day disabled list
Suspended list
# Personal leave
Roster updated June 17, 2012
TransactionsDepth chart
All MLB rosters


  Baseball Hall of Famers

Oakland Athletics Hall of Famers
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
Philadelphia Athletics

Home Run Baker
Chief Bender
Ty Cobb
Mickey Cochrane

Eddie Collins
Jimmy Collins
Stan Coveleski
Elmer Flick

Nellie Fox
Jimmie Foxx
Lefty Grove
Waite Hoyt
George Kell

Nap Lajoie
Connie Mack*
Herb Pennock
Eddie Plank*

Al Simmons
Tris Speaker
Rube Waddell*
Zack Wheat

Kansas City Athletics

Luke Appling1

Lou Boudreau1

Whitey Herzog2
Tommy Lasorda2

Satchel Paige

Enos Slaughter

Oakland Athletics

Orlando Cepeda
Dennis Eckersley

Rollie Fingers
Goose Gossage
Rickey Henderson

Catfish Hunter**
Reggie Jackson

Willie McCovey
Joe Morgan
Don Sutton

Billy Williams
Dick Williams2

Players listed in bold are depicted on their Hall of Fame plaques wearing a Athletics cap insignia.
* – depicted on Hall of Fame plaque without a cap or cap insignia; Hall of Fame recognizes Athletics as "Primary Team"
** – Catfish Hunter could not decide between the Yankees and Athletics, and so opted to wear no insignia on his cap upon his induction.
1 – inducted as player; managed Athletics or was player-manager
2 – inducted as manager; played for Athletics or was player-manager

  Ford C. Frick Award recipients

Oakland Athletics Ford C. Frick Award recipients
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

Harry Caray

Herb Carneal
By Saam

Lon Simmons

Names in bold received the award based primarily on their work as broadcasters for the Athletics.

  Retired numbers

The numbers honored are as follows:

OaklandRetired09.PNG
Reggie
Jackson

Outfielder:
1967(KC)
1968–75,87(OAK)
Retired 2004
OaklandRetired24.png
Rickey
Henderson

Outfielder:
1979–84,
1989–93,
1994–95, 1998(OAK)
Retired 2009[19]
OaklandRetired27.PNG
Catfish
Hunter

Pitcher:
1965–67(KC)
1968–74(OAK)
Retired 1991
OaklandRetired34.PNG
Rollie
Fingers

Pitcher:
1968–76(OAK)

Retired 1993
OaklandRetired43.PNG
Dennis
Eckersley

Pitcher:
1987–95(OAK)

Retired 2005
OaklandRetired00.PNG
Walter A.
Haas, Jr.

Owner:
1981–95(OAK)

Honored 1995
OaklandRetired42.PNG
Jackie
Robinson

Retired by
all of MLB

Retired 1997

No A's player from the Philadelphia era has his number retired by the organization. Though Jackson and Hunter played small portions of their careers in Kansas City, no player that played the majority of his years in the Kansas City era has his number retired either. As of 2012, the A's have retired only the numbers of members of the Hall of Fame who played large portions of their careers in Oakland.

  Awards

  Athletics in the Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame

  Athletics in the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame

See: Members of the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame

The Athletics have made no public recognition of Philadelphia Athletics players at the Overstock.com Coliseum. From 1978 to 2003 (except 1983), however, the Philadelphia Phillies inducted one former Athletic (and one former Phillie) each year into the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame at the then-existing Veterans Stadium. In March 2004, after Veterans Stadium was replaced by the new Citizens Bank Park, the Athletics' plaques[20] were relocated to the Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society[21][22] in Hatboro, Pennsylvania, and a single plaque listing all of the A's inductees[23] was attached to a statue of Connie Mack that is located across the street from Citizens Bank Park.[24]

Mack, Foxx, Grove and Cochrane have also been inducted into the Philadelphia Sports Hall of Fame.

  Franchise records

  Season records

  Minor league affiliations

Level Team League Location
AAA Sacramento River Cats Pacific Coast League West Sacramento, CA
AA Midland RockHounds Texas League Midland, TX
Advanced A Stockton Ports California League Stockton, CA
A Burlington Bees Midwest League Burlington, IA
Short Season A Vermont Lake Monsters New York-Penn League Burlington, VT
Rookie AZL Athletics Arizona League Phoenix, AZ
DSL Athletics Dominican Summer League Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional, Dominican Republic

  Radio and television

As of 2011, the Athletics' flagship radio station is KGMZ 95.7 FM.[25] The current announcing team is Ken Korach and Vince Cotroneo.

Television coverage is exclusively on Comcast SportsNet California. Some A's games air on an alternate feed of CSN, called CSN Plus, if the main channel shows a Sacramento Kings game at the same time. On TV, Glen Kuiper covers play-by-play, and Ray Fosse provides color commentary. Fosse also does color commentary on the radio when the A's are not on TV, or the game is on Fox or ESPN. Fosse also does play by play on the radio during Spring training games.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ http://www.mercurynews.com/athletics/ci_20347459/oakland-coliseum-still-bears-o-co-name
  2. ^ Grauley, S.O., Why the Athletics Are Called "White Elephants" (excerpt from the 1909 Philadelphia A's Souvenir Program). Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society official website. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  3. ^ United Press International (1979-01-30). "Yankees, Twins still dickering". St. Petersburg Times. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=mBQOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=QnwDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6523,5452839&dq=superdome+yankees. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  4. ^ Cashman Field | Las Vegas 51s Cashman Field
  5. ^ Dennis, Rob (2011-12-30). "Fremont mayor Bob Wasserman dead at 77". The Argus (Fremont). http://www.insidebayarea.com/news/ci_19641994. Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  6. ^ "A's, Cisco reach ballpark deal". USA Today. November 9, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/athletics/2006-11-09-athletics-fremont-ballpark_x.htm. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Full text of A's letter to Fremont". 2009-02-24. http://sanjose.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2009/02/23/daily33.html. 
  8. ^ San Jose officials move into action, hoping to woo A's - San Jose Mercury News
  9. ^ Layer, Marine (2009-03-07). "How to Expand a Minor League Park". http://newballpark.org/2009/03/07/how-to-expand-a-minor-league-ballpark/. Retrieved 2010-05-03 
  10. ^ "Plans for A's stadium in San Jose moving forward". USA Today. 2010-06-16. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/2010-06-16-2425539876_x.htm. 
  11. ^ How the A's ballpark plans stack up - San Jose Mercury News
  12. ^ 75 Silicon Valley leaders endorse A's move to San Jose - San Jose Mercury News
  13. ^ In case you forgot, the Athletics are still in franchise limbo | HardballTalk
  14. ^ San Jose Inside - Selig Talks About A’s Move to San Jose
  15. ^ Newhouse: Can A's find the way to San Jose? - San Jose Mercury News
  16. ^ "Head-to-Head record for Oakland Athletics against the listed opponents from 1997 to 2011". baseball-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC.. http://www.baseball-reference.com/games/head2head.cgi?teams=OAK&from=1997&to=2011&submit=Submit. 
  17. ^ Burgoyne, Tom (2004). Movin' on Up: Baseball and Phialdephia Then, Now, and Always. B B& A Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 0-9754419-3-0. http://books.google.com/?id=yba-wMVloosC&pg=PA128&dq=Phillies+Athletics+city+series. 
  18. ^ See also: Major League Baseball uniforms.
  19. ^ "Oakland A's to retire Rickey Henderson's No. 24". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/sports_blog/2009/07/oakland-as-to-retire-rickey-hendersons-no-24.html. 
  20. ^ For photos of the A's Wall of Fame plaques, see Philadelphia A's Society Museum and Library webpage. Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  21. ^ Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society official website. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  22. ^ Fitzpatrick, Frank (February 22, 2011). "Demographics may doom the Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society". philly.com. Philadelphia Media Network (The Philadelphia Inquirer). http://www.philly.com/philly/sports/phillies/20110222_Demographics_may_doom_the_Philadelphia_Athletics_Historical_Society.html. Retrieved 2011-02-23. 
  23. ^ For photos of the plaque, see Montella, Ernie (June 5, 2004). "Wall of Fame Day in Hatboro, PA". Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society. http://www.philadelphiaathletics.org/event/20040605walloffameday.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  24. ^ Jordan, David M.. "Vet Plaques Come to Hatboro". Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society. http://www.philadelphiaathletics.org/event/walloffameplaques.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  25. ^ "New station, same booth team for A's". http://oakland.athletics.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090105&content_id=3732953&vkey=news_oak&fext=.jsp&c_id=oak. 

  Further reading

  • Bergman, Ron. Mustache Gang: The Swaggering Tale of Oakland's A's. Dell Publishing Co., New York, 1973.
  • Dickey, Glenn. Champions: The Story of the First Two Oakland A's Dynasties—and the Building of the Third. Triumph Books, Chicago, 2002. ISBN 1-57243-421-X
  • Jordan, David M. The Athletics of Philadelphia: Connie Mack's White Elephants, 1901–1954. McFarland & Co., Jefferson NC, 1999. ISBN 0-7864-0620-8.
  • Katz, Jeff. "The Kansas City A's & The Wrong Half of the Yankees." Maple Street Press, Hingham, MA, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9777436-5-0.
  • Kuklick, Bruce. To Everything a Season: Shibe Park and Urban Philadelphia 1909–1976. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1991. ISBN 0-691-04788-X.
  • Lewis, Michael. Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., New York, 2003. ISBN 0-393-05765-8.
  • Markusen, Bruce. Baseball's Last Dynasty: Charlie Finley's Oakland A's. Master Press, Indianapolis, 1998.
  • Peterson, John E. The Kansas City Athletics: A Baseball History 1954–1967. McFarland & Co., Jefferson NC, 1999. ISBN 0-7864-1610-6.
  • 2005 Oakland Athletics Media Guide

  External links

Preceded by
Pittsburgh Pirates
1909
World Series Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1910 and 1911
Succeeded by
Boston Red Sox
1912
Preceded by
Boston Red Sox
1912
World Series Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1913
Succeeded by
Boston Braves
1914
Preceded by
New York Yankees
1927 and 1928
World Series Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1929 and 1930
Succeeded by
St. Louis Cardinals
1931
Preceded by
Pittsburgh Pirates
1971
World Series Champions
Oakland Athletics

1972 and 1973 and 1974
Succeeded by
Cincinnati Reds
1975
Preceded by
Los Angeles Dodgers
1988
World Series Champions
Oakland Athletics

1989
Succeeded by
Cincinnati Reds
1990
Preceded by
Chicago White Sox
1901
American League Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1902
Succeeded by
Boston Americans
1903
Preceded by
Boston Americans
1903
American League Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1905
Succeeded by
Chicago White Sox
1906
Preceded by
Detroit Tigers
1907 and 1908 and 1909
American League Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1910 and 1911
Succeeded by
Boston Red Sox
1912
Preceded by
Boston Red Sox
1912
American League Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1913 and 1914
Succeeded by
Boston Red Sox
1912 and 1916
Preceded by
New York Yankees
1926 and 1927 and 1928
American League Champions
Philadelphia Athletics

1929 and 1930 and 1931
Succeeded by
New York Yankees
1932
Preceded by
Baltimore Orioles
1969 and 1970 and 1971
American League Champions
Oakland Athletics

1972 and 1973 and 1974
Succeeded by
Boston Red Sox
1975
Preceded by
Minnesota Twins
1987
American League Champions
Oakland Athletics

1988 and 1989 and 1990
Succeeded by
Minnesota Twins
1991
   
               

 

Toutes les traductions de Oakland_Athletics


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