allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien
allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

définition - U.S._National_Space_Policy

voir la définition de Wikipedia

   Publicité ▼


U.S. National Space Policy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

The President of the United States authorized a new U.S. National Space Policy on August 31, 2006 that established overarching national policy that governs the conduct of U.S. space activities. This policy supersedes Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-49/NSTC-8, National Space Policy, dated September 14, 1996. [1]

A new National Space Policy that rejects arms-control agreements that might limit U.S. flexibility in space and asserts a right to deny access to space to anyone "hostile to U.S. interest."[2]

The document, the first full revision of overall space policy in 10 years, emphasizes security issues, encourages private enterprise in space, and characterizes the role of U.S. space diplomacy largely in terms of persuading other nations to support U.S. policy.[3]

The National Security Council said in written comments that an update was needed to "reflect the fact that space has become an even more important component of U.S. economic, national and homeland security." The military has become increasingly dependent on satellite communication and navigation, as have providers of cellphones, personal navigation devices and even automated teller machines. [4]

The George W. Bush Administration said the policy revisions are not a prelude to introducing weapons systems into Earth orbit. The administration said that the policy is not about developing or deploying weapons in space.[5]



The National Space Policy states that for five decades, the United States has led the world in space exploration and use and has developed a solid civil, commercial, and national security foundation. Space activities have improved life in the United States and around the world, enhancing security, protecting lives and the environment, speeding information flow, serving as an engine for economic growth, and revolutionizing the way people view their place in the world and the cosmos. Space has become a place that is increasingly used by a host of nations, consortia, businesses, and entrepreneurs.[6]

The policy states that in this century, those who effectively utilize space will enjoy added prosperity and security and will hold a substantial advantage over those who do not. Freedom of action in space is as important to the United States as air power and sea power. In order to increase knowledge, discovery, economic prosperity and to enhance national security, the United States must have robust, effective and efficient space capabilities.[7]

The new Bush policy calls on the Secretary of Defense to provide "space capabilities" to support missile-warning systems as well as "multi-layered and integrated defense.[8] Sections of the 1996 Clinton policy and the Bush revision have similarities, and the general principles of U.S. space policy have changed very little since they first appeared in the Carter Administration's PD/NSC-37 of 1978. The NSC and the Department of Defense emphasized that continuity with previous policies. But some see a significant divergence apparent in the first two goals of each document.[9]

Bush's top goals are to 'strengthen the nation's space leadership and ensure that space capabilities are available in time to further U.S. national security, homeland security, and foreign policy objectives" and to "enable unhindered U.S. operations in and through space to defend our interest there."[10]

The Carter Policy simply stated, without much specification in the unclassified version, that "The United States will pursue Activities in space in support of its right of self-defense." [11] Reagan's space policies made similarly general statements. Clinton's top goals were to "enhance knowledge of the Earth, the solar system and the universe through human and robotic exploration" and to "strengthen and maintain the national security of the United States."[12] The Clinton space policy, like the space policies of Carter and Reagan, also stated that "The United States will conduct those space activities necessary for national security." These activities included “providing support for the United States' inherent right of self-defense and our defense commitments to allies and friends; deterring, warning, and if necessary, defending against enemy attack; assuring that hostile forces cannot prevent our own use of space; and countering, if necessary, space systems and services used for hostile purposes.” [13]

The Clinton policy also said the United States would develop and operate "space control capabilities to ensure freedom of action in space" only when such steps would be "consistent with treaty obligations." The Bush policy accepts current international agreements by states: "The United States will oppose the development of new legal regimes or other restrictions that seek to prohibit or limit U.S. access to or use of space."[14]

Principles of the U.S. National Space Policy


  1. The United States is committed to the exploration and use of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes" allow U.S. defense and intelligence-related activities in pursuit of national interest;
  2. The United States rejects any claims to sovereignty by any nation over outer space or celestial bodies, or any portion thereof, and rejects any limitations on the fundamental right of the United States to operate in and acquire data from space;
  3. The United States will seek to cooperate with other nations in the peaceful use of outer space to extend the benefits of space, enhance space exploration, and to protect and promote freedom around the world;
  4. The United States considers space systems to have the rights of passage through and operations in space without interference. Consistent with this principle, the United States will view purposeful interference with its space systems as an infringement on its rights;
  5. The United States considers space capabilities--including the ground and space segments and supporting links--vital to its national interest. Consistent with this policy, the United States will; preserve its rights, capabilities, and freedom of action in space, dissuade or deter others from either impeding those rights or developing capabilities intended to do so; take those actions necessary to protect its space capabilities; respond to interference; and deny, if necessary, adversaries the use of space capabilities hostile to U.S. national interests;
  6. The United States will oppose the development of new legal regimes or other restrictions that seek to prohibit or limit U.S. access to or use of space. Proposed arms control agreements or restrictions must not impair the rights of the United States to conduct research, development, testing, and operations or other activities in space for U.S. national interest; and
  7. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating a growing and entrepreneurial U.S. commercial space sector. Toward that end, the United States Government will use U.S. commercial space capabilities to the maximum practical extent, consistent with national security.

Goals of the United States Space Policy


  1. Strengthen the nations' space leadership and ensure that space capabilities are available in time to further U.S. national security, homeland security, and foreign policy objectives;
  2. Enable unhindered U.S. operations in and through space to defend our interest there;
  3. Implement and sustain and innovative human and robotic exploration program with the objective of extending human presence across the solar system;
  4. Increase the benefits of civil exploration, scientific discovery, and environmental activities;
  5. Enable a dynamic, globally competitive domestic commercial space sector in order to promote innovation, strengthen U.S. leadership, and protect national, homeland, and economic security;
  6. Enable a robust science and technology base supporting national security, homeland security, and civil space activities; and
  7. Encourage international cooperation with foreign nations and/or consortia on space activities that are of mutual benefit and that further the peaceful exploration and use of space, as well as to advance national security, homeland security, and foreign policy objectives.


The Henry Stimson Center, a nonpartisan think tank that follows the space-weaponry issue, said the policy changes will reinforce international suspicions that the United States may seek to develop, test and deploy space weapons. The concerns are amplified, he said, by the administration's refusal to enter negotiations or even less formal discussions on the subject.[17]. Additionally, Joan Johnson-Freese of the Naval War College has argued recently in 2007 that while vague in many aspects, the new Bush Space Policy in 2006 read in the past historical context of the last few years can be seen to promote more of a mitilization of space. Johnson-Freese, as recently as January 2008 in a workshop sponsored by the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council, has promoted a global leadership role for NASA because of its vast resources and has indicated that the free passing of spacecraft under the Bush policy should fall under a legal realm rather than leave it to U.S to enforce what it believes is a violation of its use of space.

A number of nations have pushed for talks to ban space weapons, and the United States has long been one of a handful of nations opposed to the idea. Although it has abstained in the past when proposals to ban space weapons came up in the United Nations, last October the United States voted for the first time against a call for negotiations--the only "no" against 160 "yes" votes.[18]

Some believe that the U.S. Space policy violates the Outer Space Treaty, which bans the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in space. The debate over a space weapons ban has been complicated, however, by the recent unannounced test by China of an anti-satellite weapon. China had supported a ban and prior to the unannounced test, had routinely stated that it had no anti-satellite weapons programs and that its intentions in space were entirely peaceful.

See also


  1. ^ </http://www.ostp.gov/html/US%20National%20Space%20Policy.pdf>
  2. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  3. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  4. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  5. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  6. ^ </http://www.ostp.gov/html/US%20National%20Space%20Policy.pdf>
  7. ^ </http://www.ostp.gov/html/US%20National%20Space%20Policy.pdf>
  8. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  9. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  10. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  11. ^ <http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/national/nsc-37.htm>
  12. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  13. ^ <http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/policy/national/nstc-8.htm>
  14. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  15. ^ </http://www.ostp.gov/html/US%20National%20Space%20Policy.pdf>
  16. ^ </http://www.ostp.gov/html/US%20National%20Space%20Policy.pdf>
  17. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>
  18. ^ </http://www.washingtonpost.com>


Toutes les traductions de U.S._National_Space_Policy

Contenu de sensagent

  • définitions
  • synonymes
  • antonymes
  • encyclopédie

  • definition
  • synonym

Dictionnaire et traducteur pour mobile

⇨ Nouveau : sensagent est maintenant disponible sur votre mobile

   Publicité ▼

sensagent's office

Raccourcis et gadgets. Gratuit.

* Raccourci Windows : sensagent.

* Widget Vista : sensagent.

dictionnaire et traducteur pour sites web


Une fenêtre (pop-into) d'information (contenu principal de Sensagent) est invoquée un double-clic sur n'importe quel mot de votre page web. LA fenêtre fournit des explications et des traductions contextuelles, c'est-à-dire sans obliger votre visiteur à quitter votre page web !

Essayer ici, télécharger le code;


Avec la boîte de recherches Sensagent, les visiteurs de votre site peuvent également accéder à une information de référence pertinente parmi plus de 5 millions de pages web indexées sur Sensagent.com. Vous pouvez Choisir la taille qui convient le mieux à votre site et adapter la charte graphique.

Solution commerce électronique

Augmenter le contenu de votre site

Ajouter de nouveaux contenus Add à votre site depuis Sensagent par XML.

Parcourir les produits et les annonces

Obtenir des informations en XML pour filtrer le meilleur contenu.

Indexer des images et définir des méta-données

Fixer la signification de chaque méta-donnée (multilingue).

Renseignements suite à un email de description de votre projet.

Jeux de lettres

Les jeux de lettre français sont :
○   Anagrammes
○   jokers, mots-croisés
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Chaque lettre qui apparaît descend ; il faut placer les lettres de telle manière que des mots se forment (gauche, droit, haut et bas) et que de la place soit libérée.


Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Les lettres doivent être adjacentes et les mots les plus longs sont les meilleurs. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs ! Jouer

Dictionnaire de la langue française
Principales Références

La plupart des définitions du français sont proposées par SenseGates et comportent un approfondissement avec Littré et plusieurs auteurs techniques spécialisés.
Le dictionnaire des synonymes est surtout dérivé du dictionnaire intégral (TID).
L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU).


Les jeux de lettres anagramme, mot-croisé, joker, Lettris et Boggle sont proposés par Memodata.
Le service web Alexandria est motorisé par Memodata pour faciliter les recherches sur Ebay.
La SensagentBox est offerte par sensAgent.


Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions.
Astuce: parcourir les champs sémantiques du dictionnaire analogique en plusieurs langues pour mieux apprendre avec sensagent.

Dernières recherches dans le dictionnaire :

5486 visiteurs en ligne

calculé en 0,046s

Je voudrais signaler :
section :
une faute d'orthographe ou de grammaire
un contenu abusif (raciste, pornographique, diffamatoire)
une violation de copyright
une erreur
un manque
merci de préciser :

Mon compte



   Publicité ▼