1.(MeSH)Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
voir la définition de Wikipedia
B03.440.450.425.325.300.800, B03.6188.8.131.52.100.800, E coli, Verotoxigenic (MeSH), Escherichia coli, Verotoxigenic (MeSH), Shiga Toxigenic E. coli (MeSH), Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli (MeSH), Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli (MeSH), Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (MeSH), STEC (MeSH), Vero Cytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (MeSH), Verotoxigenic E. coli (MeSH), Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (MeSH), Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (MeSH)
Alkalescens-Dispar Group, DAEC, Diffusely Adherent E. coli, Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli, EAEC, EAggEC, E coli, EIEC, Enteroaggregative E. coli, Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, Enteroinvasive E. coli, Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli[Hyper.]
VTEC (n.) [MeSH]
||This article may need to be wikified to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (September 2011)|
VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) is a valvetrain system developed by Honda to improve the volumetric efficiency of a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The VTEC system uses two camshaft profiles and electronically selects between the profiles. It was invented by Honda engineer Ikuo Kajitani, and was the first system of its kind. Different types of variable valve timing and lift control systems have also been produced by other manufacturers (MIVEC from Mitsubishi, AVCS from Subaru, VVT-i/VVTL-i from Toyota, VANOS from BMW, VarioCam Plus from Porsche, NeoVVL from Nissan, etc.).
VTEC was initially designed to increase the power output of an engine to 100 HP/litre or more while maintaining practicality for use in mass production vehicles. Some later variations of the system were designed solely to provide improvements in fuel efficiency.
Japan levies a tax based on engine displacement, and Japanese auto manufacturers have correspondingly focused their R&D efforts toward improving the performance of smaller engine designs through means other than displacement increases. One method for increasing performance into a static displacement includes forced induction, as with models such as the Toyota Supra and Nissan 300ZX which used turbocharger applications and the Toyota MR2 which used a supercharger for some model years. Another approach is the rotary engine used in the Mazda RX-7 and RX-8. A third option is to change the cam timing profile, of which Honda VTEC was the first successful commercial design for altering the profile in real-time.
The VTEC system provides the engine with multiple camshaft profiles optimized for both low and high RPM operations. In basic form, the single cam profile of a conventional engine is replaced with two profiles: one optimized for low-RPM stability and fuel efficiency, and the other designed to maximize high-RPM power output. The switching operation between the two cam lobes is controlled by the ECU which takes account of engine oil pressure, engine temperature, vehicle speed, engine speed and throttle position. Using these inputs, the ECU is programmed to switch from the low lift to the high lift cam lobes when the conditions mean that engine output will be improved. At the switch point a solenoid is actuated which allows oil pressure from a spool valve to operate a locking pin which binds the high RPM cam follower to the low RPM ones. From this point on, the valves open and close according to the high-lift profile, which opens the valve further and for a longer time. The switch-over point is variable, between a minimum and maximum point, and is determined by engine load. The switch-down back from high to low RPM cams is set to occur at a lower engine speed than the switch-up (representing a hysteresis cycle) to avoid a situation in which the engine is asked to operate continuously at or around the switch-over point.
The older approach to timing adjustments is to produce a camshaft with a valve timing profile that is better suited to high-RPM operation. The improvements in high-RPM performance occur in trade for a power and efficiency loss at lower RPM ranges, which is where most street-driven automobiles operate a majority of the time. Correspondingly, VTEC attempts to combine high-RPM performance with low-RPM stability.
VTEC, the original Honda variable valve control system, originated from REV (Revolution-modulated valve control) introduced on the CBR400 in 1983 known as HYPER VTEC. In the regular four-stroke automobile engine, the intake and exhaust valves are actuated by lobes on a camshaft. The shape of the lobes determines the timing, lift and duration of each valve. Timing refers to an angle measurement of when a valve is opened or closed with respect to the piston position (BTDC or ATDC). Lift refers to how much the valve is opened. Duration refers to how long the valve is kept open. Due to the behavior of the working fluid (air and fuel mixture) before and after combustion, which have physical limitations on their flow, as well as their interaction with the ignition spark, the optimal valve timing, lift and duration settings under low RPM engine operations are very different from those under high RPM. Optimal low RPM valve timing, lift and duration settings would result in insufficient filling of the cylinder with fuel and air at high RPM, thus greatly limiting engine power output. Conversely, optimal high RPM valve timing, lift and duration settings would result in very rough low RPM operation and difficult idling. The ideal engine would have fully variable valve timing, lift and duration, in which the valves would always open at exactly the right point, lift high enough and stay open just the right amount of time for the engine speed in use.
Introduced as a DOHC system in Japan in the 1989 Honda Integra XSi which used the 160 bhp (120 kW) B16A engine. The same year, Europe saw the arrival of VTEC in the Honda CRX 1.6i-VT, using a 150 bhp variant (B16A1). The US market saw the first VTEC system with the introduction of the 1991 Honda NSX, which used a 3-litre DOHC VTEC V6 with 280 bhp (210 kW). DOHC VTEC engines soon appeared in other vehicles, such as the 1992 Acura Integra GS-R (B17A1 1.7-litre engine), and later in the 1992 Honda Prelude VTEC (H22A 2.2-litre engine with 195 hp) and Honda Del Sol VTEC (B16A3 1.6-litre engine). The Integra Type R (1995–2000) available in the Japanese market produces 200 bhp (149 kW; 203 PS) using a B18CR 1.8-litre engine. Honda has also continued to develop other varieties and today offers several varieties of VTEC, such as i-VTEC and i-VTEC Hybrid.
As popularity and marketing value of the VTEC system grew, Honda applied the system to SOHC (Single Over Head Cam) engines, which share a common camshaft for both intake and exhaust valves. The trade-off was that Honda's SOHC engines benefitted from the VTEC mechanism only on the intake valves. This is because VTEC requires a third center rocker arm and cam lobe (for each intake and exhaust side), and, in the SOHC engine, the spark plugs are situated between the two exhaust rocker arms, leaving no room for the VTEC rocker arm. Additionally, the center lobe on the camshaft cannot be utilized by both the intake and the exhaust, limiting the VTEC feature to one side.
However, beginning with the J37A4 3.7L SOHC V6 engine introduced on all 2009 Acura TL SH-AWD models, SOHC VTEC was incorporated for use with intake and exhaust valves. The intake and exhaust rocker shafts contain primary and secondary intake and exhaust rocker arms, respectively. The primary rocker arm contains the VTEC switching piston, while the secondary rocker arm contains the return spring. The term "primary" does not refer to which rocker arm forces the valve down during low-RPM engine operation. Rather, it refers to the rocker arm which contains the VTEC switching piston and receives oil from the rocker shaft.
The primary exhaust rocker arm contacts a low-profile camshaft lobe during low-RPM engine operation. Once VTEC engagement occurs, the oil pressure flowing from the exhaust rocker shaft into the primary exhaust rocker arm forces the VTEC switching piston into the secondary exhaust rocker arm, thus locking both exhaust rocker arms together. The high-profile camshaft lobe which normally contacts the secondary exhaust rocker arm alone during low-RPM engine operation is able to move both exhaust rocker arms together which are locked as a unit. The same occurs for the intake rocker shaft, except that the high-profile camshaft lobe operates the primary rocker arm.
The difficulty of incorporating VTEC for both the intake and exhaust valves in a SOHC engine has been removed on the J37A4 by a novel design of the intake rocker arm. Each exhaust valve on the J37A4 corresponds to one primary and one secondary exhaust rocker arm. Therefore, there are a total of twelve primary exhaust rocker arms and twelve secondary exhaust rocker arms. However, each secondary intake rocker arm is shaped similar to a "Y" which allows it to contact two intake valves at once. One primary intake rocker arm corresponds to each secondary intake rocker arm. As a result of this design, there are only six primary intake rocker arms and six secondary intake rocker arms.
VTEC-E is a variation of SOHC VTEC which was used to increase efficiency at low RPM. At low RPM, one of the two intake valves is only allowed to open a very small amount, increasing the fuel/air atomization in the cylinder and thus allowing a leaner mixture to be used. As the engine's speed increases, both valves are needed to supply sufficient mixture. A sliding pin, which is pressured by oil, as in the regular VTEC, is used to connect both valves together and allows the full opening of the second valve. The engine runs at normal performance using the second cam position that would typically be tuned for high-RPM performance in other two-stage VTEC designs.
3-Stage VTEC is a version that employs 3 different cam profiles to control intake valve timing and lift. Due to this version of VTEC being designed around a SOHC valve head, space was limited and so VTEC can only modify the opening and closing of the intake valves. The low-end fuel economy improvements of VTEC-E and the performance of conventional VTEC are combined in this application. From idle to 2500-3000 RPM, depending on load conditions, one intake valve fully opens while the other opens just slightly, enough to prevent pooling of fuel behind the valve, also called 12-valve mode. This 12 Valve mode results in swirl of the intake charge which increases combustion efficiency resulting in improved low end torque and better fuel economy. At 3000-5400 RPM, depending on load, one of the VTEC solenoids engages which causes the 2nd valve to lock onto the first valve's camshaft lobe. Also called 4-valve mode, this method resembles a normal engine operating mode and improves the mid-range power curve. At 5500-7000 RPM, the second VTEC solenoid engages (both solenoids now engaged) so that both intake valves are using a middle, third camshaft lobe. The third lobe is tuned for high-performance and provides peak power at the top end of the RPM range.
Honda i-VTEC (intelligent-VTEC) has VTC continuously variable timing of camshaft phasing on the intake camshaft of DOHC VTEC engines. The technology first appeared on Honda's K-series four-cylinder engine family in 2001 (2002 in the U.S.). In the United States, the technology debuted on the 2002 Honda CR-V.
VTC controls of valve lift and valve duration are still limited to distinct low- and high-RPM profiles, but the intake camshaft is now capable of advancing between 25 and 50 degrees, depending upon engine configuration. Phasing is implemented by a computer controlled, oil driven adjustable cam gear. Both engine load and RPM affect VTC. The intake phase varies from fully retarded at idle to somewhat advanced at full throttle and low RPM. The effect is further optimization of torque output, especially at low and midrange RPM. There are two types of i-VTEC K series engines which are explained in the next paragraph.
The K-Series motors have two different types of i-VTEC systems implemented. The first is for the performance motors like in the RSX Type S or the Civic Si and the other is for economy motors found in the CR-V or Accord. The performance i-VTEC system is basically the same as the DOHC VTEC system of the B16A's; both intake and exhaust have 3 cam lobes per cylinder. However the valvetrain has the added benefit of roller rockers and continuously variable intake cam timing. Performance i-VTEC is a combination of conventional DOHC VTEC with VTC.
The economy i-VTEC is more like the SOHC VTEC-E in that the intake cam has only two lobes, one very small and one larger, as well as no VTEC on the exhaust cam. The two types of motor are easily distinguishable by the factory rated power output: the performance motors make around 200 hp (150 kW) or more in stock form and the economy motors do not make much more than 160 hp (120 kW) from the factory.
In 2003, Honda introduced an i-VTEC V6 (an update of the J-series) that includes Honda's cylinder deactivation technology which closes the valves on one bank of (3) cylinders during light load and low speed (below 80 km/h (50 mph)) operation. According to Honda, "VCM technology works on the principle that a vehicle only requires a fraction of its power output at cruising speeds. The system electronically deactivates cylinders to reduce fuel consumption. The engine is able to run on 3, 4, or all 6 cylinders based on the power requirement. Essentially getting the best of both worlds. V6 power when accelerating or climbing, as well as the efficiency of a smaller engine when cruising." The technology was originally introduced to the US on the 2005 Honda Odyssey[disambiguation needed] minivan, and can now be found on the Honda Accord Hybrid, the 2006 Honda Pilot, and the 2008 Honda Accord. Example: EPA estimates for the 2011 (271 hp SOHC 3.5L) V6 Accord are 24 mpg combined vs. 27 in the two 4-cylinder-equipped models.
i-VTEC VCM was also used in 1.3L 4-cylinder engines used in Honda Civic Hybrid.
It is a version of i-VTEC with direct injection.
It was first used in 2003 Honda Stream.
The AVTEC (Advanced VTEC) engine was first announced in 2006. It combines continuously variable valve lift and timing control with continuously variable phase control. Honda originally planned to produce vehicles with AVTEC engines within next 3 years.
Although it was speculated that it would first be used in 2008 Honda Accord, the vehicle instead utilizes the existing i-VTEC system.
Apart from the Japanese market-only Honda CB400SF Super Four HYPER VTEC, introduced in 1999, the first worldwide implementation of VTEC technology in a motorcycle occurred with the introduction of Honda's VFR800 sportbike in 2002. Similar to the SOHC VTEC-E style, one intake valve remains closed until a threshold of 7000 rpm is reached, then the second valve is opened by an oil-pressure actuated pin. The dwell of the valves remains unchanged, as in the automobile VTEC-E, and little extra power is produced but with a smoothing-out of the torque curve. Critics maintain that VTEC adds little to the VFR experience while increasing the engine's complexity. Honda seemed to agree as their VFR1200, a model announced in October 2009, came to replace the VFR800; which abandons the V-TEC concept in favour of a large capacity narrow-vee "unicam" (i.e. sohc) motor.
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