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définition - The_Independent

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The Independent

                   
The Independent
Front page
Front page of The Independent from 11 October 2011
Type Daily newspaper
Format Compact
Owner Alexander Lebedev, Evgeny Lebedev
Publisher Independent Print Limited
Editor Chris Blackhurst
Founded 1986
Political alignment Liberal/radical centre
Headquarters Northcliffe House,
London, UK
Circulation 182,881 Monday to Saturday; 167,247 Sunday (July 2011)[1]
Sister newspapers The Independent on Sunday
The i
ISSN 0951-9467
OCLC number 185201487
Official website independent.co.uk

The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.[2] Nicknamed the Indy, it was launched in 1986 and is one of the youngest UK national daily newspapers. The daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards.

Originally a broadsheet newspaper, since 2003 it has been published in a tabloid or "compact" format.[3] The Independent is regarded as leaning to the left politically,[4] but tends to take a classical liberal, pro-market, stance on economic issues.[5] It has not affiliated itself with any political party and features a range of views given on its editorial and comment pages. The paper originally described itself as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence"—a banner it carried on the front page of its daily edition. This banner was dropped in September 2011.[6]

In July 2011 it had an average daily circulation of 182,881, and was the only national daily newspaper in Britain to have increased its circulation over the previous 12 months. During the same period the Sunday edition had a slightly lower circulation, at 167,247.[1]

Contents

  History

  1986: Origin

The Independent was first published on 7 October 1986 as a broadsheet. It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Brett Straub. All three were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing and Whittam Smith took control of the paper.

The paper was created at a time of tension in British journalism. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices and fighting with the print unions. In this atmosphere the new paper attracted staff from Murdoch broadsheets who preferred not to move to Wapping. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", and challenging The Guardian for centre-left readers, and The Times as a newspaper of record, it reached a circulation of over 400,000 in 1989. Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as a price war. The market was tight and when The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated (partly due to the launch of the ill-fated Sunday Correspondent some months earlier). Some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although with a largely distinct editorial staff.

In the 1990s, The Independent started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black. It featured spoofs of their mastheads with the words 'THE RUPERT MURDOCH', 'The Conrad Black', and below, 'THE INDEPENDENT'.

  1990–present

By the 1990s, Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. Several other newspapers launched in the 1980s, including the Sunday Correspondent, had collapsed without winning enough readers to be profitable, and The Independent was experiencing similar problems. Two European media groups took small stakes. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought substantial stakes by mid-1994. In March 1995 Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into Independent News & Media (43%), MGN (43%), and Prisa (El Pais, 12%). In the same month, Whittam Smith left the paper.[citation needed]

In April 1996 there was another refinancing and in March 1998 O'Reilly bought the other 54% of the company for £30 million, and assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News while Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent and Rosie Boycott of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, partly as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book My Trade.[7]

Boycott left in April 1998 to The Daily Express and Marr in May 1998, later to join the BBC as political editor. Simon Kelner was made editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent heavily to improve circulation, and the paper had a number of redesigns. While circulation improved, it did not approach 1989 levels or restore profitability; job cuts and financial controls took their toll on the journalists and their morale. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and once a key figure at the Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid 2004, the newspaper was losing £5million a year. A gradual improvement meant that by 2006, circulation was at a nine-year high.[8]

In November 2008, following staff cuts, a move of production was announced to Northcliffe House, headquarters of Associated Newspapers.[9] The two newspaper groups' editorial, management and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, IT, switchboard and payroll.

On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Alexander Lebedev for a £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, since closing the Independent and its Sunday title would have cost £28m and £40m respectively, due to long-term contracts.[2][10] In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks later, editor Roger Alton stood down.[11]

  Appearance

  Format and design

The Independent was originally published as a broadsheet in a series of celebrated designs. The final version was designed by Carroll, Dempsey and Thirkell following a commission by Nicholas Garland who, along with Alexander Chancellor was unhappy with designs produced by Raymond Hawkey and Michael McGuiness. At the time on seeing the dummies Chancellor said "I thought we were joining a serious paper.” The first edition was overseen by Nicholas Thirkell and implemented by Michael Crozier. From September 2003 it was produced in both broadsheet and tabloid versions, with the same content in each. The tabloid edition was termed “compact” to distance itself from the more sensationalist reporting style usually associated with "tabloid" newspapers in the UK.[12] After launching in the London area and subsequently the northwest,[13] the smaller format appeared gradually throughout the UK. Soon afterwards Rupert Murdoch's Times followed suit and introduced its own tabloid version.[14] Prior to these changes, The Independent had a daily circulation of around 217,500, the lowest of any major national British daily, climbing to claim a 15% rise by March 2004 (to 250,000). Throughout much of 2006, circulation stagnated at a quarter of a million. On 14 May 2004, The Independent produced its last weekday broadsheet, having stopped producing a Saturday broadsheet edition in January. The Independent on Sunday published its last simultaneous broadsheet on 9 October 2005, and has since followed a compact design.

On 12 April 2005, The Independent redesigned its layout to a more European feel, similar to France's Libération. The redesign was carried out by a Barcelona-based design studio. The weekday second section was subsumed within the main paper, double-page feature articles became common in the main news pages, and there were revisions to front and back covers.[15] A new second section, Extra, was introduced on 25 April 2006. It is similar to The Guardian's G2 and The Times' Times2, containing features, reportage and games, including sudoku. In June 2007 The Independent on Sunday consolidated its content into a news section which included sports and business, and a magazine focusing on life and culture.[16]

On 23 September 2008 the main newspaper became full-colour and "Extra" was replaced by a "Independent Life Supplement" focusing on different themes each day.[17]

Three weeks after the acquisition of the paper by Alexander Lebedev and Evgeny Lebedev in 2010, the paper was relaunched with another redesign on 20 April. The new format featured smaller headlines and a new pullout "Viewspaper" section, which contained the paper's comment and feature articles.[18] From 26 October 2010, the same day as its sister paper i was launched, The Independent started to be printed on slightly thicker paper than before and ceased to be full-colour throughout, with many photographs and pictures (though none of those used in adverts) being printed in black and white only.

On 11 October 2011, The Independent unveiled yet another new look, featuring a red, sans-serif masthead.

  Front pages

Following the 2003 switch in format, The Independent became known for its unorthodox and campaigning front pages, which frequently relied on images, graphics or lists rather than traditional headlines and written news content. For example, following the Kashmir earthquake in 2005 it used its front page to urge its readers to donate to its appeal fund, and following the publication of the Hutton Report into the death of British government scientist David Kelly, its front page simply carried the word "Whitewash?".[19] In 2003 the paper's editor, Simon Kelner, was named "Editor of the Year" at the "What the Papers Say" awards, partly in recognition of, according to the judges, his "often arresting and imaginative front-page designs".[20] In 2008 however, as he was stepping down as editor, he stated that it was possible to "overdo the formula" and that the style of the paper's front pages perhaps needed "reinvention".[21]

In 2007, Alan Rusbridger, editor of The Guardian, said of The Independent: "The emphasis on views, not news, means that the reporting is rather thin, and it loses impact on the front page the more you do that."[22] In a 12 June 2007 speech British Prime Minister Tony Blair called The Independent a "viewspaper", saying it "was started as an antidote to the idea of journalism as views not news. That was why it was called the Independent. Today it is avowedly a viewspaper not merely a newspaper".[23] The Independent criticised Blair's comments the following day.[24][25] The newspaper has since ironically changed format to include a 'Viewspaper' insert in the centre of the regular newspaper, designed to feature most of the opinion columns and arts reviews. Satirical magazine Private Eye frequently refers to The Independent as The Indescribablyboring.

Under the editorship of Chris Blackhurst, the campaigning, poster-style front pages were scaled back in favour of more conventional news stories.

  Sections

The weekday, Saturday and Sunday editions of The Independent all include supplements and pull-out subsections –

Daily Monday to Friday The Independent

  • Monday Sport: A weekly pull-out containing reports of the previous weekend's sporting events.

Saturday's The Independent

  • Saturday Sport: A weekly pull-out containing reports looking ahead to the weekend's sporting events.
  • Radar: A compact, primarily listings magazine, including television schedules, film and DVD reviews and events listings for the coming week. It also includes a round-up of the "50 best" items in a particular category. For example over the Christmas period there are weekly supplements of 'Gifts for him' and 'Gifts for her'
  • Traveller: Contains travel articles, advertisements etc.
  • The Independent Magazine: A features magazine including sections on food, interiors, fashion etc.

The Independent on Sunday

  • Sport: A weekly pull-out containing reports of Saturday's sporting events.
  • The New Review: A features magazine

  Family

The Independent on Sunday
Type Sunday newspaper
Editor John Mullin
Circulation 155,661[26]
ISSN 0958-1723
OCLC number 500339994

  The Independent on Sunday

i
Type Daily newspaper
Format Compact
Owner Alexander Lebedev
Evgeny Lebedev
Editor Stefano Hatfield
Founded 2010 (2010)
Political alignment Liberal/Centre-left
Headquarters Northcliffe House, London,
United Kingdom
Circulation 175,714[27]
Official website independent.co.uk/i

  The i

In October 2010 i, a compact sister newspaper, was launched. i is a separate newspaper but uses some of the same material.

  Independent.co.uk

On 23 January 2008, The Independent relaunched its online edition, www.independent.co.uk.[28][29] The relaunched site introduced a new look, better access to the blog service, priority on image and video content and additional areas of the site including art, architecture, fashion, gadgets and health. The paper launched Podcast programmes such as The Independent Music Radio Show, The Independent Travel Guides, The Independent Sailing Podcasts, and The Independent Video Travel Guides. Since 2009, the website has carried short video news bulletins provided by the Al Jazeera English news channel.[30]

  The (RED) Independent

The Independent has supported U2 lead singer Bono's Product RED brand by creating The (RED) Independent, an occasional edition that gives half the day's proceeds to the charity.[31] The first edition was in May 2006. Edited by Bono, it drew high sales.[32]

A September 2006 edition of The RED Independent, designed by fashion designer Giorgio Armani, drew controversy due to its cover shot, showing model Kate Moss in blackface for an article about AIDS in Africa.[33]

  Political views

When the paper was established in 1986, the founders intended its political stance to reflect the centre of the British political spectrum and thought that it would take readers primarily from The Times and The Daily Telegraph. It is now seen as leaning to the left, making it more a competitor to The Guardian, even though it still features conservative columnists such as Bruce Anderson and Dominic Lawson and tends to take a classical liberal, pro-market, stance on economic issues.[34] An Ipsos MORI poll estimated that in the 2010 general election, 44% of regular readers voted Liberal Democrat, 32% voted Labour, and 14% voted Conservative.[35] On the eve of the 2010 general election, The Independent supported the Liberal Democrats, arguing that "they are longstanding and convincing champions of civil liberties, sound economics, international co-operation on the great global challenges and, of course, fundamental electoral reform. These are all principles that this newspaper has long held dear. That is why we argue that there is a strong case for progressively minded voters to lend their support to the Liberal Democrats wherever there is a clear opportunity for that party to win."[36] A leader published on the day of the 2008 London Mayoral election, compared the candidates and said that, if the newspaper had a vote, it would vote first for the Green Party candidate, Sian Berry, noting the similarity between her priorities and those of The Independent, and secondly, with "rather heavy heart", for the then incumbent, Ken Livingstone.[37]

The paper took a strong editorial position against the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, the Iraq War, and aspects of US and UK foreign policy related to the War on Terrorism following the 11 September attacks. It has been a strong supporter of electoral reform.[36] The paper has also taken strong positions on environmental issues, campaigned against the introduction of ID cards, and campaigned against the restriction of mass immigration to the UK. In 1997, The Independent on Sunday launched a campaign for the decriminalisation of cannabis. 10 years later, it reversed itself, stating that the cannabis strain skunk "smoked by the majority of young Britons" in 2007 had become "25 times stronger than resin sold a decade ago."[38]

  Other views

In addition, The Independent has highlighted what it refers to as "war crimes" being committed by pro-government forces in the Darfur region of Sudan.[39]

Originally it avoided royal stories, Whittam Smith later saying he thought the British press was "unduly besotted" with the Royal Family and that a newspaper could "manage without" stories that focused on the monarchy.[40]

  Criticisms

In 2010, the paper published an article about Saint Petersburg governor Valentina Matviyenko[41] that was criticized by the Russian blogosphere.[42] 33 people including Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovsky, members of Russian business groups, political groups, and labor unions filed a complaint to the Press Complaints Commission complaining that the "extremely flattering" portrayal of Matviyenko was "propaganda" and "[i]mportantly, it appears as a news story and not as an opinion column."[43] The article's writer Mary Dejevsky replied that no one encouraged or commissioned her to write the article.[42] She said only the foreign editor knew about the article before publication since she changed the topic of her article at the last minute.[44] Dejevsky believed that her critics may be "looking at Western reports through their own prism" as Russians. She argued that Russians do not realize that British newspapers do not distinguish "between reporting and comment" as clearly as American papers, and British editors like "reports from abroad to have an element of individuality and judgement." She said the article "was based on subjective impressions and judgements. It was not intended to be a rounded profile of Ms Matviyenko."[42] Roy Greenslade of The Guardian believed the complaint was politically motivated and meant to embarrass the Lebedev owners.[45]

  Longford Prize

The Independent sponsors The Longford Prize, in memory of Lord Longford.[46]

  Personnel

  Editors

The Independent

1986: Andreas Whittam Smith
1994: Ian Hargreaves
1995: Charles Wilson
1996: Andrew Marr
1998: Rosie Boycott
1998: Andrew Marr and Rosie Boycott
1998: Simon Kelner
2008: Roger Alton
2010: Simon Kelner
2011: Chris Blackhurst[47]

The Independent on Sunday

1990: Stephen Glover
1991: Ian Jack
1995: Peter Wilby
1996: Rosie Boycott
1998: Kim Fletcher
1999: Janet Street-Porter
2002: Tristan Davies
2008: John Mullin

There have also been various guest editors over the years, such as Elton John on 1 December 2010, the Body Shop's Anita Roddick on 19 June 2003 and U2's Bono in 2006.

  Writers and columnists

Predominantly The Independent

Predominantly The Independent on Sunday

  Photographers

  • Timothy Allen
  • David Ashdown
  • Jonathan Evans
  • Brian Harris
  • Tom Pilston
  • David Rose

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b "ABCs". The Guardian (UK). 12 August 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/table/2011/aug/12/abcs-national-newspapers. Retrieved 24 September 2011.  (July 2011)
  2. ^ a b "Independent titles sold to Lebedev family company". The Independent (London). 25 March 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/press/independent-titles-sold-to-lebedev-family-company-1927436.html. Retrieved 25 March 2010. 
  3. ^ The Independent (London). 27 September 2003. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/the-independent-launches-tabloid-version-to-give-readers-a-choice-581355.html. 
  4. ^ U.K. paper follows rivals into tabloid format: At The Times, size matters, International Herald Tribune, 8 December 2003.
  5. ^ Wilby, Peter (14 April 2008). "It is. Is he?". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/apr/14/theindependent.pressandpublishing. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  6. ^ http://order-order.com/2011/09/30/indys-independence-whacked/
  7. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/my-trade-a-short-history-of-british-journalism-by-andrew-marr-6161917.html
  8. ^ Lelic, Sarah (19 September 2006). "INM eyes Independent profit". mad.co.uk. http://www.mad.co.uk/Logon/ArticleLogon.aspx?uiArticleID=ef7c2624-7002-45f7-96ed-21a040523aef&uiNavigationItemID=&uiPageID=8453a00f-9d1a-404a-beda-339905b6b8b4&PipelinedPage=/Main/News/Articlex/ef7c2624700245f796ed21a040523aef/INM-eyes-emIndependentem-profit.html&PipelinedQueryString=uiArticleID%3def7c2624-7002-45f7-96ed-21a040523aef%26uiNavigationItemID%3dd8f9fd23-813a-47b2-9696-31d9ca23a265%26. 
  9. ^ Sweney, Mark (28 November 2008). "Independent titles to relocate to Associated Newspapers HQ". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/nov/28/independent-titles-associated-newspapers-northcliffe-house. Retrieved 28 November 2008. 
  10. ^ Bintliff, Esther; Fenton, Ben (25 Mar 2010). "Lebedev scoops up The Independent for £1". Financial Times (London). http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f4081652-373c-11df-b542-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  11. ^ Ponsford, Dominic (9 April 2010). "Roger Alton steps down as Independent editor", Press Gazette (London).
  12. ^ Carney, Beth (1 December 2004). "British papers shrink to conquer". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/dec2004/nf2004121_9347_db016.htm. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  13. ^ "The Independent announces launch of compact version in North-west". The Independent (UK). 3 November 2003. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/the-independent-announces-launch-of-compact-version-in-northwest-734372.html. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  14. ^ Billings, Claire (5 December 2003). "Times tabloid pushes up sales". Brand Republic. http://www.brandrepublic.com/News/197504/Times-tabloid-pushes-sales-50000/?DCMP=ILC-SEARCH. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  15. ^ Brook, Stephen (12 April 2005). "Independent redesign takes it forward". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2005/apr/12/theindependent.pressandpublishing. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  16. ^ Dominic Ponsford. "News magazine look for relaunched Independent on Sunday". Press Gazette. http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=1&storycode=37809. 
  17. ^ Luft, Oliver (23 September 2008). "Independent goes full colour". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/sep/23/theindependent.pressandpublishing. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  18. ^ Ponsford, Dominic (20 April 2010). "Independent relaunch". Press Gazette. http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=1&storycode=45328&c=1. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  19. ^ Whitehead, Jennifer (12 October 2005). "Independent breaks front page mould again". PRWeek. http://www.prweek.com/uk/news/article/521627/Independent-breaks-front-page-mould-again-earthquake-appeal-coupon. Retrieved 1 May 2009. [dead link]
  20. ^ Burrell, Ian (18 December 2003). "Independent editor wins top award". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/independent-editor-wins-top-award-from-what-the-papers-say-judges-for-second-time-576954.html. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  21. ^ Brook, Stephen (5 June 2008). "Kelner says it's time to rethink "viewspaper" front pages". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/jun/05/theindependent.pressandpublishing. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  22. ^ Morgan, Piers (2 April 2007). "What happened when the Guardian editor met Piers Morgan". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/what-happened-when-the-guardian-editor-met-piers-morgan-442870.html. 
  23. ^ "Blair on the media". BBC News. 12 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6744581.stm. 
  24. ^ Grice, Andrew (13 June 2007). "Blair's attack provokes anger among newspaper editors and broadcasters". The Independent (London). Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  25. ^ Kelner, Simon (13 June 2007). "Would you be saying this, Mr Blair, if we supported your war in Iraq?". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/simon-kelner-would-you-be-saying-this-mr-blair-if-we-supported-your-war-in-iraq-452901.html. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  26. ^ Brook, Stephen (25 March 2010). "Lebedev buys Independent newspapers". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/mar/05/lebedev-buys-independent-newspapers. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  27. ^ Greenslade, Roy (11 March 2011). "One in the i for me as The Independent's kid sister makes its mark". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/greenslade/2011/mar/11/abcs-i. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  28. ^ "Welcome to The Independent's new website". The Independent (web only). 23 January 2008.
  29. ^ "Independent unveils revamped website". Journalism.co.uk. 23 January 2008. http://www.journalism.co.uk/2/articles/530956.php. 
  30. ^ Fitzsimmons, Caitlin (15 January 2009). "Independent in al-Jazeera video tie-up". guardian.co.uk (web only) (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/jan/15/independent-al-jazeera-video-tie-up. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  31. ^ Vallely, Paul (15 May 2006). "A red revolution on the high street". The Independent (London). http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/article484149.ece. 
  32. ^ "They found what they were looking for". NewsDesigner.com. 23 May 2006. http://www.newsdesigner.com/archives/002543.php. 
  33. ^ Pool, Hannah (22 September 2006). "Return to the dark ages". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/race/story/0,,1878483,00.html. 
  34. ^ Wilby, Peter (14 April 2008). "It is. Is he?". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/apr/14/theindependent.pressandpublishing. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  35. ^ Ipsos MORI (24 May 2010). "Voting by Newspaper Readership 1992-2010". Ipsos MORI General Election aggregates. Ipsos MORI. http://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/2476/Voting-by-Newspaper-Readership-19922010.aspx?view=wide. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  36. ^ a b "This historic opportunity must not be missed". The Independent (London). 5 May 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/leading-article-this-historic-opportunity-must-not-be-missed-1962527.html. 
  37. ^ "So consonant are her priorities with those of this paper that, if we could vote for mayor today, we would place our first-preference cross against her name. This would underscore the importance of the environment to both London and to the rest of the nation. Then, and with rather heavy heart, it would be illogical to do anything other than make Ken Livingstone our second choice." "If newspapers had a vote, this one would put its cross beside... (leader)". The Independent (London): p. 28. 1 May 2008. http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/leading-article-if-newspapers-had-a-vote-this-one-would-put-its-cross-beside-818670.html. 
  38. ^ Owen, Jonathan (18 March 2007). "Were we out of our minds? No, but then came skunk". The Independent on Sunday (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/health-news/cannabis-an-apology-440730.html. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  39. ^ Grice, Andrew (2 August 2007). "Darfur: The evidence of war crimes". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/darfur-the-evidence-of-war-crimes-459922.html. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  40. ^ Whittam Smith, Andreas (11 December 2000). "Debate the monarchy's future, but it will change nothing". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/andreas-whittam-smith/debate-the-monarchys-future-but-nothing-will-change-629282.html. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  41. ^ Dejevsky, Mary (6 Sep 2010). "Valentina Matviyenko: Meet Russia's Thatcher, the chemist who could end up in the Kremlim". The Independent (London, UK). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/valentina-matviyenko-meet-russias-thatcher-the-chemist-who-could-end-up-in-the-kremlim-2071294.html. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  42. ^ a b c Dejevsky, Mary (15 Sep 2010). "Don't get me wrong, Mr Travin!". openDemocracy (London, UK). http://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/mary-dejevsky/no-mrtravin-i-was-not-pushed. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  43. ^ Stroilov, Pavel. "LETTER: Russians Outraged by Skewed Independent Reporting". La Russophobe. La Russophobe. Archived from the original on 5 Dec 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20101205101335/http://larussophobe.wordpress.com/2010/10/27/letter-russians-outraged-by-skewed-independent-reporting/. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  44. ^ Dejevsky, Mary (19 Nov 2010). "An accusation too far". openDemocracy (London, UK). http://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/mary-dejevsky/accusation-too-far. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  45. ^ Greenslade, Roy (3 Nov 2010). "Russians complain to PCC over 'propaganda article' in The Independent". The Guardian (London, UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/greenslade/2010/nov/03/theindependent-pcc. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  46. ^ Morris, Nigel (23 November 2007). "Prisoners Abroad charity wins Longford prize". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/prisoners-abroad-charity-wins-longford-prize-760111.html. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  47. ^ "A new editor for The Independent". The Independent (London). 2 July 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/press/a-new-editor-for-the-independent-2305588.html. 

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SensagentBox

Avec la boîte de recherches Sensagent, les visiteurs de votre site peuvent également accéder à une information de référence pertinente parmi plus de 5 millions de pages web indexées sur Sensagent.com. Vous pouvez Choisir la taille qui convient le mieux à votre site et adapter la charte graphique.

Solution commerce électronique

Augmenter le contenu de votre site

Ajouter de nouveaux contenus Add à votre site depuis Sensagent par XML.

Parcourir les produits et les annonces

Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu.

Indexer des images et définir des méta-données

Fixer la signification de chaque méta-donnée (multilingue).


Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet.

Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

boggle

Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

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