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définition - The_Times

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The Times

                   
The Times
TheTimes.png
The 21 April 2011 front page of The Times
Type Daily newspaper
Format Compact
Owner News Corporation
Editor James Harding
Founded 1 January 1785 (&10000000000000227000000227 years, &10000000000000171000000171 days)
Political alignment Centre-right
Headquarters Wapping, London, UK
Circulation 394,102 (March 2012)[1]
Sister newspapers The Sunday Times
ISSN 0140-0460
Official website www.thetimes.co.uk

The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register (it became The Times on 1 January 1788). The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News International, itself wholly owned by the News Corporation group headed by Rupert Murdoch. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967.

The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, including The Times of India (1838), The Straits Times (1845), The New York Times (1851), The Irish Times (1859), the Los Angeles Times (1881), The Seattle Times (1891), The Daily Times (Malawi) (1900), The Canberra Times (1926), and The Times (Malta) (1935). For distinguishing purposes it is therefore sometimes referred to, particularly in North America, as the "London Times" or "The Times of London".[2][3]

The Times is the originator of the ubiquitous Times Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern. The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet.

Though traditionally a moderate newspaper and sometimes a supporter of the Conservatives, it supported the Labour Party in the 2001 and 2005 general elections.[4] In 2004, according to MORI, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats, and 26% for Labour.[5] The Times had an average daily circulation of 394,102 in March 2012.[1] An American edition has been published since 6 June 2006.[2]

Contents

  History

  Front page of The Times from December 4, 1788.

  1785 to 1890

The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. Walter senior had spent sixteen months in Newgate prison for libel printed in The Times, but his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers.

The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers.

In 1809, John Stoddart was appointed general editor, replaced in 1817 by Thomas Barnes. Under Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform.").The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence.[6]

The Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential[7] with his dispatches back to England.

  A wounded British officer reading The Times's report of the end of the Crimean war, in John Everett Millais' painting Peace Concluded.

In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws[citation needed] until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, and only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine. It enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400 000 people to 800 000 people (still a small minority of the population). During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery.

The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847. The paper continued as more or less independent, but from the 1850s The Times was beginning to suffer from the rise in competition from the penny press, notably The Daily Telegraph and The Morning Post.

During the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach The Times and ask for continental intelligence, which was often superior to that conveyed by official sources.[8]

  1890 to 1981

The Times faced financial extinction in 1890 under Arthur Fraser Walter, but it was rescued by an energetic editor, Charles Frederic Moberly Bell. During his tenure (1890–1911), The Times became associated with selling the Encyclopædia Britannica using aggressive American marketing methods introduced by Horace Everett Hooper and his advertising executive, Henry Haxton. Due to legal fights between the Britannica's two owners, Hooper and Walter Montgomery Jackson, The Times severed its connection in 1908 and was bought by pioneering newspaper magnate, Alfred Harmsworth, later Lord Northcliffe.

In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914, Wickham Steed, the Times's Chief Editor, argued that the British Empire should enter World War I.[9] On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed, The Times in an editorial endorsed the anti-Semitic forgery The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about The Protocols of the Elders of Zion:

What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".[10]

The following year, when Philip Graves, the Constantinople (modern Istanbul) correspondent of The Times, exposed The Protocols as a forgery, 'The Times retracted the editorial of the previous year.

In 1922, John Jacob Astor, son of the 1st Viscount Astor, bought The Times from the Northcliffe estate. The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement; then-editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement[citation needed], most notably Neville Chamberlain.

Kim Philby, a Soviet double agent, was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the Spanish Civil War of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined MI6 during World War II, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, then eventually defected to the Soviet Union in 1963.[11]

Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E.H. Carr was Assistant Editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials.[12] In December 1944, when fighting broke out in Athens between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a Times editorial sided with the Communists, leading Winston Churchill to condemn him and that leader in a speech to the House of Commons.[13] As a result of Carr's editorial, The Times became popularly known during World War II as the threepenny Daily Worker (the price of the Daily Worker was one penny)[14]

On 3 May 1966 it started printing news on the front page for the first time - previously the front page featured small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society.[citation needed] In 1967, members of the Astor family sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson, The Thomson Corporation merged it with The Sunday Times to form Times Newspapers Limited.

An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year (1 December 1978 – 12 November 1979).

The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 Energy Crisis and union demands. Management were left with no choice but to save both titles by finding a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and also one who had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods.

Several suitors appeared, including Robert Maxwell, Tiny Rowland and Lord Rothermere; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch.

  1981 to present: Murdoch-era

In 1981, The Times and The Sunday Times were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International.[15] The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators, John Collier and Bill O'Neill.

After 14 years as editor, William Rees-Mogg resigned the post upon the completion of the change of ownership.[16] Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing Harold Evans as his replacement.[17] One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. In March–May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process used to print The Times since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at The Times and The Sunday Times to be reduced by half.[citation needed] However, direct input of text by journalists ("single stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the Wapping dispute of 1986, when The Times moved from New Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near Fleet Street) to new offices in Wapping.[18]

Robert Fisk,[19] seven times British International Journalist of the Year,[20] resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655 in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance.[21]

In June 1990, The Times ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. The more formal style is now confined to the "Court and Social" page, though "Ms" is now acceptable in that section, as well as before surnames in news sections.

In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. On 13 September 2004, the weekday broadsheet was withdrawn from sale in Northern Ireland. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format.

The Conservative Party announced plans to launch litigation against The Times over an incident in which the newspaper claimed that Conservative election strategist Lynton Crosby had admitted that his party would not win the 2005 General Election. The Times later published a clarification, and the litigation was dropped.

On 6 June 2005, The Times redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. Author/solicitor David Green of Castle Morris Pembrokeshire has had more letters published on the main letters page than any other known contributor – 158 by 31 January 2008. According to its leading article, "From Our Own Correspondents", removal of full postal addresses was in order to fit more letters onto the page.

In a 2007 meeting with the House of Lords Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control.[22]

In May 2008 printing of The Times switched from Wapping to new plants at Broxbourne on the outskirts of London, and Merseyside and Glasgow, enabling the paper to be produced with full colour on every page for the first time.

Some[who?] allege that The Times' partisan opinion pieces also damage its status as 'paper of record,' particularly when attacking interests that go against those of its parent company – News International. In 2010 it published an opinion piece attacking the BBC for being 'one of a group of' signatories to a letter criticising BSkyB share options in October 2010.[23]

In March 2012, it became the first British newspaper to formally endorse same-sex marriage.

  Content

  Copies of The Times and supplements from December 2005

The Times features news for the first half of the paper with the leading articles on the second page, the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, Court & Social section, and related material. The sport section is at the end of the main paper.

  Times2

The Times's main supplement is the times2, featuring various lifestyle columns.[clarification needed] It was discontinued on 1 March 2010 but reintroduced on 11 October 2010 after negative feedback. Its regular features include a puzzles section called Mind Games. Its previous incarnation began on 5 September 2005, before which it was called T2 and previously Times 2. Regular features include columns by a different columnist each weekday. There was a column by Marcus du Sautoy each Wednesday, for example. The back pages are devoted to puzzles and contain sudoku, "Killer Sudoku", "KenKen", word polygon puzzles, and a crossword simpler and more concise than the main "Times Crossword".

The supplement contains arts and lifestyle features, TV and radio listings and reviews.

  The Game

The Game is included in the newspaper on Mondays, and details all the weekend's football activity (Premier League and Football League Championship, League One and League Two.) The Scottish edition of The Game also includes results and analysis from Scottish Premier League games.

  Saturday supplements

The Saturday edition of The Times contains a variety of supplements. These supplements were relaunched in January 2009 as: Sport, Weekend (including travel and lifestyle features), Saturday Review (arts, books, and ideas), The Times Magazine (columns on various topics), and Playlist (an entertainment listings guide).

Saturday Review is the first regular supplement published in broadsheet format since the paper switched to a compact size in 2004.

At the beginning of summer 2011 Saturday Review switched to the tabloid format

The Times Magazine features columns touching on various subjects such as celebrities, fashion and beauty, food and drink, homes and gardens or simply writers' anecdotes. Notable contributors include Giles Coren, Food and Drink Writer of the Year in 2005.

  Online presence

The Times and The Sunday Times have had an online presence since March 1999, originally at the-times.co.uk and sunday-times.co.uk, and later at timesonline.co.uk.[24] There are now two websites: thetimes.co.uk is aimed at daily readers, and the thesundaytimes.co.uk site at providing weekly magazine-like content. There are also iPad and Android editions of both newspapers. Since July 2010, News International has required readers who do not subscribe to the print edition to pay £2 per week to read The Times and The Sunday Times online.[25]

Visits to the websites have decreased by 87% since the paywall was introduced, from 21 million unique users per month to 2.7 million.[26] In April 2009, the timesonline site had a readership of 750,000 readers per day.[27] As of October 2011, there were around 111,000 subscribers to the Times' digital products [28]

  Ownership

  John Walter, the founder of The Times

The Times has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785:

  Readership

At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, The Times had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies, in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival The Daily Telegraph.[17] By November 2005 The Times sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "quality" newspaper (after The Daily Telegraph, which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales.[29] By March 2012 The Times' average daily circulation had fallen to 394,102 copies, compared to The Daily Telegraph's 576,378, with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers.[1] In contrast The Sun, the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,614,725 copies in March 2012, and the Daily Mail, the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,952,524 copies in the period.[1]

In a 2009 national readership survey The Times was found to have the highest number of ABC1 25–44 readers and the largest numbers of readers in London of any of the "quality" papers.[30]

  Typeface

  An example of the Times New Roman font

In 1908 The Times started using the Monotype Modern typeface.[31]

The Times commissioned the serif typeface Times New Roman, created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype, in 1931.[32] It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing The Times for being badly printed and typographically antiquated.[33] The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times. Morison used an older font named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. Times New Roman made its debut in the 3 October 1932 issue of The Times newspaper.[34] After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. The Times stayed with Times New Roman for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font:

  • Times Europa was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for The Times, as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces.
  • Times Roman replaced Times Europa on 30 August 1982.[35]
  • Times Millennium was made in 1991,[35] drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International.
  • Times Classic first appeared in 2001.[36] Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor Times Millennium. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004.
  • Times Modern was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of Times Classic.[35] Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The font was published by Elsner + Flake as EF Times Modern; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.[37]

  Political allegiance

The Times had declared its support for Clement Attlee's Labour at the 1945 general election; the party went on to win the election by a landslide over Winston Churchill's Conservative government. However, the newspaper reverted to the Tories for the next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con-Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 2001.

For the 2001 general election The Times declared its support for Tony Blair's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide. It supported Labour again in 2005, when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority.[38] For the 2010 general election, however, the newspaper declared its support for the Tories once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority.[39]

Year Party Supported
1945 Labour
1950 Conservatives
1955 Conservatives, Liberal
1974 Conservatives-Liberal Coalition
1979 Conservatives
2001 Labour
2010 Conservatives

This makes it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support in British history.[40]

  Sponsorships

The Times, along with the British Film Institute, sponsors the "The Times" bfi London Film Festival.

The Times sponsors the Cheltenham Literature Festival and the Asia House Festival of Asian Literature at Asia House, London.

  Notable people

  Editors

Name[41] Tenure
John Walter 1785 to 1803
John Walter, 2nd 1803 to 1812
John Stoddart 1812 to 1816
Thomas Barnes 1817 to 1841
John Delane 1841 to 1877
Thomas Chenery 1877 to 1884
George Earle Buckle 1884 to 1912
George Geoffrey Dawson 1912 to 1919
Henry Wickham Steed 1919 to 1922
George Geoffrey Dawson 1923 to 1941
Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward 1941 to 1948
William Francis Casey 1948 to 1952
William Haley 1952 to 1966
William Rees-Mogg 1967 to 1981
Harold Evans 1981 to 1982
Charles Douglas-Home 1982 to 1985
Charles Wilson 1985 to 1990
Simon Jenkins 1990 to 1992
Peter Stothard 1992 to 2002
Robert Thomson 2002 to 2007
James Harding 2007 to present

  Notable columnists and journalists

  Related publications

  Times Literary Supplement

The Times Literary Supplement (TLS) is a separately-paid-for weekly literature and society magazine.

  The Times Science Review

Between 1951 and 1966 The Times published a separately-paid-for quarterly science review, The Times Science Review. Remarkably, in 1953 both the newspaper and its science supplement failed to report on the discovery of the structure of DNA in Cambridge, which was reported on by both the News Chronicle and The New York Times.

The Times started a new (but free) monthly science magazine, Eureka, in October 2009.

  Times Atlases

(Times Books Group Ltd)

  In fiction

  See also


  References

  1. ^ a b c d "ABCs: National daily newspaper circulation March 2012". The Guardian (UK). 13 April 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/table/2012/apr/13/abcs-national-newspapers. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Pfanner, Eric (27 May 2006). "Times of London to Print Daily U.S. Edition". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/27/business/media/27paper.html. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  3. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey (26 May 2000). "Fighting, fornication and fiction". Times Higher Education (London). http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=156212&sectioncode=26. 
  4. ^ Hall, Ben; Burt, Tim; Symon, Fiona (3 May 2005). "Election 2005: What the papers said". Financial Times (London). Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080605162948/http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/417fa1a2-ab60-11d9-893c-00000e2511c8,dwp_uuid=fdb2b318-aa9e-11d9-98d7-00000e2511c8.html. 
  5. ^ "Voting intention by newspaper readership". Ipsos Mori. 9 March 2005. http://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/755/Voting-Intention-by-Newspaper-Readership.aspx. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  6. ^ Lomas, Claire. "The Steam Driven Rotary Press, The Times and the Empire"
  7. ^ Knightley, Philip. The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist, and Myth-maker from the Crimea to the Gulf War II
  8. ^ Weller, Toni (June 2010). "The Victorian information age: nineteenth century answers to today's information policy questions?". United Kingdom: History & Policy. http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-104.html. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  9. ^ Ferguson, Niall (1999). The Pity of War London: Basic Books. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-465-05711-5
  10. ^ Friedländer, Saul (1997). Nazi Germany and the Jews. New York: HarperCollins. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-06-019042-2
  11. ^ Cave Brown, Anthony (1995). Treason in the blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the spy case of the century. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-5582-2. 
  12. ^ Beloff, Max. "The Dangers of Prophecy" pages 8–10 from History Today, Volume 42, Issue # 9, September 1992 page 9
  13. ^ Davies, Robert William. "Edward Hallett Carr, 1892–1982" pages 473–511 from Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 69, 1983 page 489
  14. ^ Haslam, Jonathan. "We Need a Faith: E.H. Carr, 1892–1982" pages 36–39 from History Today, Volume 33, August 1983 page 37
  15. ^ Stewart, Graham (2005). The History of the Times: The Murdoch years, 1981-2002. HarperCollins. p. 45. ISBN 0-00-718438-7, 9780007184385. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eZZZAAAAMAAJ&q=The+History+of+the+Times:+The+Murdoch+years,+1981-2002&dq=The+History+of+the+Times:+The+Murdoch+years,+1981-2002&hl=en&sa=X&ei=T5emT-GKCNSD8gP34P2DBQ&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAA. 
  16. ^ Stewart, p 45
  17. ^ a b Stewart, p 51
  18. ^ Hamilton, Alan. "The Times bids farewell to old technology". The Times, 1 May 1982, p. 2, col. C.
  19. ^ Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East. London: Fourth Estate. pp. 329–334. ISBN 1-84115-007-X. 
  20. ^ "Viewpoint: UK war reporter Robert Fisk". BBC News. 3 December 2005. Archived from the original on 8 December 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051208212035/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4393358.stm. 
  21. ^ Robert Fisk, Why I had to leave The Times, The Independent, 11 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Minute of the meeting with Mr Rupert Murdoch, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, News Corporation". Inquiry into Media Ownership and the News. House of Commons Select Committee on Communications. 17 September 2007. p. 10. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/us.doc. 
  23. ^ Robinson, James (13 October 2010). "The Times hits out at BBC over BSkyB takeover letter". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/oct/13/the-times-bbc-bskyb. 
  24. ^ "Timesonline.co.uk Site Info". Alexa. http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  25. ^ "Times and Sunday Times websites to charge from June". BBC News. 26 March 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8588432.stm. 
  26. ^ "Times and Sunday Times readership falls after paywall". BBC News. 2 November 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-11671984. Retrieved 2 November 2010. 
  27. ^ Hindle, Debbie (6 April 2009). "Times Online travel editor insight". BGB. http://www.bgb.co.uk/times-online-travel-editor-insight/. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  28. ^ "Digital subscribers to The Times and The Sunday Times continue to grow". News International. 14 October 2011. http://www.newsint.co.uk/press_releases/digital_subs.html. 
  29. ^ "National daily newspaper circulation November 2005". The Guardian. http://media.guardian.co.uk/presspublishing/tables/0,,1665378,00.html. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  30. ^ An analysis of The Times reader demographic (based on NMA figures, news agenda and advertising in the paper) can be seen in this study.
  31. ^ Morison (1953). A Tally of Types. Cambridge University Press. p. 15. 
  32. ^ Loxley, Simon (2006). Type: the secret history of letters. I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. pp. 130–131. ISBN 1-84511-028-5. 
  33. ^ Carter, H. G. (2004). 'Morison, Stanley Arthur (1889–1967)'. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. rev. David McKitterick. Oxford University Press,. 
  34. ^ TYPOlis: Times New Roman
  35. ^ a b c After 221 years, the world's leading newspaper shows off a fresh face(subscription required)
  36. ^ Typography of News Bigger, faster, better
  37. ^ Neville Brody's Research Studios Creates New Font and Design Changes for The Times as Compact Format Continues to Attract Loyal Readership
  38. ^ "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet.com. http://www.supanet.com/business--money/which-political-parties-do-the-newspapers-support--25923p1.html. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 
  39. ^ Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/may/04/general-election-newspaper-support. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 
  40. ^ Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/may/04/general-election-newspaper-support. 
  41. ^ [1]

  Further reading

  • Evans‏, Harold (1983). Good Times, Bad Times. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78295-9  - includes sections of black-and-white photographic plates, plus a few charts and diagrams in text pages.

  External links

   
               

 

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Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.

boggle

Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyright

Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.

Traduction

Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

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