United Church of Christ in the Philippines
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|Living Together in the Household of God|
|Polity||Mixed. Elements of Congregationalist, Presbyterian and Episcopal polities.|
|Associations||World Alliance of Reformed Churches; World Council of Churches; World Methodist Council;|
|Origin||April 26, 1901 (officially May 25, 1948)|
|Merge of||The Evangelical Church of the Philippines, the United Evangelical Church, the Philippine Methodist Church and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)|
|Congregations||2,564 (estimate as of 2008)|
The United Church of Christ in the Philippines (Tagalog: Ang Nagkaisang Iglesia ni Cristo sa Pilipinas; Ilokano: Nagkaykaysa nga Iglesia Ni Cristo iti Filipinas) is a Christian denomination in the Philippines. Established in its present form in Malate, Manila, it resulted from the merger of the Evangelical Church of the Philippines, the Philippine Methodist Church, the Disciples of Christ, the United Evangelical Church and several independent congregations.
The United Church is one of the largest, most visible and influential evangelical group in the Philippines and currently has 500,000 members and 1,593 pastors in 2,564 congregations as of 2008. Its offices are located in Malate, Manila.
The Evangelical Church
Presbyterian missionaries in the Philippines in April 1901 invited missionaries of other evangelical churches to a conference to discuss the possibility of working together in the proclamation of the gospel of faith alone as the only way of salvation to Filipino Catholics, Muslims and pagans. Representatives included those from the Methodist Episcopal Church , the United Brethren in Christ (UBC) , the Northern Baptist Church , the Christian and Missionary Alliance, the Free Methodist Church, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, and the Presbyterian Church.
The Evangelical Union was then formed in April 26, 1901. The evangelical churches agreed to call themselves “The Evangelical Church” (with the original denomination name in parenthesis below it). From 1898 to 1905 these are the mission churches joining in the agreement:
- Methodists (1898, most of lowland Luzon and north of Manila)
- Presbyterians (1899, Bicol, Southern Tagalog area and some parts of Central and Western Visayas)
- Baptists (1900, Western Visayas)
- United Brethren (1901, Mountain Province and La Union)
- Christian Churches and Churches of Christ/Disciples of Christ (1901, Ilocos, Abra, and Tagalog towns)
- Congregationalists (1902, Mindanao except for the western end)
- Christian and Missionary Alliance (1902, Western Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago)
1. ^ Currently known as The United Methodist Church since 1968 when Evangelical United Brethren merged with The Methodist Church
2. ^ Currently known as The United Methodist Church since 1968 when the Evangelical Church merged with the United Brethren and later merged with The Methodist Church
3. ^ Currently known as the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, Inc.
The United Evangelical Church of the Philippines
The United Evangelical Church of the Philippines was organized in March 1929. It was a union of Presbyterian, United Brethren in Christ, and Congregationalist denominations along with the United Church of Manila. The Methodist and the (Northern) Baptist who were part of the Evangelical Union refused to join the new union. The doctrinal statement of union was the Nanking Agreement which was itself based on that of the Union Theological Seminary in Nanking, China. It had four major points:
- that the Old and New Testaments were the inspired Word of God;
- that Jesus Christ is the divine Son of God, and offered atonement for sin by faith in his vicarious death;
- that the Holy Spirit is both divine and personal; and,
- that the Church has spiritual, but not political authority.
Since it included United Brethren in Christ in northern Luzon, Presbyterians in southern Luzon and the Visayas and Congregationalists in Mindanao, the UEC was spread throughout the country. Rev. Enrique Sobrepena, a young leader in the United Brethren in Christ, was elected as the Moderator of the General Assembly.
The Philippine Methodist Church
After the foundation of the Iglesia Evangelica Metodista en las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) by Rev. Nicolas V. Zamora, a second major split occurred in the Methodist Church in March 23, 1933. About three years before, Melecio de Armas, a prominent minister had been accused by his colleagues of immorality towards a teenage girl, a church member. At the 1932 Philippine Annual Conference, a committee found the minister guilty and recommended his expulsion from the ministry. But the minister appealed the decision to the Appellant Committee of the General Conference of the Methodist Church of America (GCMCA). This Committee decided that it does not have enough evidence against the minister, so it acquitted him—thereby overturning the decision of the Philippine Conference. This brought to everyone’s attention the subordinate position of the Philippine church. Bishop Herbert Welch, at the 1933 Annual Conference, declared the matter closed, and reinstated the minister.
As a result, a group led by Rev. Samuel W. Stagg, pastor of the influential Central Church (now Central United Methodist Church on T.M. Kalaw), and including five other missionaries and 27 ordained Filipino ministers led by Rev. Cipriano Navarro and Dr. Melquiades Gamboa, a U.P. professor, left the church and declared themselves the General Conference of the Methodist Church in the Philippine Islands (GCMCPI). All but 41 members of Central Church left their newly dedicated gothic cathedral. This group formed the Philippine Methodist Church, with Navarro as bishop. The church financially supported the Staggs and the other missionaries who joined it. Stagg and his former members formed the Cosmopolitan Church, which became the leading congregation of the new denomination. The independent GCMCPI elected Navarro as acting General Superintendent. In 1948 the Philippine Methodist Church was a constituent part of the formation of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines.
The Evangelical Church of the Philippines
The Evangelical Church of the Philippines was formed in 1943 under the direction of the Japanese Imperial Forces. It brought together the United Evangelical Church, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ (Disciples of Christ), the Iglesia Evangelica Unida de Cristo, the Iglesia Evangelica Metodista En las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) which was founded by Bishop Nicholas Zamora, the Iglesia Evangelica Nacional, the Philippine Methodist Church, the Seventh Day Adventists and other churches. It was the first union of churches under the full leadership of the Filipinos.
After World War II, the former Presbyterians and the Congregationalists reconstituted the United Evangelical Church. On the other hand, the former United Brethren in Christ, together with the Church of Christ (Disciples of Christ) and the independent congregations remained as the Evangelical Church of the Philippines. Because the Seventh Day Adventists was forced by the war to join the merger, they immediately left the Evangelical Church of the Philippines after the war.
The United Church of Christ in the Philippines
In May 1948, the United Evangelical Church, the PhilippineMethodist Church, the Evangelical Church of the Philippines, some congregations of the Iglesia Evangelica Unida de Cristo, the Convention of the Churches of Christ (Disciples of Christ) of Northern Luzon, the Iglesia Evangelica Nacional and some congregations of the Iglesia Evangelica Metodista En Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) joined together to form the United Church of Christ in the Philippines. Enrique Sobrepena of the United Evangelical Church served both as Bishop for Luzon and as Presiding Bishop.
This was the real culmination of the efforts of the Evangelical Union established by missionaries on April 26, 1901 to seek the evangelization of the Philippines through a common effort. Inspite of the refusal of the United Methodist, Baptist and other independent evangelical churches, the UCCP was known to be the most visible sign of interdenominational and church unity in the Philippines.
In 1962, the conservative Tagalog Convention of the Churches of Christ (Disciples of Christ) decided to join the union of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines. It was proclaimed in an appropriate ceremonies at the General Assembly held in Cebu City.
Faith and Practice
The United Church of Christ in the Philippines is trinitarian and believes in the deity, humanity, and atonement of Jesus. It believes that the Bible, in both the Old and New Testaments, is the inspired Word of God and that salvation is by grace through faith, repentance and following after Christ.
The United Church of Christ in the Philippines view the Christian life as one of personal faith and of serious dedication to living according to the highest Christian precepts. Each person is thus to be born again, converted into a new life, and gathered into the church community. For them, the church is essentially the result of conversion and of grace, a gathered community of committed believers. It is not the mother of Christian experience or the source (rather than the effect) of grace, as in the Roman Catholic tradition. The church is, therefore, holy only because the faith and life of its people are holy.
The UCCP traces its roots in the Reformation, when Martin Luther, John Calvin and others led the movement to reform the Church according to Scripture. Thus, they believe in the absolute sovereignty of God and that the highest good is God's glory. This is often expressed in the "Five Solas" of the Reformation - God's grace alone as the only way to be reconciled to God, faith alone as the only means of receiving God's grace, Christ alone as the ground of God's saving grace, Scripture alone as the only infallible authority for belief and God's glory alone as the ultimate purpose for the lives of men and women.
The following distinguish the UCCP from other communions:
- Their concern for freedom of speech and conscience and for freedom from interference by any civil or ecclesiastical authority
- The primacy they seek to gave to Scripture in matters of faith, doctrine, and morals
- The authority they gave to the congregation in church affairs
- Their concern for establishing social justice in political, social and economic life and
- Their active involvement and commitment to interdenominational activity as a protest against denominational exclusiveness.
The church believes in two sacraments only: baptism and the The Lord's Supper. The church takes a neutral position on the observance of feet washing taking into consideration the various traditions brought in by the uniting churches. The 1948: Article III Historic Faith and Message states, " We do preserve all the heritage of faith brought into the union by each of the constituent churches and hereby declare as our common faith and message: 'Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, our Lord and Saviour.'"
The UCCP defines baptism as a sacrament of initiation into the church. They believe that baptism is not a means of salvation but a first step of obedience for the new believer. The church permit believer's baptism, and infant baptism alike. Infant baptism is administered only to infant children of church members as a sign of God's covenant of mercy. In recent times infant baptism has given way to more frequent infant "dedication" ceremonies or alay (in Filipino), thus reserving baptism until after the time when the child makes a conscious decision to follow Christ. The church also recognize and accept the baptism of other Christian churches.
Disciples' understood that baptism is a confessional expression of faith and repentance, rather than a "work" that earns salvation. Thus they insisted that believer's baptism is necessary part of conversion and necessary for its validity. Local churches in the Tagalog and Ilocano regions established by their missionaries practice only baptism by immersion by its adult members.
The church believes in the symbolic presence of Jesus in the Lord's Supper (Santa Cena o Banal na Hapunan in Filipino). They believe that it was given by Jesus Christ to his church as a way of remembering and proclaiming th sacrifice He made on the cross. It is a sacrament that contains an element of remembering and proclaiming Christ's death while at the same time looking forward to the time when they will enjoy communion with Christ in heaven. It involves solemn and serious self-examination. This includes confession of sin and repentance. Communion for them should not be received in a flippant or careless manner.
Every UCCP church is required to administer the sacrament of the Lord's Supper at least once a year. In most local churches, communion is served in the first Sunday of the month. Since the Disciples of Christ custom is to have the Lord's Supper central to every worship service, the sacrament is administered every Lord's Day.
The church believes that every man or woman should be accepted and treated with dignity, grace, and holy love, whatever their sexual orientation (biological sex of person attracted to). However, the church continues to hold the position that the homosexual lifestyle is sinful and is contrary to the Scriptures. The UCCP stands firmly on the belief that the biblical concept of marriage, which they interpret as being between one man and one woman in a committed, lifelong relationship, is the only relationship within which the gift of sexual intimacy is properly expressed.
The United Church of Christ in the Philippines has allowed ordination of women with full rights of clergy based on biblical principle.
UCCP local churches typically have worship services three times a week: Sunday morning, Sunday evening, and Wednesday evening.
The local congregation has a great deal of freedom in the style and ordering of worship. Worship varies from congregation to congregation. The order may be very traditional and highly liturgical, or it may be very simple and informal.
Music plays a large role in most UCCP worship services and ranges from chant to traditional Protestant hymns, to classical sacred music, to more modern music, depending on the preference of the local church and is offered prayerfully and not for entertainment. Scripture is read and usually preached upon. An offering is usually taken. Services are often focused toward a time of prayer and commitment at the end of the sermon, with people finding spiritual help as they gather for corporate praying.
Worship styles vary widely. Over the last ten years, an increasing number of UCCP churches have utilized contemporary worship services as their worship style. This may involve the use of a projector to display song, drums and electronic piano, chorus lyrics onto a video screen, clapping of hands, tambourine dance and raising of hands.
More traditional UCCP churches use hymnals and may have a song leader or music director who directs congregational singing from the pulpit.
Mission, Evangelism and Social Concern
The United Church of Christ in the Philippines has, historically, been a leading Protestant denomination in mission work. A vital part of the world mission emphasis of the denomination is building and maintaining relationships with Evangelical, Protestant and other churches around the world.
Connection between evangelism and social concern was maintained by the UCCP. In 1952, the UCCP established the UCCP National Federation ofCredit Unions to aid farmers. They also issued a ResolutionCondemning Gambling and Liquor. Bishop Sobrepena approved, a relationship between the UCCP and the Orient Crusades (OC) International - Philippine Crusades. OC entered the Philippines agreeing to work in cooperation with UCCP leaders, to prepare converts for membership in the UCCP, and to avoid controversial doctrinal issues. They focused on mass evangelism and witness to students, and used film showings such as King of Kings to make contacts. Interested seekers availed of Bible correspondence courses. Sobrepena held mass evangelistic campaigns—notably in Laoag City in November 1955, with the OC cooperation.
In 1973 to 1986, local churches allowed American missionaries from the Youth With A Mission to reorganize Sunday Schools and set up Sunday school programs. This international, interdenominational Christian missionary organization also promoted Christian movies in secular theaters throughout the archipelago. Many Filipinos from this time are in full time Christian service today or are productive Christians. In addition, a number of indigenous churches were established among squatter communities in Metro Manila, in Baguio and villages in the Cordilleras.
Then the Philippine Campus Crusade for Christ, also an international interdenominational movement came in and started the evangelistic movement in the church that started the increase in church attendance and membership.
The church has been known to be active in the left wing. Some of their seminary professors in Silliman University were professed members of the National Democratic Front(NDF)-an organization with alleged New People's Army connection. In reaction, the conservative churches have reacted against it.
Before the 1993 UCCP Constitution, local churches had more autonomy. With the passage of this constitution, Bishop Erme R. Camba and his cabal attempted to get hold of local properties. One notable case that Camba was involved was the Jones Church in Cebu where he was not welcomed.
Some local churches, joined international fellowship such as the Covenant Global Church. Other churches involved themselves into the Evangelism Explosion, a ministry that trains people how to share their faith in Christ.
Interestingly, the United Church of Christ in the Philippines in Baguio City is an active member of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches (PCEC) . PCEC is the largest network of denominations, churches, mission groups and para-church organizations in the Philippines being involve in evangelism and defending the fundamental evangelical Christian faith.
Seminaries and affiliated institutions
The denomination maintains affiliations with seminaries in the Philippines. These are:
- College of Theology of Northern Christian College in Laoag City, Ilocos Norte
- College of Theology of Southern Christian College in Cotabato City
- Divinity School at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Oriental Negros
- Ecumenical Theological Seminary in Baguio City
- Pag-asa School of Theology of Brokenshire College in Davao City
- Union Theological Seminary in Dasmarinas, Cavite
Universities and colleges
- Apayao Community Learning Center in Kabugao, Apayao
- Brokenshire College in Davao City
- College of Maasin in Southern Leyte
- Dansalan College Foundation in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur
- Ifugao Academy in Kiangan, Ifugao
- Jimenez Bethel Academy in Jimenez, Misamis Occidental
- Kalinga Academy in Lubuagan, Kalinga
- National Heroes Institute in Kananga, Leyte
- Northern Christian College in Laoag City, Ilocos Norte
- Philippine Christian University in Malate, Manila (in partnership with the United Methodist Church)
- St. Tonis College in Tabuk, Kalinga
- Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Oriental Negros
- Southern Christian College in Cotabato City
- Union Christian College in San Fernando City, La Union
- United Institute in Legazpi City, Albay
- Pilgrim Christian College, Cagayan de Oro City
Affiliated health care institutions
- Bethany Hospital in San Fernando, La Union
- Bethany Hospital in Tacloban, Leyte
- Brokenshire Integrated Health Ministries in Davao City
- Silliman University Medical Center Foundation Inc. in Dumaguete City, Oriental Negros
- Visayas Community Medical Center in Cebu City
Affiliated service institutions
- CONDORA in Damortis, La Union
- Haran House in Davao City
- NLJA Peace Center
- Shalom Center in Malate, Manila
- UCCP CENDET (Center for Education and Development) in Cebu City
Partners in Mission
Aside from this, the UCCP is a member and have partnership relation with international religious organizations.
World and Continental Church Bodies
- World Council of Churches
- World Alliance of Reformed Churches
- World Methodist Council
- Church Mission Society
- Christian Conference of Asia
Sister-church relationships are held with the following churches abroad which hold to similar doctrine and practice.
- Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
- Presbyterian Church (USA)
- Reformed Church of America
- United Methodist Church
- United Church of Christ
- United Church of Canada
Asia and Australia
- Presbyterian Church of Korea
- Presbyterian Church of the Republic of Korea
- Presbyterian Church in Taiwan
- Uniting Church of Australia
- United Church of Christ in Japan
- Evangelical Church in Rhineland
- United Evangelical Mission
- Fidel V. Ramos, former Philippine president
- Jovito Salonga, former President of the Senate of the Philippines.
- Betty Go-Belmonte, founder of the Philippine Star newspaper
- Dr. Rufino Macagba Sr., founder of Lorma Medical Center
- Leticia Ramos-Shahani, first female President Pro Tempore in the history of the Philippine Senate
- Narciso Ramos, former secretary of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs
- Sonny Belmonte, Mayor of Quezon City
- Camilo Osías, former President of the Senate of the Philippines.
- Neptali Gonzales, former Philippine senator
- Juan Flavier, former Philippine senator
- Orly Mercado, former Philippine senator (now RPN 9 President and general manager)
- Amelita Martinez-Ramos, former Philippine first lady
- Teodoro Rafael Yangco
- Angel C. Alcala, Ramon Magsaysay Awardee for Public Service and former Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
- Leonor M. Briones, former National Treasurer of the Republic of the Philippines
- Cynthia A. Villar, representative of the Lone District of Las Piñas
Prominent former members
- Felix Manalo, pastor and evangelist of the Church of Christ (Disciples). Subsequently left and founded the Iglesia ni Cristo
- Apollo C. Quiboloy, son of a UCCP pastor. Left and founded the "The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, The Name Above Every Name", a Philippine based Christian sect.
- ^ Norwood B. Tye, Journeying with the United Church of Christ in the Philippines: A History (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1994), 246-247
- ^ Guillermo Manuel, "A Study of the Movement for Union and Closer Cooperation Among the Protestant Churches of the Philippines," p. 54.
- ^ Philippines Milestone - TIME
- ^ PC(USA) - Mission Connections - Letter
- ^ World Council of Churches
- ^ Tuggy & Oliver, p. 19
- ^ James H. Montgomery and Donald A. McGavran, pp. 41-51
- ^ Charles Hamilton,.The Movement Toward Church Union in the Philippines,. The Philippine Presbyterian 14 (October 1924), 34.
- ^ Heroic church - Manila Bulletin by Pres. Fidel Ramos
- ^ Alejandro, From Darkness to Light, 158-161.
- ^ a b UCCP Davao City Official Website
- ^ UCCP Baguio Faith and Practice
- ^ UCCP Constitution and By-Laws
- ^ a b The United Church of Christ in the Philippines Cagayan de Oro City - MEMBERSHIP
- ^ Union of Catholic Asian News
- ^ a b c United Church of Christ in the Philippines Cagayan de Oro City - COMMUNION
- ^ a b A TRIBUTE TO BISHOP MARIGZA ON THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS ORDINATION TO THE MINISTRY, APRIL 11, 1957 TO APRIL 11, 2007
- ^ YWAM Philippines History
- ^ Covenant Global Church
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