» 
allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien
allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

définition - Object-oriented_programming

object oriented programming (n.)

1.creating a program that can use and support objects

object-oriented programming language (n.)

1.(computer science) a programming language that enables the programmer to associate a set of procedures with each type of data structure"C++ is an object-oriented programming language that is an extension of C"

object-oriented programming (n.)

1.creating a program that can use and support objects

   Publicité ▼

définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Object-oriented_programming

object-oriented programming language (n.)

object-oriented programing language

   Publicité ▼

dictionnaire analogique




Wikipedia

Object-oriented programming

                   

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm using "objects" – data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions – to design applications and computer programs. Programming techniques may include features such as data abstraction, encapsulation, messaging, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. Many modern programming languages now support OOP, at least as an option.

Contents

  Overview

Simple, non-OOP programs may be one "long" list of statements (or commands). More complex programs will often group smaller sections of these statements into functions or subroutines each of which might perform a particular task. With designs of this sort, it is common for some of the program's data to be 'global', i.e. accessible from any part of the program. As programs grow in size, allowing any function to modify any piece of data means that bugs can have wide-reaching effects.

In contrast, the object-oriented approach encourages the programmer to place data where it is not directly accessible by the rest of the program. Instead, the data is accessed by calling specially written functions, commonly called methods, which are either bundled in with the data or inherited from "class objects." These act as the intermediaries for retrieving or modifying the data they control. The programming construct that combines data with a set of methods for accessing and managing those data is called an object. The practice of using subroutines to examine or modify certain kinds of data was also used in non-OOP modular programming, well before the widespread use of object-oriented programming. Hiding the data (to prevent direct access from non-related code) was not possible, though.

An object-oriented program will usually contain different types of objects, each type corresponding to a particular kind of complex data to be managed or perhaps to a real-world object or concept such as a bank account, a hockey player, or a bulldozer. A program might well contain multiple copies of each type of object, one for each of the real-world objects the program is dealing with. For instance, there could be one bank account object for each real-world account at a particular bank. Each copy of the bank account object would be alike in the methods it offers for manipulating or reading its data, but the data inside each object would differ reflecting the different history of each account.

Objects can be thought of as wrapping their data within a set of functions designed to ensure that the data are used appropriately, and to assist in that use. The object's methods will typically include checks and safeguards that are specific to the types of data the object contains. An object can also offer simple-to-use, standardized methods for performing particular operations on its data, while concealing the specifics of how those tasks are accomplished. In this way alterations can be made to the internal structure or methods of an object without requiring that the rest of the program be modified. This approach can also be used to offer standardized methods across different types of objects. As an example, several different types of objects might offer print methods. Each type of object might implement that print method in a different way, reflecting the different kinds of data each contains, but all the different print methods might be called in the same standardized manner from elsewhere in the program. These features become especially useful when more than one programmer is contributing code to a project or when the goal is to reuse code between projects.

Object-oriented programming has roots that can be traced to the 1960s. As hardware and software became increasingly complex, manageability often became a concern. Researchers studied ways to maintain software quality and developed object-oriented programming in part to address common problems by strongly emphasizing discrete, reusable units of programming logic[citation needed]. The technology focuses on data rather than processes, with programs composed of self-sufficient modules ("classes"), each instance of which ("objects") contains all the information needed to manipulate its own data structure ("members"). This is in contrast to the existing modular programming that had been dominant for many years that focused on the function of a module, rather than specifically the data, but equally provided for code reuse, and self-sufficient reusable units of programming logic, enabling collaboration through the use of linked modules (subroutines). This more conventional approach, which still persists, tends to consider data and behavior separately.

An object-oriented program may thus be viewed as a collection of interacting objects, as opposed to the conventional model, in which a program is seen as a list of tasks (subroutines) to perform. In OOP, each object is capable of receiving messages, processing data, and sending messages to other objects. Each object can be viewed as an independent "machine" with a distinct role or responsibility. The actions (or "methods") on these objects are closely associated with the object. For example, OOP data structures tend to "carry their own operators around with them" (or at least "inherit" them from a similar object or class) - except when they have to be serialized.

  History

The terms "objects" and "oriented" in something like the modern sense of object-oriented programming seem to make their first appearance at MIT in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In the environment of the artificial intelligence group, as early as 1960, "object" could refer to identified items (LISP atoms) with properties (attributes);[1][2] Alan Kay was later to cite a detailed understanding of LISP internals as a strong influence on his thinking in 1966.[3] Another early MIT example was Sketchpad created by Ivan Sutherland in 1960-61; in the glossary of the 1963 technical report based on his dissertation about Sketchpad, Sutherland defined notions of "object" and "instance" (with the class concept covered by "master" or "definition"), albeit specialized to graphical interaction.[4] Also, an MIT ALGOL version, AED-0, linked data structures ("plexes", in that dialect) directly with procedures, prefiguring what were later termed "messages", "methods" and "member functions".[5][6]

Objects as a formal concept in programming were introduced in the 1960s in Simula 67, a major revision of Simula I, a programming language designed for discrete event simulation, created by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo.[7] Simula 67 was influenced by SIMSCRIPT and C.A.R. "Tony" Hoare's proposed "record classes".[5][8] Simula introduced the notion of classes and instances or objects (as well as subclasses, virtual methods, coroutines, and discrete event simulation) as part of an explicit programming paradigm. The language also used automatic garbage collection that had been invented earlier for the functional programming language Lisp. Simula was used for physical modeling, such as models to study and improve the movement of ships and their content through cargo ports. The ideas of Simula 67 influenced many later languages, including Smalltalk, derivatives of LISP (CLOS), Object Pascal, and C++.

The Smalltalk language, which was developed at Xerox PARC (by Alan Kay and others) in the 1970s, introduced the term object-oriented programming to represent the pervasive use of objects and messages as the basis for computation. Smalltalk creators were influenced by the ideas introduced in Simula 67, but Smalltalk was designed to be a fully dynamic system in which classes could be created and modified dynamically rather than statically as in Simula 67.[9] Smalltalk and with it OOP were introduced to a wider audience by the August 1981 issue of Byte Magazine.

In the 1970s, Kay's Smalltalk work had influenced the Lisp community to incorporate object-based techniques that were introduced to developers via the Lisp machine. Experimentation with various extensions to Lisp (like LOOPS and Flavors introducing multiple inheritance and mixins), eventually led to the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS, a part of the first standardized object-oriented programming language, ANSI Common Lisp), which integrates functional programming and object-oriented programming and allows extension via a Meta-object protocol. In the 1980s, there were a few attempts to design processor architectures that included hardware support for objects in memory but these were not successful. Examples include the Intel iAPX 432 and the Linn Smart Rekursiv.

Object-oriented programming developed as the dominant programming methodology in the early and mid 1990s when programming languages supporting the techniques became widely available. These included Visual FoxPro 3.0,[10][11][12] C++[citation needed], and Delphi[citation needed]. Its dominance was further enhanced by the rising popularity of graphical user interfaces, which rely heavily upon object-oriented programming techniques. An example of a closely related dynamic GUI library and OOP language can be found in the Cocoa frameworks on Mac OS X, written in Objective-C, an object-oriented, dynamic messaging extension to C based on Smalltalk. OOP toolkits also enhanced the popularity of event-driven programming (although this concept is not limited to OOP). Some[who?] feel that association with GUIs (real or perceived) was what propelled OOP into the programming mainstream.

At ETH Zürich, Niklaus Wirth and his colleagues had also been investigating such topics as data abstraction and modular programming (although this had been in common use in the 1960s or earlier). Modula-2 (1978) included both, and their succeeding design, Oberon, included a distinctive approach to object orientation, classes, and such. The approach is unlike Smalltalk, and very unlike C++.

Object-oriented features have been added to many existing languages during that time, including Ada, BASIC, Fortran, Pascal, and others. Adding these features to languages that were not initially designed for them often led to problems with compatibility and maintainability of code.

More recently, a number of languages have emerged that are primarily object-oriented yet compatible with procedural methodology, such as Python and Ruby. Probably the most commercially important recent object-oriented languages are Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) and C#, both designed for Microsoft's .NET platform, and Java, developed by Sun Microsystems. Both frameworks show the benefit of using OOP by creating an abstraction from implementation in their own way. VB.NET and C# support cross-language inheritance, allowing classes defined in one language to subclass classes defined in the other language. Developers usually compile Java to bytecode, allowing Java to run on any operating system for which a Java virtual machine is available. VB.NET and C# make use of the Strategy pattern to accomplish cross-language inheritance, whereas Java makes use of the Adapter pattern[citation needed].

Just as procedural programming led to refinements of techniques such as structured programming, modern object-oriented software design methods include refinements[citation needed] such as the use of design patterns, design by contract, and modeling languages (such as UML).

  Fundamental features and concepts

A survey by Deborah J. Armstrong of nearly 40 years of computing literature identified a number of "quarks", or fundamental concepts, found in the strong majority of definitions of OOP.[13]

Not all of these concepts are to be found in all object-oriented programming languages. For example, object-oriented programming that uses classes is sometimes called class-based programming, while prototype-based programming does not typically use classes. As a result, a significantly different yet analogous terminology is used to define the concepts of object and instance.

Benjamin C. Pierce and some other researchers view as futile any attempt to distill OOP to a minimal set of features. He nonetheless identifies fundamental features that support the OOP programming style in most object-oriented languages:[14]

  • Dynamic dispatch – when a method is invoked on an object, the object itself determines what code gets executed by looking up the method at run time in a table associated with the object. This feature distinguishes an object from an abstract data type (or module), which has a fixed (static) implementation of the operations for all instances. It is a programming methodology that gives modular component development while at the same time being very efficient.
  • Encapsulation (or multi-methods, in which case the state is kept separate)
  • Subtype polymorphism
  • Object inheritance (or delegation)
  • Open recursion – a special variable (syntactically it may be a keyword), usually called this or self, that allows a method body to invoke another method body of the same object. This variable is late-bound; it allows a method defined in one class to invoke another method that is defined later, in some subclass thereof.

Similarly, in his 2003 book, Concepts in programming languages, John C. Mitchell identifies four main features: dynamic dispatch, abstraction, subtype polymorphism, and inheritance.[15] Michael Lee Scott in Programming Language Pragmatics considers only encapsulation, inheritance and dynamic dispatch.[16]

Additional concepts used in object-oriented programming include:

  Decoupling

Decoupling refers to careful controls that separate code modules from particular use cases, which increases code re-usability. A common use of decoupling in OOP is to polymorphically decouple the encapsulation (see Bridge pattern and Adapter pattern) - for example, using a method interface which an encapsulated object must satisfy, as opposed to using the object's class.

  Formal semantics

There have been several attempts at formalizing the concepts used in object-oriented programming. The following concepts and constructs have been used as interpretations of OOP concepts:

Attempts to find a consensus definition or theory behind objects have not proven very successful (however, see Abadi & Cardelli, A Theory of Objects[18] for formal definitions of many OOP concepts and constructs), and often diverge widely. For example, some definitions focus on mental activities, and some on program structuring. One of the simpler definitions is that OOP is the act of using "map" data structures or arrays that can contain functions and pointers to other maps, all with some syntactic and scoping sugar on top. Inheritance can be performed by cloning the maps (sometimes called "prototyping"). OBJECT:=>> Objects are the run time entities in an object-oriented system. They may represent a person, a place, a bank account, a table of data or any item that the program has to handle.

  OOP languages

Simula (1967) is generally accepted as the first language to have the primary features of an object-oriented language. It was created for making simulation programs, in which what came to be called objects were the most important information representation. Smalltalk (1972 to 1980) is arguably the canonical example, and the one with which much of the theory of object-oriented programming was developed. Concerning the degree of object orientation, the following distinctions can be made:

  • Languages called "pure" OO languages, because everything in them is treated consistently as an object, from primitives such as characters and punctuation, all the way up to whole classes, prototypes, blocks, modules, etc. They were designed specifically to facilitate, even enforce, OO methods. Examples: Eiffel, Emerald.[19], JADE, Obix, Scala, Smalltalk
  • Languages designed mainly for OO programming, but with some procedural elements. Examples: C++, Java, C#, VB.NET, Python.
  • Languages that are historically procedural languages, but have been extended with some OO features. Examples: Visual Basic (derived from BASIC), Fortran, Perl, COBOL 2002, PHP, ABAP.
  • Languages with most of the features of objects (classes, methods, inheritance, reusability), but in a distinctly original form. Examples: Oberon (Oberon-1 or Oberon-2) and Common Lisp.
  • Languages with abstract data type support, but not all features of object-orientation, sometimes called object-based languages. Examples: Modula-2 (with excellent encapsulation and information hiding), Pliant, CLU.

  OOP in dynamic languages

In recent years, object-oriented programming has become especially popular in dynamic programming languages. Python, Ruby and Groovy are dynamic languages built on OOP principles, while Perl and PHP have been adding object oriented features since Perl 5 and PHP 4, and ColdFusion since version 5.

The Document Object Model of HTML, XHTML, and XML documents on the Internet have bindings to the popular JavaScript/ECMAScript language. JavaScript is perhaps the best known prototype-based programming language, which employs cloning from prototypes rather than inheriting from a class. Another scripting language that takes this approach is Lua. Earlier versions of ActionScript (a partial superset of the ECMA-262 R3, otherwise known as ECMAScript) also used a prototype-based object model. Later versions of ActionScript incorporate a combination of classification and prototype-based object models based largely on the currently incomplete ECMA-262 R4 specification, which has its roots in an early JavaScript 2 Proposal. Microsoft's JScript.NET also includes a mash-up of object models based on the same proposal, and is also a superset of the ECMA-262 R3 specification.

  Design patterns

Challenges of object-oriented design are addressed by several methodologies. Most common is known as the design patterns codified by Gamma et al.. More broadly, the term "design patterns" can be used to refer to any general, repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. Some of these commonly occurring problems have implications and solutions particular to object-oriented development.

  Inheritance and behavioral subtyping

It is intuitive to assume that inheritance creates a semantic "is a" relationship, and thus to infer that objects instantiated from subclasses can always be safely used instead of those instantiated from the superclass. This intuition is unfortunately false in most OOP languages, in particular in all those that allow mutable objects. Subtype polymorphism as enforced by the type checker in OOP languages (with mutable objects) cannot guarantee behavioral subtyping in any context. Behavioral subtyping is undecidable in general, so it cannot be implemented by a program (compiler). Class or object hierarchies need to be carefully designed considering possible incorrect uses that cannot be detected syntactically. This issue is known as the Liskov substitution principle.

  Gang of Four design patterns

Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software is an influential book published in 1995 by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides, often referred to humorously as the "Gang of Four". Along with exploring the capabilities and pitfalls of object-oriented programming, it describes 23 common programming problems and patterns for solving them. As of April 2007, the book was in its 36th printing.

The book describes the following patterns:

  Object-orientation and databases

Both object-oriented programming and relational database management systems (RDBMSs) are extremely common in software today. Since relational databases don't store objects directly (though some RDBMSs have object-oriented features to approximate this), there is a general need to bridge the two worlds. The problem of bridging object-oriented programming accesses and data patterns with relational databases is known as Object-Relational impedance mismatch. There are a number of approaches to cope with this problem, but no general solution without downsides.[20] One of the most common approaches is object-relational mapping, as found in libraries like Java Data Objects and Ruby on Rails' ActiveRecord.

There are also object databases that can be used to replace RDBMSs, but these have not been as technically and commercially successful as RDBMSs.

  Real-world modeling and relationships

OOP can be used to associate real-world objects and processes with digital counterparts. However, not everyone agrees that OOP facilitates direct real-world mapping (see Negative Criticism section) or that real-world mapping is even a worthy goal; Bertrand Meyer argues in Object-Oriented Software Construction[21] that a program is not a model of the world but a model of some part of the world; "Reality is a cousin twice removed". At the same time, some principal limitations of OOP had been noted.[22] For example, the Circle-ellipse problem is difficult to handle using OOP's concept of inheritance.

However, Niklaus Wirth (who popularized the adage now known as Wirth's law: "Software is getting slower more rapidly than hardware becomes faster") said of OOP in his paper, "Good Ideas through the Looking Glass", "This paradigm closely reflects the structure of systems 'in the real world', and it is therefore well suited to model complex systems with complex behaviours" (contrast KISS principle).

Steve Yegge and others noted that natural languages lack the OOP approach of strictly prioritizing things (objects/nouns) before actions (methods/verbs).[23] This problem may cause OOP to suffer more convoluted solutions than procedural programming.[24]

  OOP and control flow

OOP was developed to increase the reusability and maintainability of source code.[25] Transparent representation of the control flow had no priority and was meant to be handled by a compiler. With the increasing relevance of parallel hardware and multithreaded coding, developer transparent control flow becomes more important, something hard to achieve with OOP.[26][27][28][29]

  Responsibility- vs. data-driven design

Responsibility-driven design defines classes in terms of a contract, that is, a class should be defined around a responsibility and the information that it shares. This is contrasted by Wirfs-Brock and Wilkerson with data-driven design, where classes are defined around the data-structures that must be held. The authors hold that responsibility-driven design is preferable.

  Criticism

A number of well-known researchers and programmers have analysed the utility of OOP. Here is an incomplete list:

  • Luca Cardelli wrote a paper titled "Bad Engineering Properties of Object-Oriented Languages".[30]
  • Richard Stallman wrote in 1995, "Adding OOP to Emacs is not clearly an improvement; I used OOP when working on the Lisp Machine window systems, and I disagree with the usual view that it is a superior way to program."[31]
  • A study by Potok et al.[32] has shown no significant difference in productivity between OOP and procedural approaches.
  • Christopher J. Date stated that critical comparison of OOP to other technologies, relational in particular, is difficult because of lack of an agreed-upon and rigorous definition of OOP.[33] Date and Darwen[34] propose a theoretical foundation on OOP that uses OOP as a kind of customizable type system to support RDBMS.
  • Alexander Stepanov suggested that OOP provides a mathematically limited viewpoint and called it "almost as much of a hoax as Artificial Intelligence. I have yet to see an interesting piece of code that comes from these OO people. In a sense, I am unfair to AI: I learned a lot of stuff from the MIT AI Lab crowd, they have done some really fundamental work....".[35]
  • Paul Graham has suggested that the purpose of OOP is to act as a "herding mechanism" that keeps mediocre programmers in mediocre organizations from "doing too much damage". This is at the expense of slowing down productive programmers who know how to use more powerful and more compact techniques.[36]
  • Joe Armstrong, the principal inventor of Erlang, is quoted as saying "The problem with object-oriented languages is they've got all this implicit environment that they carry around with them. You wanted a banana but what you got was a gorilla holding the banana and the entire jungle."[37]
  • Richard Mansfield, author and former editor of COMPUTE! magazine, states that "like countless other intellectual fads over the years ("relevance", communism, "modernism", and so on—history is littered with them), OOP will be with us until eventually reality asserts itself. But considering how OOP currently pervades both universities and workplaces, OOP may well prove to be a durable delusion. Entire generations of indoctrinated programmers continue to march out of the academy, committed to OOP and nothing but OOP for the rest of their lives."[38] He also is quoted as saying "OOP is to writing a program, what going through airport security is to flying".[39]
  • Steve Yegge, making a roundabout comparison with Functional programming, writes, "Object Oriented Programming puts the Nouns first and foremost. Why would you go to such lengths to put one part of speech on a pedestal? Why should one kind of concept take precedence over another? It's not as if OOP has suddenly made verbs less important in the way we actually think. It's a strangely skewed perspective." [40]
  • Rich Hickey, creator of Clojure, described object systems as over simplistic models of the real world. He emphasized the inability of OOP to model time properly, which is getting increasingly problematic as software systems become more concurrent.[41]
  • Carnegie-Mellon University Professor Robert Harper in March 2011 wrote: "This semester Dan Licata and I are co-teaching a new course on functional programming for first-year prospective CS majors... Object-oriented programming is eliminated entirely from the introductory curriculum, because it is both anti-modular and anti-parallel by its very nature, and hence unsuitable for a modern CS curriculum. A proposed new course on object-oriented design methodology will be offered at the sophomore level for those students who wish to study this topic."[42]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ McCarthy, J.; Brayton, R.; Edwards, D.; Fox, P.; Hodes, L.; Luckham, D.; Maling, K.; Park, D. et al. (March 1960). LISP I Programmers Manual. Boston, Massachusetts: Artificial Intelligence Group, M.I.T. Computation Center and Research Laboratory. p. 88f. http://history.siam.org/sup/Fox_1960_LISP.pdf. "In the local M.I.T. patois, association lists [of atomic symbols] are also referred to as "property lists", and atomic symbols are sometimes called "objects"." 
  2. ^ McCarthy, John; Abrahams, Paul W.; Edwards, Daniel J.; Hart, swapnil d.; Levin, Michael I. (1962). LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual. MIT Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-262-13011-4. http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/LISP/book/LISP%201.5%20Programmers%20Manual.pdf. "Object - a synonym for atomic symbol" 
  3. ^ "Dr. Alan Kay on the Meaning of "Object-Oriented Programming"". 2003. http://www.purl.org/stefan_ram/pub/doc_kay_oop_en. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  4. ^ Sutherland, I. E. (30 January 1963). "Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System" (PDF). Technical Report No. 296, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology via Defense Technical Information Center (stinet.dtic.mil). http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/AD404549. Retrieved 3 November 2007. 
  5. ^ a b The Development of the Simula Languages, Kristen Nygaard, Ole-Johan Dahl, p.254 Uni-kl.ac.at
  6. ^ Ross, Doug. "The first software engineering language". LCS/AI Lab Timeline:. MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. http://www.csail.mit.edu/timeline/timeline.php?query=event&id=19. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  7. ^ Holmevik, Jan Rune (1994). "Compiling Simula: A historical study of technological genesis". IEEE Annals in the History of Computing 16 (4): 25–37. DOI:10.1109/85.329756. http://www.idi.ntnu.no/grupper/su/publ/simula/holmevik-simula-ieeeannals94.pdf. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  8. ^ Hoare, C. A. (Nov 1965). "Record Handling". ALGOL Bulletin (21): 39–69. DOI:10.1145/1061032.1061041 
  9. ^ Kay, Alan. "The Early History of Smalltalk". http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/EarlyHistoryST.html. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 
  10. ^ 1995 (June) Visual FoxPro 3.0, FoxPro evolves from a procedural language to an object-oriented language. Visual FoxPro 3.0 introduces a database container, seamless client/server capabilities, support for ActiveX technologies, and OLE Automation and null support. Summary of Fox releases
  11. ^ FoxPro History web site: Foxprohistory.org
  12. ^ 1995 Reviewers Guide to Visual FoxPro 3.0: DFpug.de
  13. ^ Armstrong, The Quarks of Object-Oriented Development. In descending order of popularity, the "quarks" are: Inheritance, Object, Class, Encapsulation, Method, Message Passing, Polymorphism, Abstraction
  14. ^ Pierce, Benjamin (2002). Types and Programming Languages. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-16209-1. , section 18.1 "What is Object-Oriented Programming?"
  15. ^ John C. Mitchell, Concepts in programming languages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-78098-5, p.278
  16. ^ Michael Lee Scott, Programming language pragmatics, Edition 2, Morgan Kaufmann, 2006, ISBN 0-12-633951-1, p. 470 vikas
  17. ^ Poll, Erik. "Subtyping and Inheritance for Categorical Datatypes". http://www.cs.ru.nl/E.Poll/papers/kyoto97.pdf. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Abadi, Martin; Cardelli, Luca (1996). A Theory of Objects. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.. ISBN 0-387-94775-2. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=547964&dl=ACM&coll=portal. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  19. ^ "The Emerald Programming Language". http://www.emeraldprogramminglanguage.org/. 
  20. ^ Neward, Ted (26 June 2006). "The Vietnam of Computer Science". Interoperability Happens. http://blogs.tedneward.com/2006/06/26/The+Vietnam+Of+Computer+Science.aspx. Retrieved 2 June 2010. 
  21. ^ Meyer, Second Edition, p. 230
  22. ^ M.Trofimov, OOOP - The Third "O" Solution: Open OOP. First Class, OMG, 1993, Vol. 3, issue 3, p.14.
  23. ^ Yegge, Steve (30 March 2006). "Execution in the Kingdom of Nouns". steve-yegge.blogspot.com. http://steve-yegge.blogspot.com/2006/03/execution-in-kingdom-of-nouns.html. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  24. ^ Boronczyk, Timothy (11 June 2009). "What's Wrong with OOP". zaemis.blogspot.com. http://zaemis.blogspot.com/2009/06/whats-wrong-with-oop.html. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  25. ^ Ambler, Scott (1 January 1998). "A Realistic Look at Object-Oriented Reuse". www.drdobbs.com. http://www.drdobbs.com/184415594. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  26. ^ Shelly, Asaf (22 August 2008). "Flaws of Object Oriented Modeling". Intel Software Network. http://software.intel.com/en-us/blogs/2008/08/22/flaws-of-object-oriented-modeling/. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  27. ^ James, Justin (1 October 2007). "Multithreading is a verb not a noun". techrepublic.com. http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/programming-and-development/?p=518. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  28. ^ Shelly, Asaf (22 August 2008). "HOW TO: Multicore Programming (Multiprocessing) Visual C++ Class Design Guidelines, Member Functions". support.microsoft.com. http://support.microsoft.com/?scid=kb%3Ben-us%3B558117. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  29. ^ Robert Harper (17 April 2011). "Some thoughts on teaching FP". Existential Type Blog. http://existentialtype.wordpress.com/2011/04/17/some-advice-on-teaching-fp/. Retrieved 5 December 2011. 
  30. ^ Cardelli, Luca (1996). "Bad Engineering Properties of Object-Oriented Languages". ACM Comput. Surv. (ACM) 28 (4es): 150. DOI:10.1145/242224.242415. ISSN 0360-0300. http://lucacardelli.name/Papers/BadPropertiesOfOO.html. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  31. ^ Stallman, Richard (16 January 1995). "Mode inheritance, cloning, hooks & OOP". Google Groups Discussion. http://groups.google.com/group/comp.emacs.xemacs/browse_thread/thread/d0af257a2837640c/37f251537fafbb03?lnk=st&q=%22Richard+Stallman%22+oop&rnum=5&hl=en#37f251537fafbb03. Retrieved 21 June 2008. 
  32. ^ Potok, Thomas; Mladen Vouk, Andy Rindos (1999). "Productivity Analysis of Object-Oriented Software Developed in a Commercial Environment". Software – Practice and Experience 29 (10): 833–847. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-024X(199908)29:10<833::AID-SPE258>3.0.CO;2-P. http://www.csm.ornl.gov/~v8q/Homepage/Papers%20Old/spetep-%20printable.pdf. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  33. ^ C. J. Date, Introduction to Database Systems, 6th-ed., Page 650
  34. ^ C. J. Date, Hugh Darwen. Foundation for Future Database Systems: The Third Manifesto (2nd Edition)
  35. ^ Stepanov, Alexander. "STLport: An Interview with A. Stepanov". http://www.stlport.org/resources/StepanovUSA.html. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  36. ^ Graham, Paul. "Why ARC isn't especially Object–Oriented.". PaulGraham.com. http://www.paulgraham.com/noop.html. Retrieved 13 November 2009. 
  37. ^ Armstrong, Joe. In Coders at Work: Reflections on the Craft of Programming. Peter Seibel, ed. Codersatwork.com, Accessed 13 November 2009.
  38. ^ Mansfield, Richard. "Has OOP Failed?" 2005. Available at 4JS.com, Accessed 13 November 2009.
  39. ^ Mansfield, Richard. "OOP Is Much Better in Theory Than in Practice" 2005. Available at Devx.com Accessed 7 January 2010.
  40. ^ Stevey's Blog Rants
  41. ^ Rich Hickey, JVM Languages Summit 2009 keynote, Are We There Yet? November 2009.
  42. ^ Teaching FP to Freshmen, from Harper's blog about teaching introductory computer science.[1]

  Further reading

  External links

   
               

 

Toutes les traductions de Object-oriented_programming


Contenu de sensagent

  • définitions
  • synonymes
  • antonymes
  • encyclopédie

  • definition
  • synonym

Dictionnaire et traducteur pour mobile

⇨ Nouveau : sensagent est maintenant disponible sur votre mobile

   Publicité ▼

sensagent's office

Raccourcis et gadgets. Gratuit.

* Raccourci Windows : sensagent.

* Widget Vista : sensagent.

dictionnaire et traducteur pour sites web

Alexandria

Une fenêtre (pop-into) d'information (contenu principal de Sensagent) est invoquée un double-clic sur n'importe quel mot de votre page web. LA fenêtre fournit des explications et des traductions contextuelles, c'est-à-dire sans obliger votre visiteur à quitter votre page web !

Essayer ici, télécharger le code;

SensagentBox

Avec la boîte de recherches Sensagent, les visiteurs de votre site peuvent également accéder à une information de référence pertinente parmi plus de 5 millions de pages web indexées sur Sensagent.com. Vous pouvez Choisir la taille qui convient le mieux à votre site et adapter la charte graphique.

Solution commerce électronique

Augmenter le contenu de votre site

Ajouter de nouveaux contenus Add à votre site depuis Sensagent par XML.

Parcourir les produits et les annonces

Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu.

Indexer des images et définir des méta-données

Fixer la signification de chaque méta-donnée (multilingue).


Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet.

Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

boggle

Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

Dernières recherches dans le dictionnaire :

4852 visiteurs en ligne

calculé en 0,062s

   Publicité ▼

Je voudrais signaler :
section :
une faute d'orthographe ou de grammaire
un contenu abusif (raciste, pornographique, diffamatoire)
une violation de copyright
une erreur
un manque
autre
merci de préciser :

Mon compte

connexion

inscription

   Publicité ▼