» 
allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien
allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

définition - Police

police (n.)

1.the force of policemen and officers"the law came looking for him"

police (v.)

1.maintain the security of by carrying out a patrol

Police (n.)

1.(MeSH)Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order among the citizenry.

   Publicité ▼

Merriam Webster

PolicePo*lice" (?), n. [F., fr. L. politia the condition of a state, government, administration, Gr. �, fr. � to be a citizen, to govern or administer a state, fr. � citizen, fr. � city; akin to Skr. pur, puri. Cf. Policy polity, Polity.]
1. A judicial and executive system, for the government of a city, town, or district, for the preservation of rights, order, cleanliness, health, etc., and for the enforcement of the laws and prevention of crime; the administration of the laws and regulations of a city, incorporated town, or borough.

2. That which concerns the order of the community; the internal regulation of a state.

3. The organized body of civil officers in a city, town, or district, whose particular duties are the preservation of good order, the prevention and detection of crime, and the enforcement of the laws.

4. (Mil.) Military police, the body of soldiers detailed to preserve civil order and attend to sanitary arrangements in a camp or garrison.

5. The cleaning of a camp or garrison, or the state � a camp as to cleanliness.

Police commissioner, a civil officer, usually one of a board, commissioned to regulate and control the appointment, duties, and discipline of the police. -- Police constable, or Police officer, a policeman. -- Police court, a minor court to try persons brought before it by the police. -- Police inspector, an officer of police ranking next below a superintendent. -- Police jury, a body of officers who collectively exercise jurisdiction in certain cases of police, as levying taxes, etc.; -- so called in Louisiana. Bouvier. -- Police justice, or Police magistrate, a judge of a police court. -- Police offenses (Law), minor offenses against the order of the community, of which a police court may have final jurisdiction. -- Police station, the headquarters of the police, or of a section of them; the place where the police assemble for orders, and to which they take arrested persons.

PolicePo*lice", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Policed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Policing.]
1. To keep in order by police.

2. (Mil.) To make clean; as, to police a camp.

   Publicité ▼

définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Police

police (adj.)

of the police

police (n.)

law, police force, the law, constabulary  (British)

police (v.)

patrol

voir aussi

police (adj.)

constabulary, law, police force

locutions

-EU police cooperation • European Police College • German police dog • Police Force • Police Officers • Royal Canadian Mounted Police • border police • chief of police • city police • federal police • kitchen police • military police • mounted police • municipal police • national police • neighbourhood police • of the police • police academy • police action • police badge • police blotter • police boat • police captain • police car • police checks • police chief • police commissioner • police constable • police cooperation • police cordon • police court • police cruiser • police custody • police department • police detective • police dog • police force • police guard • police headquarters • police inspector • police investigation • police lieutenant • police matron • police officer • police precinct • police protection • police record • police report • police sergeant • police squad • police state • police station • police superintendent • police van • police wagon • police work • regional police • riot police • river police • secret police • security police • traffic police • water police • woman police constable

-21st Century Police Box • A.D. Police • A.D. Police Files • Action Police CFTC • Alert Police • Ang Mo Kio Police Division • Anti-terrorist policies of the Metropolitan police • Argentine Federal Police • Assistant Commissioner (Metropolitan Police) • Assistant Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis • Association of Chief Police Officers • Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland • Australian Capital Territory Police • Baltimore police strike • Barrie Police Service • Bedok Police Division • Belfast Harbour Police • Bill Blair (police chief) • Boston Police Strike • British South Africa Police • British police strikes in 1918 and 1919 • Buenos Aires Provincial Police • Bulldog Drummond's Secret Police • Canadian Police Association • Capitol police • Central Police Division • Chicago Police Dept. • Commissioner of Police • Commissioner of Police (Hong Kong) • Commissioner of Police (Singapore) • Commonwealth Police • Deputy Commissioner (Metropolitan Police) • Deputy Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis • Durham Regional Police Service • Dyfed-Powys Police • Establishments and installations of the Singapore Police Force • European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina • Fashion Police (TV series) • Fashion police • Federal Police (Brazil) • Fish Police • Former Marine Police Headquarters Compound • Frank Elliott (police officer) • Gotham City Police Department • Graham Smith (police officer) • Greater Chennai Police • Greater Manchester Police • Gwent Police • Halton Police • Halton Regional Police • Halton Regional Police Service • History of the Singapore Police Force • Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force • Hong Kong Police • Houston Police Department • Ian Henderson (police officer) • Independent Police Complaints Commission • International Association of Chiefs of Police • International Criminal Police Organization • International Police Association • Iraqi Police • Irish Republican Police • James E. Davis (police) • James Hart (police officer) • John Maclean (police officer) • John May (police officer) • Jurong Police Division • Kolkata Police • List of fictional secret police and intelligence organizations • List of historical secret police organizations • Local police • London Transport Police • London transport Police • Lothian and Borders Police • Malabar Special Police • Marine Police Headquarters Compound • Matlock Police • Merseyside Police • Metro Police • Metropolitan Police Air Support Unit • Metropolitan Police Anti-Terrorist Branch • Metropolitan Police Commissioner • Metropolitan Police District • Metropolitan Police Marine Policing Unit • Metropolitan Police Mounted Branch • Metropolitan Toronto Police • Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police • Military Police (Brazil) • Military police • Military police vehicle • Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency • Moorabbin Police murders • Navajo Tribal Police • Neighbourhood Police Centre • Neighbourhood Police Post • New College of Florida Police Department • New Jersey State Police • New Police Story • New York City Police • New York City Police Department • New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police • New York City Police Department Cadet Corps • New York City Transit Police • New York Police • Northumbria Police • Old Ontario Provincial Police Headquarters • One Police Plaza • Order of Merit of the Police Forces • Ottawa Police Service • Paddington Green Police Station • People's Armed Police • Police (1916 film) • Police Cantonment Complex • Police Complaints Authority (United Kingdom) • Police Complaints Board • Police Complaints Commission • Police Federation • Police Federation of Australia • Police Federation of England and Wales • Police Intelligence Department • Police K-9 Unit (Singapore) • Police Memorial Trust • Police National Service Full-time Light Strike Force • Police Outpost Provincial Park • Police Quest • Police Rescue • Police Service of Northern Ireland • Police Story (TV series) • Police Story (movie) • Police Story 2 • Police Superintendent • Police Tactical Unit • Police Tactical Unit (Singapore) • Police academy • Police aircraft • Police ambulance • Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 • Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters • Police bicycle • Police box • Police brutality • Police cadets in the United Kingdom • Police court • Police emergency wagon • Police forces of Nazi Germany • Police in France • Police intelligence • Police motorcycle • Police services of the Empire of Japan • Police states • Police terrorism • Police village • Receiver of the Metropolitan Police • Richard Pearson (police officer) • Roy Clark (police officer) • Royal Canadian Mounted Police • Royal Gibraltar Police • Royal North West Mounted Police • Russell Street Police Headquarters • San Francisco Police Department • Secret police • Serious Organised Crime and Police Bill • Service de police de la Ville de Montréal • Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command • Singapore Police Force Crisis Negotiation Unit • Singapore Police Force Good Service Medal • Singapore anti-riot police • South African Police Service Special Task Force • South African police decorations • South West African Police • Special Escort Group (Metropolitan Police) • Special Escort Group (Ministry of Defence Police) • State Police of Crawford and Erie Counties • States of Guernsey Police Service • States of Jersey Police • Strathclyde Police • Strathclyde Police Pipe Band • Surrey Police • Tamil Nadu Police • Tanglin Police Division • Techno Police 21C • Texas Rangers (police) • Thames Valley Police Museum • The Job (police newspaper) • The Police • The West Virginia State Police • Toronto Police • Toronto Police Headquarters • Toronto Police Service • Traffic police • UK Police forces' radio alphabet • United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police • United States Mint Police • University of Washington Police Department • West Virginia State Police • William Hay (police commissioner) • William Horwood (police commissioner) • YOT police • York Regional Police

dictionnaire analogique




police (n.)



Wikipedia - voir aussi

Wikipedia

Police

                   
  German State Police officer in Hamburg, with the rank of Polizeihauptmeister mit Zulage (Confirmed Police Sergeant Major).
  The famous "black and white" LAPD police cruiser
  Metropolitan police BMW 3 series in London
  Romanian Police BMW 550i response car.
  Polish Police's Anti-Riot Detachment, filming a gathering. The film could later be presented during a trial as evidence, or used in police training. A water cannon is seen in the background.

The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder.[1] Their powers include the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from military or other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie and military police are military units charged with civil policing.

Law enforcement, however, constitutes only part of policing activity.[2] Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order.[3] In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property.[4] Some parts of the world may suffer from police corruption.

Alternative names for police force include constabulary, gendarmerie, police department, police service, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, troopers, sheriffs, constables, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Police of the Soviet-era Eastern Europe were (or are, in some cases, like in the Russian Federation) called the militsiya. The Irish police are called the Garda Síochána ("guardians of the peace"); a police officer is called a garda. As police are often in conflict with individuals, slang terms are numerous. Many slang terms for police officers are decades or centuries old with lost etymology.

Contents

Etymology

First attested in English c.1530, the word police comes from Middle French police, in turn from Latin politia,[5] which is the latinisation of the Greek πολιτεία (politeia), "citizenship, administration, civil polity".[6] The latter is derived from πόλις (polis), "city".[7]

History

Ancient world

Ancient China

Law enforcement in Ancient China was carried out by "prefects". The notion of a "prefect" in China has existed for thousands of years. The prefecture system developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period.

In Ancient China, prefects were government officials appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the head of state, usually the emperor of the dynasty. The prefects oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction.

Prefects usually reported to the local magistrate, just as modern police report to judges. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement of the area. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives.

Eventually the concept of the "prefecture system" would spread to other cultures such as Korea and Japan. Law enforcement in Ancient China was also relatively progressive, allowing for female prefects. Some examples of ancient Chinese prefects include: Chong Fu - prefect of the Ying District in the East Han Dynasty and Qing Tsao - prefect of the modern Shang-tung Province. An example of a female prefect would by Lady Qu[8] of Wuding (serving 1531-ca. 1557).

Recent portrayals of prefects in modern popular culture include Jet Li’s portrayal of the nameless prefect in the movie Hero.

Pre-medieval Europe

Ancient Greece

In Ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves (the ῥαβδοῦχοι, "rod-bearers") was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, and making arrests. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.[9]

Roman Empire

In most of the Empire, the Army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves.

Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to almost one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created; the wards were protected by seven squads of 1,000 men called "vigiles", who acted as firemen and nightwatchmen. Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy duty anti-riot force and the even the Praetorian Guard if necessary.

European development

Spain

Modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandades, or "brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile. As medieval Spanish kings often could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the 12th century against bandits and other rural criminals, and against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to the crown.

These organizations were intended to be temporary, but became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.

Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo, Talavera, and Villarreal.

As one of their first acts after the war of succession, Ferdinand and Isabella established the centrally organized and efficient Holy Brotherhood (Santa Hermandad) as a national police force. They adapted an existing brotherhood to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases. The original brotherhoods continued to serve as modest local police units until their final suppression in 1835.

Holy Roman Empire

The Fehmic courts of Germany provided some policing in the absence of strong state institutions.

France

The Gendarmerie is the direct descendant of the Marshalcy of the ancien regime, more commonly known by its French title, the Maréchaussée. During the Middle Ages, there were two Grand Officers of the Kingdom of France with police responsibilities: The Marshal of France and the Constable of France. The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal's provost, whose force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority ultimately derived from the Marshal. The marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years' War, and some historians trace it back to the early twelfth century. Another organisation, the Constabulary (French: Connétablie), was under the command of the Constable of France. The constabulary was regularised as a military body in 1337. Under King Francis I (who reigned 1515–1547), the Maréchaussée was merged with the Constabulary. The resulting force was also known as the Maréchaussée, or, formally, the Constabulary and Marshalcy of France (French: connétablie et maréchaussée de France). During the revolutionary period, marshalcy commanders generally placed themselves under the local constitutional authorities. As a result, the Maréchaussée, whose title was associated with the king, was not disbanded but simply renamed gendarmerie nationale in February 1791. Its personnel remained unchanged, and the role remained much as it was. However, from this point, the gendarmerie, unlike the marshalcy, was a fully military force.

The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of King Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe. The royal edict, registered by the Parlement of Paris on March 15, 1667 created the office of lieutenant général de police ("lieutenant general of police"), who was to be the head of the new Paris police force, and defined the task of the police as "ensuring the peace and quiet of the public and of private individuals, purging the city of what may cause disturbances, procuring abundance, and having each and everyone live according to their station and their duties".

This office was first held by Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, who had 44 commissaires de police (police commissioners) under his authority. In 1709, these commissioners were assisted by inspecteurs de police (police inspectors). The city of Paris was divided into 16 districts policed by the commissaires, each assigned to a particular district and assisted by a growing bureaucracy. The scheme of the Paris police force was extended to the rest of France by a royal edict of October 1699, resulting in the creation of lieutenants general of police in all large French cities and towns.

After the French Revolution, Napoléon I reorganized the police in Paris and other cities with more than 5,000 inhabitants on February 17, 1800 as the Prefecture of Police. On March 12, 1829, a government decree created the first uniformed police in France, known as sergents de ville ("city sergeants"), which the Paris Prefecture of Police's website claims were the first uniformed policemen in the world.[10]

Britain and Ireland

  Mounted officer of the British Metropolitan Police, the first modern police force.[11] It includes the Marine Police Force which has been in operation since 1798.

The Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since the Norman conquest was a private system of tithings, led by a constable, which was based on a social obligation for the good conduct of the others; more common was that local lords and nobles were responsible to maintain order in their lands, and often appointed a constable, sometimes unpaid, to enforce the law. There was also a system investigative "juries".

The Assize of Arms of 1252, which required the appointment of constables to summon men to arms, quell breaches of the peace, and to deliver offenders to the sheriffs or reeves, is cited as one of the earliest creation of the English police.[12] The Statute of Winchester of 1285 is also cited as the primary legislation regulating the policing of the country between the Norman Conquest and the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.[12][13]

In the England and the United Kingdom, the development of police forces was much slower than in the rest of Europe. The British police function was historically performed by private watchmen (existing from 1500 on), thief-takers, and so on. The former were funded by private individuals and organisations and the latter by privately funded rewards for catching criminals, who would then be compelled to return stolen property or pay restitution.

The first use of the word police ("Polles") in English comes from the book "The Second Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England" published in 1642[14]

In London, night watchmen were the first paid law enforcement body in the country, augmenting the force of unpaid constables. They guarded the streets since 1663. They were later nicknamed 'Charlies', probably after the reigning monarch King Charles II.

In 1737, George II began paying some London and Middlesex watchmen with tax moneys, beginning the shift to government control. In 1749 Henry Fielding began organizing a force of quasi-professional constables known as the Bow Street Runners. The Macdaniel affair added further impetus for a publicly salaried police force that did not depend on rewards. Nonetheless, In 1828, there were privately financed police units in no fewer than 45 parishes within a 10-mile radius of London.

The word "police" was borrowed from French into the English language in the 18th century, but for a long time it applied only to French and continental European police forces. The word, and the concept of police itself, was "disliked as a symbol of foreign oppression" (according to Britannica 1911).

Before the 19th century, the first use of the word "police" recorded in government documents in the United Kingdom was the appointment of Commissioners of Police for Scotland in 1714 and the creation of the Marine Police in 1798 (set up to protect merchandise at the Port of London). This force is still in operation today as part of the Metropolitan Police and is the oldest police force in the world. Even today, many British police forces are referred to officially by the term "Constabulary" rather than "Police".

On June 30, 1800, the authorities of Glasgow, Scotland successfully petitioned the government to pass the Glasgow Police Act establishing the City of Glasgow Police. . Other Scottish towns soon followed suit and set up their own police forces through acts of parliament.[15]

The first organized police force in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act of 1814, but the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 marked the true beginning of the Royal Irish Constabulary. Among its first duties was the forcible seizure of tithes during the "Tithe War" on behalf of the Anglican clergy from the mainly Catholic population as well as the Presbyterian minority.

  Group portrait of policemen, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, England, c. 1900

The Act established a force in each barony with chief constables and inspectors general under the control of the civil administration at Dublin Castle. By 1841 this force numbered over 8,600 men.

The force had been rationalized and reorganized in an 1836 act and the first constabulary code of regulations was published in 1837. The discipline was tough and the pay poor. The police also faced unrest among the Irish rural poor, manifested in organizations like the Ribbonmen, which attacked landlords and their property.

On September 29, 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament, allowing Sir Robert Peel, the then home secretary, to found the London Metropolitan Police. This promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.[11]

  "Albertine at the Police Doctor's Waiting Room", 1885-87 painting by the Norwegian writer and painter Christian Krohg illustrating his then very controversial novel Albertine about the life of a prostitute

These police are often referred to as "Bobbies" or "Peelers" after Sir Robert (Bobby) Peel, who introduced the Police Act. They became a model for the police forces in most countries, such as the United States, and most of the British Empire. Bobbies can still be found in many parts of the Commonwealth of Nations. The primary role of the police in Britain was keeping the Queen's Peace, which continues into the present day.[16]

Development of Theory

In Western culture, the contemporary concept of a police paid by the government was developed by French legal scholars and practitioners in the 17th and early 18th centuries, notably with Nicolas Delamare's Traité de la Police ("Treatise on the Police"), first published in 1705. The German Polizeiwissenschaft (Science of Police) was also an important theoretical formulation of police.

As conceptualized by the Polizeiwissenschaft, the police had an economic and social duty ("procuring abundance"). It was in charge of demographics concerns and of empowering the population, which, according to mercantilist theory, was to be the main strength of the state. Thus, its functions largely overreached simple law enforcement activities and included public health concerns, urban planning (which was important because of the miasma theory of disease; thus, cemeteries were moved out of town, etc.), and surveillance of prices.[17]

Development of modern police was contemporary to the formation of the state, later defined by sociologist Max Weber as achieving a "monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force" and which was primarily exercised by the police and the military. Marxist theory situates the development of the modern state as part of the rise of capitalism, in which the police are one component of the bourgeoisie's repressive apparatus for subjugating the working class.

In the Americas

  Brazil's National Public Security Force (Força Nacional de Segurança Pública)

Brazil

In 1566, the first police investigator of Rio de Janeiro was recruited. By the seventeenth century, most "capitanias" already had local units with law enforcement functions. On July 9, 1775 a Cavalry Regiment was created in Minas Gerais for maintaining law and order. In 1808, the Portuguese royal family relocated to Brazil, due to the French invasion of Portugal. King João VI established the "Intendência Geral de Polícia" (General Police Intendancy) for investigations. He also created a Royal Police Guard for Rio de Janeiro in 1809. In 1831, after independence, each province started organizing its local "military police", with order maintenance tasks. The Federal Railroad Police was created in 1852.

Canada

In Canada, the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary was founded in 1729, making it the first police force in present day Canada. It was followed in 1834 by the Toronto Police, and in 1838 by police forces in Montreal and Quebec City. A national force, the Dominion Police, was founded in 1868. Initially the Dominion Police provided security for parliament, but its responsibilities quickly grew. The famous Royal Northwest Mounted Police was founded in 1873.

United States

In British North America, policing was initially provided by local elected officials. For instance, the New York Sheriff's Office was founded in 1626, and the Albany County Sheriff's Department in the 1660s. In the colonial period, policing was provided by elected sheriffs and local militias.

The United States has a system of policing based on the modern English (British) Form.[citation needed]

In 1789 the US Marshals Service was established, followed by other federal services such as the US Parks Police (1791)[18] and US Mint Police (1792).[19] The first city police services were established in Philadelphia in 1751,[20] Richmond, Virginia in 1807,[21] Boston in 1838,[22] and New York in 1845.[23] The US Secret Service was founded in 1865 and was for some time the main investigative body for the federal government.[24]

  A Deputy U.S. Marshal covers his fellow officers with an M4 carbine during a "knock-and-announce" procedure

After the civil war, policing became more para-military in character, with the increased use of uniforms and military ranks. Before this, sheriff's offices had been non-uniformed organizations without a para-military hierarchy.[citation needed]

In the American Old West, policing was often very poor quality.[citation needed] The Army often provided some policing alongside poorly resourced sheriffs and temporarily organised posses.[citation needed] Public organizations were supplemented by private contractors, notably the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, which was hired by individuals, businessmen, local governments and the federal government. At its height, the Pinkerton Agency's numbers exceeded those of the standing army of the United States.[citation needed]

In recent years, in addition to federal, state, and local forces, some special districts have been formed to provide extra police protection in designated areas. These districts may be known as neighborhood improvement districts, crime prevention districts, or security districts.[25]

In 2005, The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that police do not have a constitutional duty to protect a person from harm.[26]

There are more than 900,000 sworn law enforcement officers now serving in the United States.[27]

Other countries

Australia

  Police motorcycles are commonly used for patrols and escorts, as seen here in Australia

In Australia the first police force having centralised command as well as jurisdiction over an entire colony was the South Australia Police, formed in 1838 under Henry Inman.

However, whilst the New South Wales Police Force was established in 1862, it was made up from a large number of policing and military units operating within the then Colony of New South Wales and traces its links back to the Royal Marines. The passing of the Police Regulation Act of 1862 essentially tightly regulated and centralised all of the police forces operating throughout the Colony of New South Wales.

The New South Wales Police Force remains the largest police force in Australia in terms of personnel and physical resources. It is also the only police force that requires its recruits to undertake university studies at the recruit level and has the recruit pay for their own education.

Lebanon

In Lebanon, modern police were established in 1861, with creation of the Gendarmerie.[28]

Personnel and organization

In most Western police forces, perhaps the most significant division is between preventive (uniformed) police and detectives. Terminology varies from country to country.

Police functions include protecting life and property, enforcing criminal law, criminal investigations, regulating traffic, crowd control, and other public safety duties.

Uniformed police

  Brazilian Federal Highway Police at work.

Preventive Police, also called Uniform Branch, Uniformed Police, Uniform Division, Administrative Police, Order Police, or Patrol, designates the police which patrol and respond to emergencies and other incidents, as opposed to detective services. As the name "uniformed" suggests, they wear uniforms and perform functions that require an immediate recognition of an officer's legal authority, such as traffic control, stopping and detaining motorists, and more active crime response and prevention.

Preventive police almost always make up the bulk of a police service's personnel. In Australia and Britain, patrol personnel are also known as "general duties" officers.[29] Atypically, Brazil's preventive police are known as Military Police.[30]

Detectives

  New South Wales Police Force officers search the vehicle of a suspected drug smuggler at a border crossing. Wentworth, New South Wales, Australia

Police detectives are responsible for investigations and detective work. Detectives may be called Investigations Police, Judiciary/Judicial Police, and Criminal Police. In the UK, they are often referred to by the name of their department, the Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Detectives typically make up roughly 15%-25% of a police service's personnel.

Detectives, in contrast to uniform police, typically wear 'business attire' in bureaucratic and investigative functions where a uniformed presence would be either a distraction or intimidating, but a need to establish police authority still exists. "Plainclothes" officers dress in attire consistent with that worn by the general public for purposes of blending in.

In some cases, police are assigned to work "undercover", where they conceal their police identity to investigate crimes, such as organized crime or narcotics crime, that are unsolvable by other means. In some cases this type of policing shares aspects with espionage.

Despite popular conceptions promoted by movies and television, many US police departments prefer not to maintain officers in non-patrol bureaus and divisions beyond a certain period of time, such as in the detective bureau, and instead maintain policies that limit service in such divisions to a specified period of time, after which officers must transfer out or return to patrol duties.[citation needed] This is done in part based upon the perception that the most important and essential police work is accomplished on patrol in which officers become acquainted with their beats, prevent crime by their presence, respond to crimes in progress, manage crises, and practice their skills.[citation needed]

Detectives, by contrast, usually investigate crimes after they have occurred and after patrol officers have responded first to a situation. Investigations often take weeks or months to complete, during which time detectives spend much of their time away from the streets, in interviews and courtrooms, for example. Rotating officers also promotes cross-training in a wider variety of skills, and serves to prevent "cliques" that can contribute to corruption or other unethical behavior.

Auxiliary

Police may also take on auxiliary administrative duties, such as issuing firearms licenses. The extent that police have these functions varies among countries, with police in France, Germany, and other continental European countries handling such tasks to a greater extent than British counterparts.[29]

Specialized units

  After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, the Mumbai Police created specialized, quick response teams to deal with terror threats.

Specialized preventive and detective groups exist within many law enforcement organizations either for dealing with particular types of crime, such as traffic law enforcement and crash investigation, homicide, or fraud; or for situations requiring specialized skills, such as underwater search, aviation, explosive device disposal ("bomb squad"), and computer crime.

Most larger jurisdictions also employ specially selected and trained quasi-military units armed with military-grade weapons for the purposes of dealing with particularly violent situations beyond the capability of a patrol officer response, including high-risk warrant service and barricaded suspects. In the United States these units go by a variety of names, but are commonly known as SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) teams.

In counter insurgency type campaigns, select and specially trained units of police armed and equipped as light infantry have been designated as police field forces who perform paramilitary type patrols and ambushes whilst retaining their police powers in areas that were highly dangerous.[31]

Because their situational mandate typically focuses on removing innocent bystanders from dangerous people and dangerous situations, not violent resolution, they are often equipped with non-lethal tactical tools like chemical agents, "flashbang" and concussion grenades, and rubber bullets. The London Metropolitan police's Specialist Firearms Command (CO19)[32] is a group of armed police used in dangerous situations including hostage taking, armed robbery/assault and terrorism.

Military police

Military police may refer to:

Religious police

Some Islamic societies have religious police, who enforce the application of Islamic Sharia law. Their authority may include the power to arrest unrelated males and females caught socializing, anyone engaged in homosexual behavior or prostitution; to enforce Islamic dress-codes, and store closures during Islamic prayer time.[33][34]

They enforce Muslim dietary laws, prohibit the consumption or sale of alcoholic beverages and pork, and seize banned consumer products and media regarded as un-Islamic, such as CDs/DVDs of various Western musical groups, television shows and film.[33][34] In Saudi Arabia, religious police actively prevent the practice or proselytizing of non-Islamic religions within Saudi Arabia, where they are banned.[33][34]

Varying jurisdictions

Police forces are usually organized and funded by some level of government. The level of government responsible for policing varies from place to place, and may be at the national, regional or local level. In some places there may be multiple police forces operating in the same area, with different ones having jurisdiction according to the type of crime or other circumstances.

For example in the UK policing is primarily the responsibility of a regional police force; however specialist units exist at the national level. In the US policing there is typically a state police force, but crimes are usually handled by local police forces which usually only cover a few municipalities. National agencies, such as the FBI, only have jurisdiction over federal crimes or those with an interstate component.

In addition to conventional urban or regional police forces, there are other police forces with specialized functions or jurisdiction. In the United States, the federal government has a number of police forces with their own specialized jurisdictions.

Some example are the Federal Protective Service, which patrols and protects government buildings; the postal police, which protect postal buildings, vehicles and items; the Park Police, which protect national parks, or Amtrak Police which patrol Amtrak stations and trains..

There are also some government agencies which perform police functions in addition to other duties. The U.S. Coast Guard carries out many police functions for boaters.

In major cities, there may be a separate police agency for public transit systems, such as the New York City Port Authority Police or the MTA police, or for major government functions, such as sanitation, or environmental functions.

  A Police Service of Northern Ireland/Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks in Northern Ireland. The high walls are to protect against mortar bomb attacks.

Global policing

Policing plays an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping and this looks set to grow in the years ahead, especially as the international community seeks to develop the rule of law and reform security institutions in States recovering from conflict.[35]

Transnational policing

The term transnational policing entered into use in the mid-1990s as a description for forms of policing that transcended the boundaries of the sovereign nation state (Sheptycki, 1995).[36] It is distinguished against the terms ‘international policing’ and ‘global policing’. The former term would seem to indicate only those types of policing that are formally directed by institutions usually responsible for international affairs (for example the State Department in the US, the Foreign Office in the UK, etc.). The later term would seem to indicate only those forms of policing that are fully global in scope.

Transnational policing pertains to all those forms for policing that, in some sense, transgress national borders. This includes a variety of practices, but cross-border police cooperation, criminal intelligence exchange between police agencies working in different nation-states, and police development-aid to weak, failed or failing states are the three types that have received the most scholarly attention.

Historical studies reveal that policing agents have undertaken a variety of cross-border police missions for many years (Deflem, 2004).[37] For example, in the 19th century a number of European policing agencies undertook cross-border surveillance because of concerns about anarchist agitators and other political radicals. A notable example of this was the occasional surveillance by Prussian police of Karl Marx during the years he remained resident in London. The interests of public police agencies in cross-border co-operation in the control of political radicalism and ordinary law crime were primarily initiated in Europe, which eventually led to the establishment of Interpol before the Second World War. There are also many interesting examples of cross-border policing under private auspices and by municipal police forces that date back to the 19th century (Nadelmann, 1993).[38] It has been established that modern policing has transgressed national boundaries from time to time almost from its inception. It is also generally agreed that in the post–Cold War era this type of practice became more significant and frequent (Sheptycki, 2000).[39]

Not a lot of empirical work on the practices of transnational information and intelligence sharing has been undertaken. A notable exception is James Sheptycki's study of police cooperation in the English Channel region (2002),[40] which provides a systematic content analysis of information exchange files and a description of how these transnational information and intelligence exchanges are transformed into police case-work. The study showed that transnational police information sharing was routinized in the cross-Channel region from 1968 on the basis of agreements directly between the police agencies and without any formal agreement between the countries concerned. By 1992, with the signing of the Schengen Treaty which formalized aspects of police information exchange across the territory of the European Union, there were worries that much, if not all, of this intelligence sharing was opaque, raising questions about the efficacy of the accountability mechanisms governing police information sharing in Europe (Joubert and Bevers, 1996).[41]

Studies of this kind outside of Europe are even rarer, so it is difficult to make generalizations, but one small-scale study that compared transnational police information and intelligence sharing practices at specific cross-border locations in North America and Europe confirmed that low visibility of police information and intelligence sharing was a common feature (Alain, 2001).[42] Intelligence-led policing is now common practice in most advanced countries (Ratcliffe, 2007)[43] and it is likely that police intelligence sharing and information exchange has a common morphology around the world (Ratcliffe, 2007).[43] James Sheptycki has analyzed the effects of the new information technologies on the organization of policing-intelligence and suggests that a number of ‘organizational pathologies’ have arisen that make the functioning of security-intelligence processes in transnational policing deeply problematic. He argues that transnational police information circuits help to “compose the panic scenes of the security-control society”.[44] The paradoxical effect is that, the harder policing agencies work to produce security, the greater are feelings of insecurity.

Police development-aid to weak, failed or failing states is another form of transnational policing that has garnered attention. This form of transnational policing plays an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping and this looks set to grow in the years ahead, especially as the international community seeks to develop the rule of law and reform security institutions in States recovering from conflict (Goldsmith and Sheptycki, 2007)[45] With transnational police development-aid the imbalances of power between donors and recipients are stark and there are questions about the applicability and transportability of policing models between jurisdictions (Hills, 2009).[46]

Perhaps the greatest question regarding the future development of transnational policing is: in whose interest? At a more practical level, the question translates into one about how to make transnational policing institutions democratically accountable (Sheptycki, 2004).[47] For example, according to the Global Accountability Report for 2007 (Lloyd, et al. 2007) Interpol had the lowest scores in its category (IGOs), coming in tenth with a score of 22% on overall accountability capabilities (p. 19).[48] As this report points out, and the existing academic literature on transnational policing seems to confirm, this is a secretive area and one not open to civil society involvement.

Equipment

Weapons

  Armored vehicle of CORE, SWAT unit within the Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State

In many jurisdictions, police officers carry firearms, primarily handguns, in the normal course of their duties. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway, and New Zealand, with the exception of specialist units, officers do not carry firearms as a matter of course.

Police often have specialist units for handling armed offenders, and similar dangerous situations, and can (depending on local laws), in some extreme circumstances, call on the military (since Military Aid to the Civil Power is a role of many armed forces). Perhaps the most high-profile example of this was, in 1980 the Metropolitan Police handing control of the Iranian Embassy Siege to the Special Air Service.

They can also be equipped with non-lethal (more accurately known as "less than lethal" or "less-lethal") weaponry, particularly for riot control. Non-lethal weapons include batons, riot control agents, rubber bullets and electroshock weapons. Police officers often carry handcuffs to restrain suspects. The use of firearms or deadly force is typically a last resort only to be used when necessary to save human life, although some jurisdictions (such as Brazil) allow its use against fleeing felons and escaped convicts. A "shoot-to-kill" policy was recently introduced in South Africa, which allows police to use deadly force against any person who poses a significant threat to them or civilians.[49] With the country having one of the highest rates of violent crime, president Jacob Zuma states that South Africa needs to handle crime differently than other countries.[50]

Communications

Modern police forces make extensive use of radio communications equipment, carried both on the person and installed in vehicles, to co-ordinate their work, share information, and get help quickly. In recent years, vehicle-installed computers have enhanced the ability of police communications, enabling easier dispatching of calls, criminal background checks on persons of interest to be completed in a matter of seconds, and updating the officer's daily activity log and other required reports on a real-time basis. Other common pieces of police equipment include flashlights/torches, whistles, and police notebooks and "ticketbooks" or citations.

Vehicles

  A Ford Crown Victoria, one of the most recognizable models of American police car. This unit belongs to Houston METRO Police
  German (green) and Dutch (blue/red) police vehicles

Police vehicles are used for detaining, patrolling and transporting. The common Police patrol vehicle is an improved four door sedan (saloon in British English). Police vehicles are usually marked with appropriate logos and are equipped with sirens and lightbars to aid in making others aware of police presence.

Unmarked vehicles are used primarily for sting operations or apprehending criminals without alerting them to their presence. Some police forces use unmarked or minimally marked cars for traffic law enforcement, since drivers slow down at the sight of marked police vehicles and unmarked vehicles make it easier for officers to catch speeders and traffic violators. This practice is controversial, with for example, New York State banning this practice in 1996 on the grounds that it endangered motorists who might be pulled over by people impersonating police officers.[51]

Motorcycles are also commonly used, particularly in locations that a car may not be able to access, to control potential public order situations involving meetings of motorcyclists and often in escort duties where the motorcycle policeman can quickly clear a path for the escorted vehicle. Bicycle patrols are used in some areas because they allow for more open interaction with the public. In addition, their quieter operation can facilitate approaching suspects unawares and can help in pursuing them attempting to escape on foot.

Police departments use an array of specialty vehicles such as helicopters, airplanes, watercraft, command post, vans, trucks, all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, and SWAT armored vehicles.

Other safety equipment

Police cars may also contain fire extinguishers[52][53] or defibrillators.[54]

Strategies

The advent of the police car, two-way radio, and telephone in the early 20th century transformed policing into a reactive strategy that focused on responding to calls for service.[55] With this transformation, police command and control became more centralized.

In the United States, August Vollmer introduced other reforms, including education requirements for police officers.[56] O.W. Wilson, a student of Vollmer, helped reduce corruption and introduce professionalism in Wichita, Kansas, and later in the Chicago Police Department.[57] Strategies employed by O.W. Wilson included rotating officers from community to community to reduce their vulnerability to corruption, establishing of a non-partisan police board to help govern the police force, a strict merit system for promotions within the department, and an aggressive recruiting drive with higher police salaries to attract professionally qualified officers.[58] During the professionalism era of policing, law enforcement agencies concentrated on dealing with felonies and other serious crime, rather than broader focus on crime prevention.[59]

  Anti-riot armoured vehicle of the police of the Canton of Vaud in Lausanne, Switzerland

The Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the 1970s found this approach to policing to be ineffective. Patrol officers in cars were disconnected from the community, and had insufficient contact and interaction with the community.[60] In the 1980s and 1990s, many law enforcement agencies began to adopt community policing strategies, and others adopted problem-oriented policing.

Broken windows policing was another, related approach introduced in the 1980s by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, who suggested that police should pay greater attention to minor "quality of life" offenses and disorderly conduct. This method was first introduced and made popular by New York City Mayor, Rudy Giuliani, in the early 1990s.

The concept behind this method is simple: broken windows, graffiti, and other physical destruction or degradation of property, greatly increases the chances of more criminal activities and destruction of property. When criminals see the abandoned vehicles, trash, and deplorable property, they assume that authorities do not care and do not take active approaches to correct problems in these areas. Therefore, correcting the small problems prevents more serious criminal activity.[61]

Building upon these earlier models, intelligence-led policing has emerged as the dominant philosophy guiding police strategy. Intelligence-led policing and problem-oriented policing are complementary strategies, both which involve systematic use of information.[62] Although it still lacks a universally accepted definition, the crux of intelligence-led policing is an emphasis on the collection and analysis of information to guide police operations, rather than the reverse.[63]

Power restrictions

  ACT Police truck in Canberra Australia
  Traffic/highway patrol vehicle of the ACT Police.

In many nations, criminal procedure law has been developed to regulate officers' discretion, so that they do not arbitrarily or unjustly exercise their powers of arrest, search and seizure, and use of force. In the United States, Miranda v. Arizona led to the widespread use of Miranda warnings or constitutional warnings.

In Miranda v. Arizona the court installed safeguards against self-incriminating statements made after an arrest. The court held that “The prosecution may not use statements, whether exculpatory or inculpatory, stemming from questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way, unless it demonstrates the use of procedural safeguards effective to secure the Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination”[64]

Police in the United States are also prohibited from holding criminal suspects for more than a reasonable amount of time (usually 24–48 hours) before arraignment, using torture, abuse or physical threats to extract confessions, using excessive force to effect an arrest, and searching suspects' bodies or their homes without a warrant obtained upon a showing of probable cause. The four exceptions to the constitutional requirement of a search warrant are:

  • Consent
  • Search incident to arrest
  • Motor vehicle searches
  • Exigent circumstances

In Terry v. Ohio (1968) the court divided seizure into two parts, the investigatory stop and arrest. The court further held that during an investigatory stop a police officer’s search “ [is] confined to what [is] minimally necessary to determine whether [a suspect ] is armed, and the intrusion, which [is] made for the sole purpose of protecting himself and others nearby, [is] confined to ascertaining the presence of weapons“ (U.S. Supreme Court). Before Terry, every police encounter constituted an arrest, giving the police officer the full range of search authority. Search authority during a Terry stop (investigatory stop) is limited to weapons only.[64]

Using deception for confessions is permitted, but not coercion. There are exceptions or exigent circumstances such as an articulated need to disarm a suspect or searching a suspect who has already been arrested (Search Incident to an Arrest). The Posse Comitatus Act severely restricts the use of the military for police activity, giving added importance to police SWAT units.

British police officers are governed by similar rules, such as those introduced to England and Wales under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), but generally have greater powers. They may, for example, legally search any suspect who has been arrested, or their vehicles, home or business premises, without a warrant, and may seize anything they find in a search as evidence.

All police officers in the United Kingdom, whatever their actual rank, are 'constables' in terms of their legal position. This means that a newly appointed constable has the same arrest powers as a Chief Constable or Commissioner. However, certain higher ranks have additional powers to authorize certain aspects of police operations, such as a power to authorize a search of a suspect's house (section 18 PACE in England and Wales) by an officer of the rank of Inspector, or the power to authorize a suspect's detention beyond 24 hours by a Superintendent.

Conduct and accountability

  April 21, 2001: Police fire CS gas at protesters during the Quebec City Summit of the Americas. The Commission for Public Complaints against the RCMP later concluded the use of tear gas against demonstrators at the summit constituted "excessive and unjustified force".[citation needed]
  Damaged 2004 Cincinnati Police units

Police services commonly include units for investigating crimes committed by the police themselves. These units are typically called Inspectorate-General, or in the USA, "internal affairs". In some countries separate organizations outside the police exist for such purposes, such as the British Independent Police Complaints Commission.

Likewise, some state and local jurisdictions, for example, Springfield, Illinois[65] have similar outside review organizations. The Police Service of Northern Ireland is investigated by the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland, an external agency set up as a result of the Patten report into policing the province. In the Republic of Ireland the Garda Síochána is investigated by the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission, an independent force that replaced the Garda Complaints Board in May 2007.

The Special Investigations Unit of Ontario, Canada, is one of only a few civilian agencies around the world responsible for investigating circumstances involving police and civilians that have resulted in a death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault. The agency made allegations of insufficient cooperation from various police services hindering their investigations.[66]

In Hong Kong, any allegations of corruption within the police will be investigated by the Independent Commission Against Corruption and the Independent Police Complaints Council, two agencies which are independent of the police force.

Use of force

Police forces also find themselves under criticism for their use of force, particularly deadly force. Specifically, tension increases when a police officer of one ethnic group harms or kills a suspect of another one.[citation needed] In the United States, such events occasionally spark protests and accusations of racism against police and allegations that police departments practice racial profiling.

In the United States since the 1960s, concern over such issues has increasingly weighed upon law enforcement agencies, courts and legislatures at every level of government. Incidents such as the 1965 Watts Riots, the videotaped 1991 beating by Los Angeles Police officers of Rodney King, and the riot following their acquittal have been suggested by some people to be evidence that U.S. police are dangerously lacking in appropriate controls.

  An officer forcibly moves a protester in New York

The fact that this trend has occurred contemporaneously with the rise of the US civil rights movement, the "War on Drugs", and a precipitous rise in violent crime from the 1960s to the 1990s has made questions surrounding the role, administration and scope of police authority increasingly complicated.[citation needed]

Police departments and the local governments that oversee them in some jurisdictions have attempted to mitigate some of these issues through community outreach programs and community policing to make the police more accessible to the concerns of local communities, by working to increase hiring diversity, by updating training of police in their responsibilities to the community and under the law, and by increased oversight within the department or by civilian commissions.

In cases in which such measures have been lacking or absent, civil law suits have been brought by the United States Department of Justice against local law enforcement agencies, authorized under the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. This has compelled local departments to make organizational changes, enter into consent decree settlements to adopt such measures, and submit to oversight by the Justice Department.[67][citation needed]

Protection of individuals

The Supreme Court of the United States has ruled numerous times since 1856 that law enforcement officers have no duty to protect any individual, despite the motto "protect and serve". Their duty is to enforce the law in general. The first such case was in 1855 (South et al. v. State of Maryland, U.S (Supreme Court of the United States 1855). ) and the most recent in 2005 (Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales).[68]

In contrast, the police are entitled to protect private rights in some jurisdictions. To ensure that the police would not interfere into the regular competencies of the courts of law, some police acts require that the police may only interfere in such cases where protection from courts cannot be obtained in time, and where, without interference of the police, the realization of the private right would be impeded.[69] This would, for example, allow police to establish a restaurant guest's identity and forward it to the inn-keeper in a case where the guest cannot pay the bill at nighttime because his wallet had just been stolen from the restaurant table.

In addition, there are Federal Law Enforcement agencies in the United States whose mission includes providing protection for executives such as the President and accompanying family members, visiting foreign dignitaries, and other high-ranking individuals.[70] Such agencies include The United States Secret Service and the United States Park Police.

International forces

In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law. The United States has a highly decentralized and fragmented system of law enforcement, with over 17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies.[71]

Some countries, such as Chile, Israel, the Philippines, France, Austria, New Zealand and South Africa, use a centralized system of policing.[72] Other countries have multiple police forces, but for the most part their jurisdictions do not overlap. In the United States however, several different law enforcement agencies may have authority in a particular jurisdiction at the same time, each with their own command.

Other countries where jurisdiction of multiple police agencies overlap, include Guardia Civil and the Policía Nacional in Spain, the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri in Italy and the Police Nationale and National Gendarmerie in France.[29]

Most countries are members of the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), established to detect and fight trans-national crime and provide for international co-operation and co-ordination of other police activities, such as notifying relatives of the death of foreign nationals. Interpol does not conduct investigations nor arrests by itself, but only serves as a central point for information on crime, suspects and criminals. Political crimes are excluded from its competencies.

See also

  Air police in 21 c.
  Criminal police in 21 c.
Lists

References

  1. ^ "The Role and Responsibilities of the Police". Policy Studies Institute. p. xii. http://www.psi.org.uk/publications/archivepdfs/Role%20pol/INDPOL-0.P.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  2. ^ Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-669-01292-7. 
  3. ^ Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. Pluto Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7453-1489-1. 
  4. ^ Siegel, Larry J. (2005). Criminolgy. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 515, 516.  Google Books Search
  5. ^ politia, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
  6. ^ πολιτεία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  7. ^ πόλις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  8. ^ Whittaker, Jake. "UC Davis East Asian Studies". University of California, Davis. UCdavis.edu[dead link]
  9. ^ Hunter, Virginia J. (1994). Policing Athens: Social Control in the Attic Lawsuits, 420-320 B.C.. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4008-0392-7. http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5349.html. 
  10. ^ "Bicentenaire: theme expo4". prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080506215949/http://www.prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr/documentation/bicentenaire/theme_expo4.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  11. ^ a b Brodeur, Jean-Paul; Eds., Kevin R. E. McCormick and Livy A. Visano (1992). "High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities," Understanding Policing. Canadian Scholars’ Press. pp. 284–285, 295. ISBN 1-55130-005-2. 
  12. ^ a b Clarkson, Charles Tempest; Richardson, J. Hall (1889). Police!. pp. 1–2. OCLC 60726408. http://books.google.com/books?id=660XAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1. 
  13. ^ Critchley, Thomas Alan (1978). A History of Police in England and Wales. "The Statute of Winchester was the only general public measure of any consequence enacted to regulate the policing of the country between the Norman Conquest and the Metropolitan Police Act, 1829…" 
  14. ^ The second part of the Institutes of ... - Google Books
  15. ^ "Glasgow Police". Scotia-news.com. http://www.scotia-news.com/issue5/ISSUE05a.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  16. ^ "Respect - Homepage". Together.gov.uk. http://www.together.gov.uk/article.asp?c=442&aid=1275. Retrieved 2009-06-21. [dead link]
  17. ^ Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, 1977-78 course (published 2004)
  18. ^ "The history of the Park Police". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/uspp/. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  19. ^ "United States Mint Police". United States Mint. http://www.usmint.gov/about_the_mint/mint_police/. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Department History". Philadelphia Police Department. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080517082302/http://www.ppdonline.org/hq_history.php. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  21. ^ "History of the Richmond Police Department". City of Richmond. http://www.ci.richmond.va.us/Police/HistoryPoliceDepartment.aspx. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  22. ^ "A Brief History of The B.P.D.". City of Boston. http://www.cityofboston.gov/police/about/history.asp. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  23. ^ "New York City Police Department". New York Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/topics/New+York+City+Police+Department. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Secret Service History". United States Secret Service. http://www.secretservice.gov/history.shtml. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  25. ^ Census.gov
  26. ^ Linda Greenhouse,"Justices Rule Police Do Not Have a Constitutional Duty to Protect Someone" The New York Times June 28, 2005
  27. ^ "Law Enforcement Facts". National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund.
  28. ^ "Historical overview". Interior Security Forces (Lebanon). Archived from the original on June 2, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060602061225/http://www.isf.gov.lb/English/LeftMenu/General+Info/History/. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  29. ^ a b c Bayley, David H. (1979). "Police Function, Structure, and Control in Western Europe and North America: Comparative and Historical Studies". Crime & Justice 1: 109–143. DOI:10.1086/449060. NCJ 63672. 
  30. ^ "PMMG". Policiamilitar.mg.gov.br. https://www.policiamilitar.mg.gov.br/_pmmg.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  31. ^ p.Davies, Bruce & McKay, Gary The Men Who Persevered:The AATTV 2005 Bruce & Unwin
  32. ^ formerly named SO19 "Metropolitan Police Service - Central Operations, Specialist Firearms unit (CO19)". Metropolitan Police Service. http://www.met.police.uk/co19/. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  33. ^ a b c Saudi Arabia Catholic priest arrested and expelled from Riyadh - Asia News[dead link]
  34. ^ a b c BBC News | Middle East | Saudi minister rebukes religious police
  35. ^ "Top UN police, rule of law officials meet in Italy to discuss global policing". Un.org. 2008-02-07. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25538&Cr=UN&Cr1=police. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  36. ^ Sheptycki, J. (1995) 'Transnational Policing and the Makings of a Postmodern State', British Journal of Criminology, 1995, Vol. 35 No. 4 Autumn, pp. 613-635
  37. ^ Deflem, M. (2004) Policing World Society; Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation, Oxford: Calrendon
  38. ^ Nadelmann, E. A. (1993) Cops Across Borders; the Internationalization of US Law Enforcement, Pennsylvania State University Press
  39. ^ Sheptycki, J. (2000) Issues in Transnational Policing, London; Routledge
  40. ^ Sheptycki, J. (2002) In Search of Transnational Policing, Aldershot: Ashgate
  41. ^ Joubert, C. and Bevers, H. (1996) Schengen Investigated; The Hague: Kluwer Law International
  42. ^ Alain, M. (2001) ‘The Trapeze Artists and the Ground Crew - Police Cooperation and Intelligence Exchange Mechanisms in Europe and North America: A Comparative Empirical Study’, Policing and Society, 11/1: 1-28
  43. ^ a b Ratcliffe, J. (2007) Strategic Thinking in Criminal Intelligence, Annadale, NSW: The Federation Press
  44. ^ Sheptycki, James (2007). "High Policing in the Security Control Society". Policing 1 (1): pp. 70–79. DOI:10.1093/police/pam005. http://policing.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/1/1/70. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  45. ^ Goldsmith, A. and Sheptycki, J. (2007) Crafting Transnational Policing; State-Building and Global Policing Reform, Oxford: Hart Law Publishers
  46. ^ Hills, A. (2009) ‘The Possibility of Transnational Policing, Policing and Society, Vol. 19 No. 3 pp. 300-317
  47. ^ Sheptycki, J. (2004) ‘The Accountability of Transnational Policing Institutions: The Strange Case of Interpol’ The Canadian Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 107-134
  48. ^ Lloyd, R. Oatham, J. and Hammer, M. (2007) 2007 Global Accountability Report: London: One World Trust
  49. ^ "Cops 'must shoot to kill'". http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Cops-must-shoot-to-kill-20100325. Retrieved July 2010. 
  50. ^ "SA minister defends shoot-to-kill". BBC News. November 12, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8357482.stm. Retrieved July 2010. 
  51. ^ Dao, James (1996-04-18). "Pataki Curbs Unmarked Cars' Use - The". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800E1DB1E39F93BA25757C0A960958260&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/R/Roads%20and%20Traffic. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  52. ^ "Police car image". http://visual.merriam-webster.com/society/safety/crime-prevention/police-car.php. 
  53. ^ "Car Fire Rescue, Caught On Tape". CBS News. October 19, 2005. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/10/19/earlyshow/main955104.shtml. "My partner grabbed the fire extinguisher and I ran to the car. We didn't know somebody was in there at first. And then everybody started yelling, 'There's somebody trapped! There's somebody trapped!' And, along with the help of a bunch of citizens, we were able to get him out in the nick of time." 
  54. ^ "Early Defibrillation". City of Rochester, Minnesota. http://www.rochestermn.gov/departments/police/defibrillation/. 
  55. ^ Reiss Jr, Albert J. (1992). "Police Organization in the Twentieth Century". Crime and Justice 51: 51. DOI:10.1086/449193. NCJ 138800. 
  56. ^ "Finest of the Finest". TIME Magazine. February 18, 1966. http://jcgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,899019,00.html. 
  57. ^ "Guide to the Orlando Winfield Wilson Papers, ca. 1928-1972". Online Archive of California. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=tf3v19n6s0&doc.view=entire_text. Retrieved 2006-10-20. 
  58. ^ "Chicago Chooses Criminologist to Head and Clean Up the Police". United Press International/The New York Times. February 22, 1960. 
  59. ^ Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (December 2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 198029. 
  60. ^ Kelling, George L., Tony Pate, Duane Dieckman, Charles E. Brown (1974). "The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment - A Summary Report" (PDF). Police Foundation. http://www.policefoundation.org/pdf/kcppe.pdf. 
  61. ^ Kelling, George L., James Q. Wilson (March 1982). "Broken Windows" (subscription). Atlantic Monthly. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/198203/broken-windows. 
  62. ^ Tilley, Nick (2003). Problem-Oriented Policing, Intelligence-Led Policing and the National Intelligence Model. Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London. http://www.jdi.ucl.ac.uk/publications/short_reports/problem_oriented_policing.php. 
  63. ^ "Intelligence-led policing: A Definition". Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Archived from the original on May 15, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060515144758/http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/crimint/intelligence_e.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  64. ^ a b Supreme Court of the United States, Terry v. Ohio (No. 67), Certiorari to the Supreme Court of Ohio. Retrieved 2010-05-12 from law.cornell.edu
  65. ^ Amanda Reavy. "Police review board gets started". The State Journal-Register Online. http://www.sj-r.com/sections/news/stories/112655.asp. 
  66. ^ "Star Exclusive: Police ignore SIU's probes". Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/news/article/943363--star-exclusive-police-ignore-siu-s-probes. 
  67. ^ Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. p. 5. ISBN 0-534-58158-7. 
  68. ^ "Castle Rock v. Gonzales". Cornell University Law School. http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/04-278.ZS.html. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  69. ^ See e.g. § 1 section 2 of the Police Act of North Rhine-Westphalia:"Police Act of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia" (in German). polizei-nrw.de. Land Nordrhein-Westfalen. http://www1.polizei-nrw.de/im/Recht/Polizeigesetz/. Retrieved 2008-08-10. 
  70. ^ The United States Park Police Webpage, NPS.gov
  71. ^ "Law Enforcement Statistics". Bureau of Justice Statistics. Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061002175933/http://www.ojp.gov/bjs/lawenf.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  72. ^ Das, Dilip K., Otwin Marenin (2000). Challenges of Policing Democracies: A World Perspective. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 90-5700-558-1. 

External links

   
               

 

Toutes les traductions de Police


Contenu de sensagent

  • définitions
  • synonymes
  • antonymes
  • encyclopédie

  • definition
  • synonym

Dictionnaire et traducteur pour mobile

⇨ Nouveau : sensagent est maintenant disponible sur votre mobile

   Publicité ▼

sensagent's office

Raccourcis et gadgets. Gratuit.

* Raccourci Windows : sensagent.

* Widget Vista : sensagent.

dictionnaire et traducteur pour sites web

Alexandria

Une fenêtre (pop-into) d'information (contenu principal de Sensagent) est invoquée un double-clic sur n'importe quel mot de votre page web. LA fenêtre fournit des explications et des traductions contextuelles, c'est-à-dire sans obliger votre visiteur à quitter votre page web !

Essayer ici, télécharger le code;

SensagentBox

Avec la boîte de recherches Sensagent, les visiteurs de votre site peuvent également accéder à une information de référence pertinente parmi plus de 5 millions de pages web indexées sur Sensagent.com. Vous pouvez Choisir la taille qui convient le mieux à votre site et adapter la charte graphique.

Solution commerce électronique

Augmenter le contenu de votre site

Ajouter de nouveaux contenus Add à votre site depuis Sensagent par XML.

Parcourir les produits et les annonces

Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu.

Indexer des images et définir des méta-données

Fixer la signification de chaque méta-donnée (multilingue).


Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet.

Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

boggle

Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

Dernières recherches dans le dictionnaire :

5240 visiteurs en ligne

calculé en 0,094s

   Publicité ▼

Je voudrais signaler :
section :
une faute d'orthographe ou de grammaire
un contenu abusif (raciste, pornographique, diffamatoire)
une violation de copyright
une erreur
un manque
autre
merci de préciser :

Mon compte

connexion

inscription

   Publicité ▼