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définition - States_and_territories_of_India

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Wikipedia

States and territories of India

                   

India is a federal union of states[1] comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.[1]

Contents

List of states and territories

A clickable map of the 28 states and 7 union territories of India.
Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Laccadive Sea Siachen Glacier Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Burma China Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Tajikistan Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Goa Gujarat Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Pakistan Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri LankaA clickable map of Indian states and territories.
About this image

The Census 2011 codes given in the table have been assigned by Census India from North-West to South-East.

States of India
Name ISO 3266-2 code Census
2011
code
Population Area
(km2)
Language Capital Largest city
(if not capital)
No. of Districts Population density Literacy Rate(%) Percentage of Urban Population to total Population Sex Ratio Sex Ratio
(0-6)
Andhra Pradesh AP 280 84,665,533 275,045 Telugu, Urdu Hyderabad 23 308 67.66 27.3 992 961
Arunachal Pradesh AR 120 1,382,611 83,743 Itanagar 16 17 66.95 20.8 920 964
Assam AS 180 31,169,272 78,550 Assamese, Bodo, Rabha dialect, Deori, Bengali Dispur Guwahati 23[citation needed] 397 73.18 12.9 954 965
Bihar BR 100 103,804,637 99,200 Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magadhi Patna 38[2][3] 1102 63.82 10.5 916[3] 942
Chhattisgarh CT 220 25,540,196 135,194 Chattisgarhi, Hindi Raipur 16 189 71.04 20.1 991 975
Goa GA 300 1,457,723 3,702 Konkani, Marathi Panaji Vasco da Gama 2 394 87.40 49.8 968 938
Gujarat GJ 240 60,383,628 196,024 Gujarati Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 25 308 79.31 37.4 918 883
Haryana HR 060 25,353,081 44,212 Haryanvi (Western Hindi), Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad 21 573 76.64 28.9 877 819
Himachal Pradesh HP 020 6,856,509 55,673 Western Hindi, Punjabi Shimla 12 123 83.78 9.8 920 896
Jammu and Kashmir JK 010 12,548,926 222,236 Urdu,[4] Kashmiri, Dogri, Punjabi Ladakhi[5] Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
14 124 68.74 24.8 883 941
Jharkhand JH 200 32,966,238 74,677 Hindi Ranchi Jamshedpur 24 414 67.63 22.2 947 965
Karnataka KA 290 61,130,704 191,791 Kannada Bangalore 30 319 75.60 34.0 968 946
Kerala KL 320 33,387,677 38,863 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram 14 859 93.91 26.0 1,084 960
Madhya Pradesh MP 230 72,597,565 308,252 Hindi Bhopal Indore 45 236 70.63 26.5 930 932
Maharashtra MH 270 112,372,972 307,713 Marathi Mumbai 35 365 82.91 42.4 925 913
Manipur MN 140 2,721,756 22,347 Manipuri Imphal 9 122 79.85 25.1 987 957
Meghalaya ML 170 2,964,007 22,720 Khasi, Pnar Shillong 7 132 75.48 19.6 986 973
Mizoram MZ 150 1,091,014 21,081 Mizo Aizawl 8 52 91.58 49.6 975 964
Nagaland NL 130 1,980,602 16,579 Angami, Ao languages, Chang, Chakhesang, Konyak, and Sema Kohima Dimapur 11 119 80.11 17.2 931 964
Orissa [6] OR 210 41,947,358 155,820 Oriya Bhubaneswar 30 269 73.45 15.0 978 953
Punjab PJ 030 27,704,236 50,362 Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana 17 550 76.68 33.9 893 798
Rajasthan RJ 080 68,621,012 342,269 Rajasthani
(Western Hindi)
Jaipur 32 201 67.06 23.4 926 909
Sikkim SK 110 607,688 7,096 Nepali Gangtok 4 86 82.20 11.1 889 963
Tamil Nadu TN 330 72,138,958 130,058 Tamil Chennai 32 480 80.33 44.0 995 942
Tripura TR 160 3,671,032 10,491.69 Bengali Agartala 4 555 87.75 17.1 961 966
Uttar Pradesh UP 090 199,581,477 243,286 Hindi, Urdu[7] Lucknow Kanpur 72 828 69.72 20.8 908 916
Uttarakhand UT 050 10,116,752 53,566 Western Hindi Dehradun (interim) 13 189 79.63 25.7 963 908
West Bengal WB 190 91,347,736 88,752 Bengali, Urdu, Nepali, Santali Kolkata 18 1,029 77.08 28.0 947 960
Union Territories
Name ISO 3266-2 code Population Language Capital Largest city No. of Districts No. of Villages No. of Towns Population density Literacy Rate(%) Percentage of Urban Population to total Population Sex Ratio Sex Ratio(0-6)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands AN 379,944 Bengali Port Blair 2 547 3 46 86.27 32.6 878 957
Chandigarh CH 1,054,686 Punjabi Chandigarh 1 24 1 9,252 86.43 89.8 818 845
Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN 342,853 Marathi and Gujarati Silvassa 1 70 2 698 77.65 22.9 775 979
Daman and Diu DD 242,911 Gujarati Daman 2 23 2 2169 87.07 36.2 618 926
Lakshadweep LD 64,429 Malayalam Kavaratti Andrott 1 24 3 2013 92.28 44.5 946 959
National Capital Territory of Delhi DL 16,753,235 Hindi New Delhi 9 165 62 11,297 86.34 93.2 866 868
Pondicherry PY 1,244,464 French and Tamil Pondicherry 4 92 6 2,598 86.55 66.6 1,038 967

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)[8]

History

Lists relating to Indian states and
territories
Flag of India.svg
Population
Highest point
GSDP
GDP
HDI
Tax revenues
Voters
Abbreviations
Natural growth rate
Sex ratio
Vaccination
Literacy rate
Electricity
Capitals
Media exposure
Origin of name
HIV awareness
Household size
Home ownership
Underweight people
Place of worship
TV ownership
Transport network
Power capacity
Institutional delivery
Life expectancy at birth
Cities in India by state


Pre-1956

The subcontinent of India has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each imposing their own administrative divisions on the region.[9][10][full citation needed] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja, although the British held ultimate power over them.

After 1956

The States Reorganization Act of 1956 abolished the British system of provinces and princely states. In its place, new states were drawn based on ethnicity and language.

The former French and Portuguese colonies in India were incorporated into the Republic as the union territories of Pondicherry, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Daman and Diu in 1962.

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960[11] by the Bombay Reorganization Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963.[12] The Punjab Reorganization Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November,[13] transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.[14]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh[15] on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura[16] on 21 January 1972 the Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[17] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[18]

In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[19] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), since renamed Uttarakhand, was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[20] and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[21] The Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry have since been given the right to elect their own legislatures and they are now counted as small states.[citation needed]

Proposals

Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India, all the major parties in Andhra Pradesh supported statehood for Telangana. On 11:30 PM 9 December 2009, Mr. P. Chidambaram, Union Minister of Home Affairs, on behalf of the Government of India, announced that a resolution in the Andhra Pradesh assembly for the creation of a separate Telangana state would be passed. Mr. Chidambaram also stated that the process for the formation of a separate Telangana state would be initiated. It was not clear if this initiation of the process meant discussion with everyone involved on how to divide the state or whether the division of the state was being officially announced.[citation needed]

As a result of this unilateral decision by the Government of India, several members of Andhra Pradesh's legislature submitted their resignations to protest the creation of the new state owing to the pressure from the people in their constituencies.[22] As of 11 December, at least 117 legislators and many Members of Parliament had resigned in protest of the Government's decision to carve out a new state of Telangana.[23]

Due to the unexpected turn of events, after the parties which promised support to the Telangana state formation on 7 December 2009 in a unanimous all-party meeting at the State level, presided by CM, Rosaiah, and later the party members of these parties made a U-turn on their support bowing to the pressure from the people in their constituency following the 9 December statement (in support of Telangana state process initiation), the federal government made another statement on 23 December to clarify its intention on the process that it would consult with all groups, political and non-political, before moving forward. It then formed the Justice Sri Krishna committee which has been touring the state consulting with different sections of the society. A report recommending a solution suitable to all constituents is expected to be submitted before 31 December 2010.[24]

In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "States and union territories". http://www.india.gov.in/knowindia/state_uts.php. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  2. ^ http://gov.bih.nic.in/Profile/Districts.htm
  3. ^ a b http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/bihar/Provisional%20Population%20Totals%202011-Bihar.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.mapsofindia.com/events/republic-day/offical-languages-india.html
  5. ^ http://india.gov.in/knowindia/state_uts.php?id=11
  6. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times Of India. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-24/india/29182775_1_odia-odisha-orissa-chief-minister. 
  7. ^ http://uplegassembly.nic.in/UPLL.HTML
  8. ^ Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998.
  9. ^ http://www.indhistory.com/
  10. ^ http://www.indohistory.com/
  11. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  12. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
  13. ^ The Punjab Reorganization Act 1966
  14. ^ http://www.travelindia-guide.com/maps/state_map.php
  15. ^ Statehood Himachal Pradesh
  16. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  17. ^ Sikkim joins Indian Inion
  18. ^ Goa Chronology
  19. ^ http://cg.gov.in/profile/corigin.htm
  20. ^ http://uk.gov.in/pages/display/115-about-us
  21. ^ http://www.jharkhand.gov.in/AboutState_fr.html
  22. ^ Press Trust of India (10 December 2009). "60 AP MLAs submit resignation to protest Telangana creation". Business Standard. http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/60-ap-mlas-submit-resignation-to-protest-telangana-creation/80453/on. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  23. ^ "Telangana: Shutdown in Andhra Pradesh, 117 legislators quit". Times of India. 11 December 2009. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Telangana-Shutdown-in-Andhra-Pradesh-117-legislators-quit/articleshow/5325650.cms. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  24. ^ "Srikrishna report by Dec. 31". Deccan Chronicle. 27 October 2010. http://www.deccanchronicle.com/hyderabad/srikrishna-report-dec-31-897. Retrieved 10 November 2010. 
  25. ^ "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-15814828. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 

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