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définition - Swarm

swarm (n.)

1.a group of many things in the air or on the ground"a swarm of insects obscured the light" "clouds of blossoms" "it discharged a cloud of spores"

2.a moving crowd

swarm (v. intr.)

1.move in large numbers"people were pouring out of the theater" "beggars pullulated in the plaza"

2.be teeming, be abuzz"The garden was swarming with bees" "The plaza is teeming with undercover policemen" "her mind pullulated with worries"

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Merriam Webster

SwarmSwarm (?), v. i. [Cf. Swerve.] To climb a tree, pole, or the like, by embracing it with the arms and legs alternately. See Shin. [Colloq.]

At the top was placed a piece of money, as a prize for those who could swarm up and seize it. W. Coxe.

SwarmSwarm, n. [OE. swarm, AS. swearm; akin to D. zwerm, G. schwarm, OHG. swaram, Icel. svarmr a tumult, Sw. svärm a swarm, Dan. sværm, and G. schwirren to whiz, to buzz, Skr. svar to sound, and perhaps to E. swear. √177. Cf. Swerve, Swirl.]
1. A large number or mass of small animals or insects, especially when in motion. “A deadly swarm of hornets.” Milton.

2. Especially, a great number of honeybees which emigrate from a hive at once, and seek new lodgings under the direction of a queen; a like body of bees settled permanently in a hive. “A swarm of bees.” Chaucer.

3. Hence, any great number or multitude, as of people in motion, or sometimes of inanimate objects; as, a swarm of meteorites.

Those prodigious swarms that had settled themselves in every part of it [Italy]. Addison.

Syn. -- Multitude; crowd; throng.

SwarmSwarm, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Swarmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Swarming.]
1. To collect, and depart from a hive by flight in a body; -- said of bees; as, bees swarm in warm, clear days in summer.

2. To appear or collect in a crowd; to throng together; to congregate in a multitude. Chaucer.

3. To be crowded; to be thronged with a multitude of beings in motion.

Every place swarms with soldiers. Spenser.

4. To abound; to be filled (with). Atterbury.

5. To breed multitudes.

Not so thick swarmed once the soil
Bedropped with blood of Gorgon.
Milton.

SwarmSwarm, v. t. To crowd or throng. Fanshawe.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Swarm

voir aussi

swarm (v.)

cloud, cluster

locutions

-2005 Minnesota Swarm season • 2006 Minnesota Swarm season • 2007 Minnesota Swarm season • 2008 Minnesota Swarm season • 2009 Minnesota Swarm season • 2010 Minnesota Swarm season • A Swarm of Angels • Albert's swarm • Alien Swarm • Alien swarm • Black Swarm • Botany Swarm • Cincinnati Swarm • Dike swarm • Documentary swarm • Earthquake swarm • For a Swarm of Bees • Four-State Tornado Swarm • Franklin dike swarm • GeoDefense Swarm • Glowworm swarm optimization • Grenville dike swarm • Hybrid swarm • Independence dike swarm • Kangamiut dike swarm • Locust swarm • Mackenzie dike swarm • Matachewan dike swarm • Minnesota Swarm • Mistassini dike swarm • Ohio Swarm • Repulsive particle swarm optimization • Shades of the Swarm • Shark Swarm • Sudbury dike swarm • Swarm (ESA mission) • Swarm (Transformers) • Swarm (band) • Swarm (comics) • Swarm (disambiguation) • Swarm (simulation) • Swarm (video game) • Swarm Development Group • Swarm and Destroy • Swarm intelligence • Swarm of Angels • Swarm of the Snakehead • Swarm robotics • Swarm! • The Swarm • The Swarm (film) • The Swarm (novel) • The Swarm War • Virginia Swarm

dictionnaire analogique






 

stir; budge; move[Classe...]

nombreux (fr)[Thème]

(worm; larva)[Thème]

swarm (v. intr.)


swarm (v. intr.)




Wikipedia

Swarm

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Bees swarming on a shrub

Swarm describes a behaviour of an aggregate of animals of similar size and body orientation, often moving en masse in the same direction. "Swarming" is a general term that can be applied to any animal that swarms. The term can be applied to insects, birds, fish, various microorganisms such as bacteria, and people. The term applies particularly to insects. "Flocking" is the term usually used for swarming behaviour in birds, while "shoaling" or "schooling" refers to swarming behaviour in fish. The swarm size is a major parameter of a swarm.

Contents

Birds

Many of the larger birds fly in flocks. Flying in flocks helps in reducing the energy needed. Many large birds fly in a V-formation and individual energy savings have been estimated in the range 12–20 %.[1][2] Red Knots Calidris canutus and Dunlins Calidris alpina were found in radar studies to fly 5 km per hour faster in flocks than when they were flying solitary.[3]

Insects

Ants

Species that have multiple queens may have a queen leaving the nest along with some workers to found a colony at a new site,[4] a process akin to swarming in honeybees.

Bees

The swarming of honey bees refers to the reproductive action of an entire colony of bees, as opposed to the reproduction of single bees; see queen bee and honey bee life cycle.

Locusts

The term locust refers to the swarming phase of the short-horned grasshoppers of the family Acrididae. The origin and apparent extinction of certain species of locust—some of which reached 6 inches (15 cm) in length—are unclear.[5]

These are species that can breed rapidly under suitable conditions and subsequently become gregarious and migratory. They form bands as nymphs and swarms as adults—both of which can travel great distances, rapidly stripping fields and greatly damaging crops.

Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague

Research at Oxford University has identified that swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding. Increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs causes an increase in levels of serotonin.[6] This causes the locust to change color, eat much more, and breed much more easily. The transformation of the locust to the swarming variety is induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.[7] It is estimated that the largest swarms have covered hundreds of square miles and consisted of many billions of locusts.

In a paper in the 2009-01-30 edition of the AAAS magazine Science, Anstey & Rogers et al. showed that when desert locusts meet up, their nervous systems release serotonin, which causes them to become mutually attracted, a prerequisite for swarming.[8][9]

In further independent research from the University of Oxford, published in the 2009-04-07 edition of PNAS, Yates et al. suggested that an individual locust's response to a loss ofalignment in the group is increased randomness of its motion, until an aligned state is again achieved. They claim that noise-induced alignment appears to be an intrinsic characteristic of collective coherent motion.[10]

Termites

In many cultures, termites are used for food, particularly the alates. The alates are nutritious, having a good store of fat and protein, and are palatable in most species with a nutty flavour when cooked. They are easily gathered at the beginning of the rainy season in West, Central and Southern Africa when they swarm, as they are attracted to lights and can be gathered up when they land on nets put up around a lamp.

Other insects

Mosquitoes: Adult mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after emerging from the pupal stage. In most species, the males form large swarms, usually around dusk, and the females fly into the swarms to mate.

Marine animals

Fish

File:Heringsschwarm.gif
Underwater video loop of a school of herrings migrating at high speed to their spawning grounds in the Baltic Sea.
File:Synchropredation.gif
Juvenile herring hunting in a synchronised way for the very alert and evasive copepods.

Shoal can describe any group of fish, including mixed-species groups, "school" is reserved for more closely knit groups of the same species swimming in a highly synchronized and polarized manner.

Fish derive many benefits from shoaling behaviour including defense against predators (through better predator detection and by diluting the chance of capture), enhanced foraging success, and higher success in finding a mate. It is also likely that fish benefit from shoal membership through increased hydrodynamic efficiency.

Fish use many traits to choose shoalmates. Generally they prefer larger shoals, shoalmates of their own species, shoalmates similar in size and appearance to themselves, healthy fish, and kin (when recognized).

The "oddity effect" posits that any shoal member that stands out in appearance will be preferentially targeted by predators. This may explain why fish prefer to shoal with individuals that resemble them. The oddity effect would thus tend to homogenize shoals.

One puzzling aspect of shoal selection is how a fish can choose to join a shoal of animals similar to themselves, given that it cannot know its own appearance. Experiments with zebrafish have shown that shoal preference is a learned ability, not innate. A zebrafish tends to associate with shoals that resemble shoals in which it was reared (that is, a form of imprinting).

Other open questions of shoaling behaviour include identifying which individuals are responsible for the direction of shoal movement. In the case of migratory movement, most members of a shoal seem to know where they are going. In the case of foraging behaviour, ethologist Stephan Reebs, writing in the journal Animal Behaviour, reported that captive shoals of golden shiner (a kind of minnow) were led by a small number of experienced individuals who knew when and where food was available.[11]

Other marine animals

Small marine animals, such as copepods, can also swarm under certain conditions. Antarctic krill, small shrimp-like crustaceans live in large swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000–30,000 individual animals per cubic meter.[12] Jellyfish are also said to "swarm". Large marine mammals, such as whales, dolphins and dolphins, also form social groups called pods, but perhaps short of what would be called a "swarm".

People

A group of people can also exhibit swarm behaviour, such as soldiers swarming over the parapets. In Cologne, Germany, two biologists from the University of Leeds demonstrated a flock like behaviour in humans. The group of people exhibited a very similar behavioural pattern to that of a flock, where if five percent of the flock would change direction the others would follow suit. If one person was designated as a predator and everyone else was to avoid him, the flock behaved very much like a school of fish.[13] The mathematical modelling of flocking behaviour is a common technology, and has found uses in animation. Flocking simulations have been used in many films[14] to generate crowds which move realistically.

Bacteria

The term is also used to describe groupings of some kinds of bacteria such as myxobacteria.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hummel, D. & Beukenberg, M. (1989). Aerodynamische Interferenzeffekte beim Formationsfl ug von Vogeln. J. Ornithol. 130: 15–24.
  2. ^ Cutts, C. J. & J R Speakman (1994). "Energy savings in formation flight of Pink-footed Geese." (PDF). J. Exp. Biol. 189 (1): 251–261. PMID 9317742. http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/189/1/251.pdf. 
  3. ^ Newton, I. 2008. The Migration Ecology of Birds. Elselvier. ISBN 978-0-12-517367-4
  4. ^ Hölldobler & Wilson (1990), pp. 143–179
  5. ^ Encarta Reference Library Premium 2005 DVD. Article — Rocky Mountain Locust.
  6. ^ BBC News | Locust swarms 'high' on serotonin
  7. ^ Mechanosensory-induced behavioural gregarization in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria
  8. ^ The Key to Pandora's Box, AAAS Science, 2009-01-30, P.A. Stevenson (Leipzig University), accessed 2009-01-31
  9. ^ Blocking 'happiness' chemical may prevent locust plagues, New scientist, 2009-01-29, accessed 2009-01-31
  10. ^ Inherent noise can facilitate coherence in collective swarm motion, PNAS, 2009-04-07, C.A. Yates (University of Oxford) et al.
  11. ^ Reebs, S.G. 2000. Can a minority of informed leaders determine the foraging movements of a fish shoal? Animal Behaviour 59: 403-409.
  12. ^ W. M., P. P., S. W., Hamner, Hamner, Strand, Gilmer, R. W. (1983). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Behavior of Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superba: Chemoreception, Feeding, Schooling and Molting'"]. Science 220 (4595): 433–435. doi:10.1126/science.220.4595.433. PMID 17831417. 
  13. ^ "http://psychcentral.com/news/2008/02/15/herd-mentality-explained/1922.html". Retrieved on October 31st 2008.
  14. ^ Gabbai, J. M. E. (2005). Complexity and the Aerospace Industry: Understanding Emergence by Relating Structure to Performance using Multi-Agent Systems. Manchester: University of Manchester Doctoral Thesis. http://www.gabbai.com/academic/complexity-and-the-aerospace-industry-understanding-emergence-by-relating-structure-to-performance-using-multi-agent-systems/. 

External links

SWARM

From Wikipedia

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SWARM Remote Weapons System
TypeRemote Weapon System
Place of originUK
Service history
Used byUS Marine Corps, British Army, Royal Netherlands Army
WarsIraq War, Afghanistan
Production history
DesignerThales Group
ManufacturerThales Group
VariantsSWARM Lite
Specifications
Weight125 kg (excluding weapon and ammunition)[1]
Height650 mm/450 mm option
Shell5.56 mm, 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm
Traverse360
Feed system200-600 Ready Rounds

The SWARM Remote Weapon System (Stabilised Weapon And Reconnaissance Mount) is a fully armored remote weapon system designed and built by the Thales Group in Glasgow, Scotland. The SWARM system consists of two main assemblies: the Gun Processing and Interface Unit (GPIU), which is operated inside the vehicle, and the external Weapon and Sensor Platform (WASP). It can fire a variety of weapons, and utilize multiple sensors. On the US Marine Corps' Gladiator Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle (TUGV), equipped with a 7.62 mm M240 and day/night sensors.

Currently used in conjunction with:

Specifications

  • System Accuracy: Less than 1.5 mils (1.5 mrad) (10 round burst)
  • Minimum Tracking Speed: 0.01 degrees per second.


Sources

Swarm!

From Wikipedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Swarm!
Studio album by Torture Killer
ReleasedFebruary 24, 2006
Recorded2005 at PopStudio Loimma Finland/The Hit Factory USA
GenreDeath metal
Length34:46
LabelMetal Blade
ProducerChris Barnes
Torture Killer chronology
For Maggots to Devour
(2003)
Swarm!
(2006)
Sewers
(2009)

Swarm! is the second album by Finnish death metal band Torture Killer, released February 24, 2006. The album is the only album by Torture Killer to feature vocalist Chris Barnes.

Track listing

  1. "Swarm!" - 2:49
  2. "Forever Dead" - 5:44
  3. "A Funeral for the Masses" - 3:08
  4. "Multiple Counts of Murder" - 3:40
  5. "Obsessed with Homicide" - 2:23
  6. "Sadistic" - 3:23
  7. "Cannibal Gluttony" - 3:33
  8. "I Killed You" - 3:19
  9. "Heading Towards the Butchery" - 2:52
  10. "A Violent Scene of Death" - 3:45

Personnel


 

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