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Presidency of George W. Bush

                   
Presidency of George W. Bush
43rd President of the United States
In office
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
Vice President Dick Cheney
Preceded by Bill Clinton
Succeeded by Barack Obama
46th Governor of Texas
In office
January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000
Lieutenant Bob Bullock
Rick Perry
Preceded by Ann Richards
Succeeded by Rick Perry
Personal details
Born George Walker Bush
(1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 65)
New Haven, Connecticut
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Laura Bush
Residence Crawford, Texas
Occupation Businessman (Oil, Baseball)
Religion United Methodist
Signature

The presidency of George W. Bush began on January 20, 2001, when he was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States of America. The oldest son of former president George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush was elected president in the 2000 general election, and became the second US president whose father had held the same office (John Quincy Adams was the first).

After two recounts, Democratic presidential candidate Vice President Al Gore filed a lawsuit for a third. The Supreme Court's highly controverisal decision in Bush v. Gore resolved the dispute. The Florida Secretary of State certified Bush as the winner of Florida. Florida's 25 electoral votes gave Bush, the Republican candidate, 271 electoral votes, enough to defeat Al Gore. Bush was re-elected in 2004. His second term ended on January 20, 2009.

As president, Bush pushed through a $1.3 trillion tax cut program and the No Child Left Behind Act, and also pushed for socially conservative efforts such as the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and faith-based welfare initiatives. Nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history.[1] Almost half entered illegally.[2]

After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Bush declared a global War on Terrorism and, in October 2001, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban, destroy Al-Qaeda, and to capture Osama bin Laden. In March 2003, Bush received a mandate from the U.S. Congress to lead an invasion of Iraq, asserting that Iraq was in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1441.[3]

Bush also initiated an AIDS program that committed $15 billion to combat AIDS over five years.[4] His record as a humanitarian included helping enroll as many as 29 million of Africa's poorest children in schools.[5]

On his second full day in office, Bush reinstated the Mexico City Policy; this policy required any non-governmental organization receiving US Government funding to refrain from performing or promoting abortion services in other countries.[6] Also in 2002, President Bush withdrew funding from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), a key player in promoting family planning in the developing world.[7]

Running as a self-styled "war president" in the midst of the Iraq War,[8] Bush won re-election in 2004,[9] as his campaign against Senator John Kerry was successful despite controversy over Bush's prosecution of the Iraq War and his handling of the economy.[10][11]

His second term was highlighted by several free trade agreements, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 alongside a strong push for offshore and domestic drilling, the nominations of Supreme Court Justices John Roberts and Samuel Alito, a push for Social Security and immigration reform, a surge of troops in Iraq, which was followed by a drop in violence, and several different economic initiatives aimed at preventing a banking system collapse, stopping foreclosures, and stimulating the economy during the recession.[12][13][14][15][16]

The approval ratings of George W. Bush have, at different points in time, run the gamut from high to all-time record low. Bush began his presidency with ratings near 50%.[17] In the time of national crisis following the September 11 attacks, polls showed approval ratings of greater than 85%, peaking in one October 2001 poll at 92%,[17] and a steady 80–90% approval for about four months after the attacks.[18] Afterward, his ratings steadily declined as the economy suffered and the Iraq War initiated by his administration continued. By early 2006, his average rating was near 40%, and in July 2008, a poll indicated a near all-time low of 22%. Upon leaving office the final poll recorded his approval rating as 19%, a record low for any U.S. President.[17][19][20]

Contents

  Major issues of presidency

  Major acts as president

Foreign Policy Actions

Economic Policy Actions

Domestic Policy Actions

  State of the Union Addresses

  International treaties signed

George W. Bush signed several international treaties, including but not limited to:

  Major treaties withdrawn

  • ABM Treaty (2002) – limited anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons between the United States and the U.S.S.R.
  • United Nations Population Fund (2002) – promoted the human right of "reproductive health", that is physical, mental, and social health in matters related to reproduction and the reproductive system.

  Major legislation

  Legislation signed

  2001

  2002

  2003

  2004

  2005

  2006

  2007

  2008

  Legislation vetoed

President Bush vetoed 12 pieces of legislation, four of which were overturned by congress:

  Administration and cabinet

  Cabinet meeting

Bush's Cabinet had included figures that were prominent in past administrations, notably former Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had served as United States National Security Advisor under Ronald Reagan. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld had served as White House Chief of Staff and Secretary of Defense under Gerald Ford; Rumsfeld's successor, Robert Gates, served as Director of Central Intelligence under George H.W. Bush. Vice President Dick Cheney served as Secretary of Defense under George H. W. Bush.

Bush placed a high value on personal loyalty and, as a result, his administration had high message discipline. He maintained a "hands-off" style of management. "I'm confident in my management style. I'm a delegator because I trust the people I've asked to join the team. I'm willing to delegate. That makes it easier to be President," he said in an interview with Diane Sawyer on ABC in December 2003. Critics alleged, however, that Bush was willing to overlook mistakes made by loyal subordinates.[citation needed]

The Bush Cabinet
Office Name Term
President George W. Bush 2001–2009
Vice President Dick Cheney 2001–2009
Secretary of State Colin Powell 2001–2005
Condoleezza Rice 2005–2009
Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neill 2001–2002
John Snow 2003–2006
Henry Paulson 2006–2009
Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld 2001–2006
Robert Gates 2006–2009
Attorney General John Ashcroft 2001–2005
Alberto Gonzales 2005–2007
Michael Mukasey 2007–2009
Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton 2001–2006
Dirk Kempthorne 2006–2009
Secretary of Agriculture Ann Veneman 2001–2005
Mike Johanns 2005–2007
Ed Schafer 2008–2009
Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans 2001–2005
Carlos Gutierrez 2005–2009
Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao 2001–2009
Secretary of Health and
Human Services
Tommy Thompson 2001–2005
Mike Leavitt 2005–2009
Secretary of Education Rod Paige 2001–2005
Margaret Spellings 2005–2009
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development
Mel Martinez 2001–2003
Alphonso Jackson 2003–2008
Steve Preston 2008–2009
Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta 2001–2006
Mary Peters 2006–2009
Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham 2001–2005
Samuel Bodman 2005–2009
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Anthony Principi 2001–2005
Jim Nicholson 2005–2007
James Peake 2007–2009
Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge 2003–2005
Michael Chertoff 2005–2009
Chief of Staff Andrew Card 2001–2006
Joshua Bolten 2006–2009
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
Christine Todd Whitman 2001–2003
Mike Leavitt 2003–2005
Stephen L. Johnson 2005–2009
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
Mitch Daniels 2001–2003
Joshua Bolten 2003–2006
Rob Portman 2006–2007
Jim Nussle 2007–2009
Director of the Office of
National Drug Control Policy
John P. Walters 2001–2009
United States Trade Representative Robert Zoellick 2001–2005
Rob Portman 2005–2006
Susan Schwab 2006–2009

There was only one non-Republican in Bush's cabinet: Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta, the first Asian American cabinet secretary, who had previously served as Secretary of Commerce under Bill Clinton, is a Democrat. Mineta resigned from Bush's cabinet on July 7, 2006 to pursue "other challenges".[38] Mary Peters, a Republican, was nominated and confirmed to succeed him as Transportation Secretary. At least one other non-Republican was apparently offered a position in the administration but declined. CNN reported that in the transition to his second term, Bush offered the positions of Ambassador to the United Nations and subsequently Secretary of Homeland Security to Senatar Joe Lieberman, then a Democrat and currently an Independent Democrat.[citation needed]

In 2006, Bush replaced long-time chief of staff Andrew Card with Joshua Bolten and made major staff and cabinet changes with the intention of revitalizing his Administration.[39]

On November 8, 2006 (the day after the Democrats took back Congress in the midterm elections), Bush announced plans to replace Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld with former CIA Director Robert Gates. Gates was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 6 and took office as the 22nd Secretary of Defense on December 18.[40]

  Cabinet members

  Attorney General

Bush's first Attorney General, John Ashcroft, was politically controversial, but widely viewed as competent. Ashcroft resigned days after Bush's 2004 re-election. Bush's second Attorney General was Alberto Gonzales. In addition to his work on providing guidelines for detainee interrogation methods prior to his appointment,[41][42] he claimed there was no right to Habeas Corpus for detained combatants.[43] Michael Mukasey succeeded Gonzales and was the country's 81st Attorney General.

  Labor

Bush's first nomination for Secretary of Labor was Linda Chavez. This nomination came under attack when evidence came to light that she had given money to an illegal immigrant from Guatemala who lived in her home. Chavez claimed that the woman was not an employee and she had merely provided her with emergency assistance due to the domestic abuse the woman had been facing at the time.[44] Chavez's nomination was withdrawn. Instead, Bush nominated Elaine Chao, a former official with the administrations with Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, who was confirmed by the Senate. Chao was the only member of Bush's Cabinet to serve during Bush's entire tenure as President.

  Energy

Bush's first Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, was controversial at the time of his 2001 appointment because as a senator he co-sponsored S.896, a bill to abolish the United States Department of Energy, in 1999.[45] Samuel Wright Bodman III, Sc.D. is the United States Secretary of Energy and was previously Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Department.

  Homeland Security

When Tom Ridge announced his decision to resign as Secretary of Homeland Security, Bush's first choice to replace him was Bernard Kerik, who served as Police Commissioner of the City of New York during the September 11, 2001 attacks. Kerik's nomination raised controversy when it was discovered that he had previously hired an undocumented worker as a nanny and housekeeper. After a week, Kerik pulled his nomination and Bush went on to nominate Michael Chertoff.[46]

  Advisors and other officials

  Military nominations and appointments

  Supreme Court nominations and appointments

Bush nominated the following people to the Supreme Court of the United States:

  Court of Appeals nominations and appointments

  Federal Reserve appointment

On October 24, 2005, Bush nominated Ben Bernanke to succeed Alan Greenspan as Chairman of the Federal Reserve. The Senate Banking Committee recommended Bernanke's confirmation by a 13–1 voice vote on November 16, 2005. With the full Senate's approval on January 31, 2006 by another voice vote, Bernanke was sworn in on February 1, 2006.

  First term (2001–2005)

  Second term (2005–2009)

  Political philosophy

The guiding political philosophy of the Bush administration has been termed neoconservative. The specific elements of neoconservative leadership have been itemized in policy papers by leading members of the Project for a New American Century, and is represented in the editorial perspective of the political journal the Weekly Standard. Administration officials chosen from the membership of the Project for a New American Century (PNAC) began with the selection of the candidate for vice president, Dick Cheney. Others included Richard Armitage, Zalmay Khalilzad, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Richard Perle, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul Wolfowitz.

In 1998, members of the PNAC, including Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz, wrote to President Bill Clinton urging him to remove Saddam Hussein from power using US diplomatic, political and military power.

In September 2000, the PNAC issued a report entitled Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces, and Resources For A New Century, proceeding "from the belief that America should seek to preserve and extend its position of global leadership by maintaining the preeminence of U.S. military forces." The group stated that when diplomacy or sanctions fail, the United States must be prepared to take military action. The PNAC argued that the Cold War deployment of forces was obsolete. Defense spending and force deployment must reflect the post–Cold War duties that US forces are obligated to perform. Constabulary duties such as peacekeeping in the Balkans and the enforcement of the No Fly Zones in Iraq put a strain upon, and reduced the readiness of, US forces. The PNAC recommended the forward redeployment of US forces at new strategically placed permanent military bases in Southeast Europe and Southeast Asia. Permanent bases would ease the strain on US forces, allowing readiness to be maintained and the carrier fleet to be reduced. Furthermore, PNAC advocated that the US-globalized military should be enlarged, equipped and restructured for the "constabulary" roles associated with shaping the security in critical regions of the world.[47]

  Environmental record

  Cabinet meeting

George W. Bush’s environmental record began with promises as a presidential candidate to clean up power plants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In a speech on September 29, 2000 in Saginaw, Michigan, Bush pledged to commit two billion dollars to the funding of clean coal technology research. In the same speech, he also promised to work with Congress, environmental groups and the energy industry to require a reduction of the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury and carbon dioxide into the environment within a “reasonable period of time.”[48] He would later reverse his position on that specific campaign pledge in March 2001 in a letter to Nebraska senator Chuck Hagel, stating that carbon dioxide was not considered a pollutant under the Clean Air Act, and that restricting carbon dioxide emissions would lead to higher energy prices.[49]

In 2001, Bush appointed Philip A. Cooney, a former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, to the White House Council on Environmental Equality. Cooney is known to have edited government climate reports in order to minimize the findings of scientific sources tying greenhouse gas emissions to global warming.[50]

In March 2001, the Bush administration announced that it would not implement the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan that would require nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, claiming that ratifying the treaty would create economic setbacks in the U.S. and does not put enough pressure to limit emissions from developing nations.[51] In February 2002, Bush announced his alternative to the Kyoto Protocol, by bringing forth a plan to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gasses by 18 percent over 10 years. The intensity of greenhouse gasses specifically is the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions and economic output, meaning that under this plan, emissions would still continue to grow, but at a slower pace. Bush stated that this plan would prevent the release of 500 million metric tons of greenhouse gases, which is about the equivalent of removing 70 million cars from the road. This target would achieve this goal by providing tax credits to businesses that use renewable energy sources.[52]

In late November 2002, the Bush Administration released proposed rule changes that would lead to increased logging of federal forests for commercial or recreational activities by giving local forest managers the ability to open up the forests to development without requiring environmental impact assessments and without specific standards to maintain local fish and wildlife populations. The proposed changes would affect roughly 192,000,000 acres (780,000 km2) of US forests and grasslands. Administration officials claimed the changes were appropriate because existing rules, which were approved by the Clinton administration two months before Bush took office, were unclear.[53]

In November 2004, Bush administration officials asked the United Nations to allow US industries to use an additional 458 tons of methyl bromide, an ozone-destroying pesticide that was slated for elimination by the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The additional increase request brings the US’s total exemption for the year 2005 to 9,400 metric tons of methyl bromide, more than all other nations’ requests combined, and well over the 7,674 metric tons used by US agribusiness in 2002.[54]

In January 2004, Interior Secretary Gale Norton approved a move to open nearly 9,000,000 acres (36,000 km2) of Alaska's North Slope to oil and gas development, citing claims from the energy industry that nearly 13 billion barrels (2.1×109 m3) of oil could be extracted from the region. The North Slope borders the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a sanctuary and habitat for migratory birds, whales, seals and other wildlife. Reports from the U.S. Geological Survey, however, estimate that less than one-third of the reported 13 billion barrels (2.1×109 m3) is economically recoverable in the entire 23,500,000-acre (95,000 km2) National Petroleum Reserve.[55]

In July 2005 the Environmental Protection Agency decided to delay the release of an annual report on fuel economy. The report shows that automakers have taken advantage of loopholes in US fuel economy regulations to manufacture vehicles that are less fuel-efficient than they were in the late 1980s. Fuel-efficiency had on average dropped six percent during that period, from 22.1 miles per gallon to 20.8 mpg. Evidence suggests that the administration’s decision to delay the report’s release was because of its potential to affect Congress’s upcoming final vote on an energy bill six years in the making, which turned a blind eye to fuel economy regulations.[56]

In May 2006, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) allegedly blocked release of a report that suggested global warming had been a contributor to the frequency and strength of hurricanes in recent years. In February, NOAA (part of the Department of Commerce) set up a seven-member panel of climate scientists to compile the report. The panel’s chair, Ants Leema, received an e-mail from a Commerce Department official asking for the report to not be released as it needed to be made “less technical.”[57] NOAA would later go on to say that the report was not released because it “was not complete” and was in reality not a report, but a “two-page fact sheet about the issue.”[58]

On January 6, 2009, President Bush designated the world's largest protected marine area. The Pacific Ocean habitat includes the Mariana Trench and the waters and corals surrounding three uninhabited islands in the Northern Mariana Islands, Rose Atoll in American Samoa, and seven islands along the equator.[59]

  Legacy

On January 15, 2009, Bush gave a nationally televised farewell address in the East Room of the White House. He discussed many of his decisions and cited the fact that he had kept the country safe since September 11, 2001 as a major accomplishment. Bush stated, "I have always acted with the best interests of our country in mind. I have followed my conscience and done what I thought was right." He also said that the United States must continue promoting human liberty, human rights, and human dignity around the world. One of his final lines was "We have faced danger and trial, and there's more ahead. But with the courage of our people and confidence in our ideals, this great nation will never tire, never falter and never fail."[60][61]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers". USATODAY.com. December 12, 2005.
  2. ^ "Immigration surge called 'highest ever'". Washington Times. December 12, 2005.
  3. ^ Powell, Colin (February 5, 2003). "U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell Addresses the U.N. Security Council". The White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/02/print/20030205-1.html. Retrieved 2006-05-25. 
  4. ^ Frist, Bill (January 16, 2009). "Commentary:". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/15/frist.bush/ 
  5. ^ Michael Steele, Bush's Africa legacy, 2008-03-27, Washington Times, (5th paragraph)
  6. ^ "Obama Ends Global Family Planning Restrictions". NPR: National Public Radio. January 23, 2009.
  7. ^ "US funding revamps African contraceptive drive". Yahoo! News. November 18, 2009.
  8. ^ "Transcript for Feb. 8th". MSNBC. 2004-02-08. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4179618/. Retrieved 2006-09-09. 
  9. ^ U.S. Election results for 2004. Uselectionatlas.org (2004-11-02). Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  10. ^ The Third Bush-Kerry Presidential Debate transcript, 2004-10-13, Debates.org
  11. ^ CNN's exit poll showed terrorism (19%) and Iraq (15%) as the third and fourth most important issues behind moral values (22%) and the economy (20%) CNN – U.S. President / National / Exit Poll / Election 2004
  12. ^ Bush to Sign Economic Stimulus Plan, 2008-02-09, VOA News
  13. ^ Bush Unveils Foreclosure Relief Plan, 2007-12-06, NPR
  14. ^ Bush: Bailout plan necessary to deal with crisis, 2008-09-25, CNN.com
  15. ^ President Bush's Second Term Accomplishments and Agenda, 2005-08-03, The White House
  16. ^ Charles Krauthammer, Surge Results are Visible, 2007-04-13, Real Clear Politics
  17. ^ a b c Roper Center (2009). "Job Performance Ratings for President Bush". http://webapps.ropercenter.uconn.edu/CFIDE/roper/presidential/webroot/presidential_rating_detail.cfm?allRate=True&presidentName=Bush. Retrieved March 9, 2009. 
  18. ^ USA Today (May 20, 2005). "CNN/USA TODAY/GALLUP Poll". http://www.usatoday.com/news/polls/tables/live/01132003.htm. 
  19. ^ PollingReport.com. "PRESIDENT BUSH – Overall Job Rating in national polls". http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. 
  20. ^ "The National Economy". americanresearchgroup.com. February 19, 2009. http://americanresearchgroup.com/economy/. 
  21. ^ Status of Ratifications. Chm.pops.int. Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  22. ^ Computer Crime – Convention Between the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and OTHER GOVERNMENTS. US Department of State. November 23, 2001. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  23. ^ Rights. Optional Protocol Between the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and OTHER GOVERNMENTS. US Department of State. New York May 25, 2000
  24. ^ Microsoft Word – 13095 – Multilateral – Child Rights – May – 25 – 2000 – CS.DOC. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  25. ^ Bush, George W. (2002-05-14). "President Signs Farm Bill". White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/05/print/20020513-2.html. Retrieved 2006-09-10. 
  26. ^ Bush, George W. (2002-08-17). "President Bush Signs H.R. 4, the Pension Protection Act of 2006". White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/08/print/20060817-1.html. Retrieved 2006-09-10. 
  27. ^ Bush, George W. (2006-10-04). "President's Statement on H.R. 5441, the "Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007"". White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/10/print/20061004-10.html. Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  28. ^ Message to the House of Representatives, December 12, 2007, The White House
  29. ^ Memorandum of Disapproval for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, December 28, 2007, The White House
  30. ^ Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without Approval the "Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, March 8, 2008, The White House
  31. ^ Bush Announces Veto of Waterboarding Ban, March 8, 2008, The Washington Post
  32. ^ Farm Bill Veto Message to the House of Representatives, May 21, 2008, The White House
  33. ^ Farm Bill Veto Message, CQ Politics
  34. ^ Bush vetos farm bill for second time, June 18, 2000, AFP
  35. ^ Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without Approval H.R. 6124, the "Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008", June 18, 2008, The White House
  36. ^ Bush to Veto Medicare Bill Tuesday; Override Expected, July 14, 2008, CQ Politics
  37. ^ Message to the House of Representatives Returning Without Approval H.R. 6331, the "Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008", June 18, 2008, The White House
  38. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin (2006-06-24). "Lone Democrat in Bush Cabinet Is Departing". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/23/AR2006062300579.html. Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  39. ^ "White House shake-up: Chief of staff resigns". Associated Press. MSNBC.com. March 28, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12048598/from/ET/. Retrieved 2006-09-30. 
  40. ^ "New US defence secretary sworn in". BBC News. December 18, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6190279.stm. 
  41. ^ Berlow, Alan (November 21, 2004). "The President's Yes Man". Washington Post. p. B07. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A64024-2004Nov19?language=printer. Retrieved 2007-08-30. 
  42. ^ Barton Gellman and Jo Becker (25 June 2007). "Pushing the Envelope on Presidential Power". Washington Post. http://blog.washingtonpost.com/cheney/chapters/pushing_the_envelope_on_presi/index.html. Retrieved 2007-08-30. 
  43. ^ Egelko, Bob (January 24, 2007). "Gonzales says the Constitution doesn't guarantee habeas corpus". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/01/24/MNGDONO11O1.DTL. Retrieved 2007-06-19. 
  44. ^ Chavez Withdraws As Labor Nominee Associated Press article in the January 9, 2001 Washington Post, accessed online November 22, 2006.
  45. ^ Mark Helm (2001-01-15). "Leading Environmentalists Urge Senate to Oppose Abraham". Common Dreams. http://www.commondreams.org/news2001/0115-06.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-30. 
  46. ^ "As Kerik Faces Court, Questions Persist on Background Check" by William K. Rashbaum The New York Times 30 June 2006.
  47. ^ "Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources For a New Century" (PDF). Project for the New American Century. September 2000. http://newamericancentury.org/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  48. ^ George W. Bush for President Official Site: Speeches. Web.archive.org (2001-01-11). Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  49. ^ "Bush reverses position on emissions reductions". CNN. March 14, 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/03/13/power.plant.emissions/index.html. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  50. ^ Revkin, Andrew C. (June 8, 2005). "Bush Aide Softened Greenhouse Gas Links to Global Warming". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/08/politics/08climate.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Bush%20Aide%20Softened%20Greenhouse%20Gas%20Links%20to%20Global%20Warming&st=cse&oref=slogin. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  51. ^ "US blow to Kyoto hopes". BBC News. March 28, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1247518.stm. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Bush unveils voluntary plan to reduce global warming". CNN. February 14, 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/02/14/bush.global.warming/index.html. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  53. ^ Logging rules may be eased. Seattlepi.com (2002-11-26). Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  54. ^ Pelley, Janet; Burke, Maria (2005). "Conservation first in Canadian Arctic". Environmental Science & Technology 39 (6): 127A–127A. DOI:10.1021/es0532133. 
  55. ^ The Bush Record – January 2004 Actions. NRDC. Retrieved on 2011-06-13.
  56. ^ E.P.A. Holds Back Report on Car Fuel Efficiency. The New York Times. July 28, 2005
  57. ^ Schmid, Randolph E. (September 27, 2006). "Journal: Agency Blocked Hurricane Report". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/27/AR2006092700251.html. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  58. ^ Giles, Jim (28 September 2006). "Is US hurricane report being quashed?". Nature 443 (7110): 378. DOI:10.1038/443378a. http://web.archive.org/web/20100309071259/http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/assets/binaries/nature-article. 
  59. ^ Suzanne Goldenberg: “Bush designates ocean conservation areas in final weeks as president” – guardian.co.uk, January 6, 2009
  60. ^ "Bush Says Decisions in Office Kept America Safe From Attack". Fox News. January 15, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/01/15/bush-pass-torch-highlight-accomplishments-farewell-address/. 
  61. ^ Bush defends presidency in farewell speech – Politics – White House – msnbc.com. MSNBC (2009-01-15). Retrieved on 2011-06-13.

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Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

boggle

Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

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