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allemand anglais arabe bulgare chinois coréen croate danois espagnol estonien finnois français grec hébreu hindi hongrois islandais indonésien italien japonais letton lituanien malgache néerlandais norvégien persan polonais portugais roumain russe serbe slovaque slovène suédois tchèque thai turc vietnamien

définition - Yellow

yellow (adj.)

1.of the color intermediate between green and orange in the color spectrum; of something resembling the color of an egg yolk

2.affected by jaundice which causes yellowing of skin etc

3.cowardly or treacherous"the little yellow stain of treason" -M.W.Straight"too yellow to stand and fight"

4.changed to a yellowish color by age"yellowed parchment"

5.typical of tabloids"sensational journalistic reportage of the scandal" "yellow press"

6.lacking even the rudiments of courage; abjectly fearful"the craven fellow turned and ran" "a craven proposal to raise the white flag" "this recreant knight" - Spenser

7.(colloquial)easily frightened

yellow (n.)

1.yellow color or pigment; the chromatic color resembling the hue of sunflowers or ripe lemons

yellow (v.)

1.turn yellow"The pages of the book began to yellow"

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Merriam Webster

YellowYel"low (yĕl"l�), a. [Compar. Yellower (yĕl"l�*ẽr); superl. Yellowest.] [OE. yelow, yelwe, ȝelow, ȝeoluw, from AS. geolu; akin to D. geel, OS. & OHG. gelo, G. gelb, Icel. gulr, Sw. gul, Dan. guul, L. helvus light bay, Gr. chlo`n young verdure, chlwro`s greenish yellow, Skr. hari tawny, yellowish. √49. Cf. Chlorine, Gall a bitter liquid, Gold, Yolk.]
1. Being of a bright saffronlike color; of the color of gold or brass; having the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is between the orange and the green.

Her yellow hair was browded [braided] in a tress. Chaucer.

A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought
First fruits, the green ear and the yellow sheaf.
Milton.

The line of yellow light dies fast away. Keble.

2. Cowardly; hence, dishonorable; mean; contemptible; as, he has a yellow streak. [Slang]

3. Sensational; -- said of some newspapers, their makers, etc.; as, yellow journal, journalism, etc. [Colloq.]

Yellow atrophy (Med.), a fatal affection of the liver, in which it undergoes fatty degeneration, and becomes rapidly smaller and of a deep yellow tinge. The marked symptoms are black vomit, delirium, convulsions, coma, and jaundice. -- Yellow bark, calisaya bark. -- Yellow bass (Zoöl.), a North American fresh-water bass (Morone interrupta) native of the lower parts of the Mississippi and its tributaries. It is yellow, with several more or less broken black stripes or bars. Called also barfish. -- Yellow berry. (Bot.) Same as Persian berry, under Persian. -- Yellow boy, a gold coin, as a guinea. [Slang] Arbuthnot. -- Yellow brier. (Bot.) See under Brier. -- Yellow bugle (Bot.), a European labiate plant (Ajuga Chamæpitys). -- Yellow bunting (Zoöl.), the European yellow-hammer. -- Yellow cat (Zoöl.), a yellow catfish; especially, the bashaw. -- Yellow copperas (Min.), a hydrous sulphate of iron; -- called also copiapite. -- Yellow copper ore, a sulphide of copper and iron; copper pyrites. See Chalcopyrite. -- Yellow cress (Bot.), a yellow-flowered, cruciferous plant (Barbarea præcox), sometimes grown as a salad plant. -- Yellow dock. (Bot.) See the Note under Dock. -- Yellow earth, a yellowish clay, colored by iron, sometimes used as a yellow pigment. -- Yellow fever (Med.), a malignant, contagious, febrile disease of warm climates, attended with jaundice, producing a yellow color of the skin, and with the black vomit. See Black vomit, in the Vocabulary. -- Yellow flag, the quarantine flag. See under Quarantine, and 3d Flag. -- Yellow jack. (a) The yellow fever. See under 2d Jack. (b) The quarantine flag. See under Quarantine. -- Yellow jacket (Zoöl.), any one of several species of American social wasps of the genus Vespa, in which the color of the body is partly bright yellow. These wasps are noted for their irritability, and for their painful stings. -- Yellow lead ore (Min.), wulfenite. -- Yellow lemur (Zoöl.), the kinkajou. -- Yellow macauco (Zoöl.), the kinkajou. -- Yellow mackerel (Zoöl.), the jurel. -- Yellow metal. Same as Muntz metal, under Metal. -- Yellow ocher (Min.), an impure, earthy variety of brown iron ore, which is used as a pigment. -- Yellow oxeye (Bot.), a yellow-flowered plant (Chrysanthemum segetum) closely related to the oxeye daisy. -- Yellow perch (Zoöl.), the common American perch. See Perch. -- Yellow pike (Zoöl.), the wall-eye. -- Yellow pine (Bot.), any of several kinds of pine; also, their yellowish and generally durable timber. Among the most common are valuable species are Pinus mitis and Pinus palustris of the Eastern and Southern States, and Pinus ponderosa and Pinus Arizonica of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific States. -- Yellow plover (Zoöl.), the golden plover. -- Yellow precipitate (Med. Chem.), an oxide of mercury which is thrown down as an amorphous yellow powder on adding corrosive sublimate to limewater. -- Yellow puccoon. (Bot.) Same as Orangeroot. -- Yellow rail (Zoöl.), a small American rail (Porzana Noveboracensis) in which the lower parts are dull yellow, darkest on the breast. The back is streaked with brownish yellow and with black, and spotted with white. Called also yellow crake. -- Yellow rattle, Yellow rocket. (Bot.) See under Rattle, and Rocket. -- Yellow Sally (Zoöl.), a greenish or yellowish European stone fly of the genus Chloroperla; -- so called by anglers. -- Yellow sculpin (Zoöl.), the dragonet. -- Yellow snake (Zoöl.), a West Indian boa (Chilobothrus inornatus) common in Jamaica. It becomes from eight to ten long. The body is yellowish or yellowish green, mixed with black, and anteriorly with black lines. -- Yellow spot. (a) (Anat.) A small yellowish spot with a central pit, the fovea centralis, in the center of the retina where vision is most accurate. See Eye. (b) (Zoöl.) A small American butterfly (Polites Peckius) of the Skipper family. Its wings are brownish, with a large, irregular, bright yellow spot on each of the hind wings, most conspicuous beneath. Called also Peck's skipper. See Illust. under Skipper, n., 5. -- Yellow tit (Zoöl.), any one of several species of crested titmice of the genus Machlolophus, native of India. The predominating colors of the plumage are yellow and green. -- Yellow viper (Zoöl.), the fer-de-lance. -- Yellow warbler (Zoöl.), any one of several species of American warblers of the genus Dendroica in which the predominant color is yellow, especially Dendroica æstiva, which is a very abundant and familiar species; -- called also garden warbler, golden warbler, summer yellowbird, summer warbler, and yellow-poll warbler. -- Yellow wash (Pharm.), yellow oxide of mercury suspended in water, -- a mixture prepared by adding corrosive sublimate to limewater. -- Yellow wren (Zoöl.) (a) The European willow warbler. (b) The European wood warbler.

YellowYel"low, n.
1. A bright golden color, reflecting more light than any other except white; the color of that part of the spectrum which is between the orange and green. “A long motley coat guarded with yellow.” Shak.

2. A yellow pigment.

Cadmium yellow, Chrome yellow, Indigo yellow, King's yellow, etc. See under Cadmium, Chrome, etc. -- Naples yellow, a yellow amorphous pigment, used in oil, porcelain, and enamel painting, consisting of a basic lead metantimonate, obtained by fusing together tartar emetic lead nitrate, and common salt. -- Patent yellow (Old Chem.), a yellow pigment consisting essentially of a lead oxychloride; -- called also Turner's yellow.

YellowYel"low (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yellowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yellowing.] To make yellow; to cause to have a yellow tinge or color; to dye yellow.

YellowYel"low, v. i. To become yellow or yellower.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - Yellow

voir aussi

locutions

-Yellow Baboon • Yellow Delicious • Yellow Dock • Yellow Fever • Yellow Fever Vaccine • Yellow Jackets • Yellow Marrow • Yellow Nutgrass • Yellow Oleander Tree • Yellow Parilla • Yellow River • Yellow Rocket • Yellow Sea • Yellow fever • Yellow fever virus • Yellow fever, unspecified • Yellow nail syndrome • Yellow race • Yellow-Jessamine • Yellow-head virus • lemon yellow • light yellow • western yellow pine • wild yellow lily • yellow adder's tongue • yellow ageratum • yellow asphodel • yellow avens • yellow baboon • yellow bachelor's button • yellow bass • yellow bean • yellow bedstraw • yellow bells • yellow belly • yellow berry • yellow bile • yellow birch • yellow bishop • yellow bone marrow • yellow bristle grass • yellow bristlegrass • yellow bugle • yellow bunting • yellow card • yellow cattley guava • yellow cedar • yellow chamomile • yellow chestnut oak • yellow cleavers • yellow clintonia • yellow colicroot • yellow cypress • yellow dock • yellow dog agreement • yellow dog contract • yellow dung fly • yellow dwarf • yellow dwarf of potato • yellow fever • yellow fever mosquito • yellow flag • yellow foxglove • yellow foxtail • yellow giant hyssop • yellow globe lily • yellow goatfish • yellow granadilla • yellow green • yellow gurnard • yellow hawkweed • yellow henbane • yellow honeysuckle • yellow horned poppy • yellow hornet • yellow iris • yellow ironweed • yellow jacaranda • yellow jack • yellow jacket • yellow jasmine • yellow jessamine • yellow journalism • yellow lady's slipper • yellow lady-slipper • yellow light • yellow liver atrophy or dystrophy • yellow locust • yellow loosestrife • yellow lupine • yellow man • yellow mariposa tulip • yellow marrow • yellow medullary substance of bones • yellow metal • yellow milkwort • yellow mombin • yellow mombin tree • yellow mountain saxifrage • yellow nutgrass • yellow oak • yellow ocher • yellow ochre • yellow oleander • yellow pages • yellow paper daisy • yellow parilla • yellow pea • yellow perch • yellow peril • yellow pimpernel • yellow pine • yellow pitcher plant • yellow pocket gopher • yellow pond lily • yellow poplar • yellow press • yellow prussiate of potash • yellow rocket • yellow root • yellow salsify • yellow sand verbena • yellow spiny daisy • yellow spot • yellow spot fungus • yellow spruce • yellow squash • yellow star-thistle • yellow strawboard • yellow sweet clover • yellow trefoil • yellow trumpet • yellow turnip • yellow twining snapdragon • yellow underwing • yellow vetchling • yellow warbler • yellow water flag • yellow water lily • yellow watercress • yellow woman • yellow-banded • yellow-beige • yellow-bellied • yellow-bellied sapsucker • yellow-bellied terrapin • yellow-blindness • yellow-blue color blindness • yellow-blue dichromacy • yellow-breasted bunting • yellow-breasted chat • yellow-brown • yellow-crowned night heron • yellow-dog contract • yellow-eyed grass • yellow-eyed grass family • yellow-eyed penguin • yellow-fever mosquito • yellow-fronted digger wasp • yellow-gray • yellow-green • yellow-green algae • yellow-grey • yellow-leaf sickle pine • yellow-marked • yellow-orange • yellow-shafted flicker • yellow-shouldered bat • yellow-spotted • yellow-spotted lance-head snake • yellow-striped • yellow-throated marten • yellow-tinged • yellow-tipped • yellow-white

dictionnaire analogique

 

MESH root[Thème]

yellow [MeSH]


yellow (adj.)


 

faible moralement (fr)[ClasseParExt.]

nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright[ClasseHyper.]

objet de connaître, subir (fr)[ClasseParExt.]

frayeur (grande peur) (fr)[Classe]

nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright[ClasseHyper.]

(fearfully; nervously; anxiously; faint-heartedly; timorously; pusillanimously; simperingly), (nerves; tension; nervousness; fearfulness; dread; anxiety; scare; fright; funk; terror; fear; panic; affright), (give a fright; give a scare; scare away; scare off; startle; strike terror into; cow; give a start; frighten; affright; strike fear into; strike fear/terror $iµetc$/iµ into)[Thème]

psychology[Domaine]

SubjectiveAssessmentAttribute[Domaine]

fear, fearfulness, fright - drawing up, expression, formulation, wording[Hyper.]

affright, cow, fright, frighten, give a fright, give a scare, give a start, scare, scare away, scare off, startle, strike fear/terror $iµetc$/iµ into, strike terror into[Nominalisation]

edgy, highly strung, highly-strung, high-strung, jittery, jumpy, nervous, nervy, overstrung, restive, tense, uptight[Propriété~]

appal, terrify, terrorise, terrorize - panic - panic - terrorise, terrorize - hijacker, terrorist - frantic, frightened, panic, panicked, panicky, panic-stricken, panic-struck, terrified - cowardice, cowardliness, fearfulness - coward - chicken-heartedness, cowardice, cowardliness, faintheartedness, faint-heartedness[Dérivé]

[ de peur de ] (fr) - [ de crainte que ] (fr) - [ peur de ] (fr) - [ par peur de ] (fr) - [ par peur que ] (fr)[Syntagme]

brave, courageous, gallant, plucky, stout-hearted, valiant[Ant.]

yellow (adj.) [colloquial]





old[Similaire]

yellow (adj.)


 

unsensational[Ant.]

sensationalism[Dérivé]

sensational[Similaire]

yellow (adj.)





Wikipedia

Yellow

                   
Yellow
Color icon yellow.svg
 — Spectral coordinates —
Wavelength 570–590 nm
Frequency 525–505 THz
 — Common connotations —
sunshine, warmth, fun, happiness, warning, friendship, caution, slow, cowardice, Mardi Gras, summer, lemons, Easter, autumn, electricity, liberalism/libertarianism, hope, optimism, imagination, curiosity
About these coordinates

— Color coordinates —

Hex triplet #FFFF00
sRGBB (r, g, b) (255, 255, 0)
Source HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Yellow (/ˈjɛl/) is the color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M (long and medium wavelength) cone cells of the retina about equally, with no significant stimulation of the S (short-wavelength) cone cells.[2] Light with a wavelength of 570–590 nm is yellow, as is light with a suitable mixture of red and green. Yellow's traditional RYB complementary color is purple, violet, or indigo, while its colorimetrically defined complementary color in both RGB and CMYK color spaces is blue.

Contents

  Etymology and definitions

The word "yellow" comes from the Old English geolu, or geolwe which derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz.[3] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in the year 700.[4]

In the English language, yellow has traditionally been associated with jaundice and cowardice.[5] Yellow is associated with the word "caution" and is the second light on stop lights. The color is associated with aging as well, for both people and objects (e.g. "yellowed" paper). Ethnographically, the term "yellow" has been used as a slang term for both Asians ("yellow peril") and, in the early 20th century, light-skinned African-Americans (High yellow).

"Yellow" ("giallo"), in Italy, refers to crime stories, both fictional and real. This association began in about 1930, when the first series of crime novels published in Italy had yellow covers. The term "yellow movie" (黃色電影) can refer to films of pornographic nature in Chinese culture, and is analogous to the English "blue movie".[6] Lastly, it is associated with sensational journalistic practices, or yellow journalism, and resistance to militant trade unions.[7]

  In science

  Colorimetry

  Complements of yellow have a dominant wavelength in the range 380 to 480 nm. The green lines show several possible pairs of complementary colors with respect to different blackbody color temperature neutrals, illustrated by the "Planckian locus".

Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."[8] That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white (achromatic, non-colored) light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, however, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet. Helmholtz says "Yellow and indigo blue" are complements.[9] Grassman reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."[10] Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, and the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower (that is, the white of an ordinary incandescent light bulb). More typically, with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, which is the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow.

  Astronomy

Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our sun Sol, have color temperatures that make them look "yellowish".[11] The first astronomer to classify stars according to their color was F. G. W. Struve in 1827. One of his classifications was flavae, or yellow, and this roughly corresponded to stars in the modern spectral range F5 to K0.[12] The Strömgren photometric system for stellar classification includes a 'y' or yellow filter that is centered at a wavelength of 550 nm and has a bandwidth of 20–30 nm.[13][14]

  Biology

  Pigments

  • Carotenoids are organic pigments that give color to many biological objects, including egg yolks, autumn leaves, and yellow flowers.
  • Yellow pan traps are used to capture insects, many of which are attracted to shades of yellow.[15][16]

  Birds

  • Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) are large foraging songbird found in southern parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Central America. They are olive with a white bellie and a yellow throat and breast, with a long tail, a thick heavy bill, a large white eye ring, and dark legs.
  • The Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) is a passerine in the bunting family Emberizidae. It breeds across Europe and much of Asia. Most yellowhammers are resident, but some far northern birds migrate south in winter. It is common in all sorts of open areas with some scrub or trees. They are large with a thick seed-eater's bill. The males have a bright yellow head, yellow underparts, and a heavily streaked brown back. Females are much duller and more streaked below.
  • The Yellow-shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus) is a large woodpecker of eastern North America. It is a subspecies of the Northern Flicker. They have yellow shafts on their wing and tail feathers.
  • The Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) is a species of Warbler living in most of North America who is completely yellow other than a few red streaks on the breast and head in males.
  • The Domestic Canary (Serinus Canaria) is the domesticated form of the Wild Canary, a small songbird. The color canary yellow is named after the Domestic Canary, which can be selectively bred to be yellow.

  Fish

  • Yellowtail is the common name for dozens of different fish species that have yellow tails or a yellow body.
  • Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a species of tuna, having bright yellow anal and second dorsal fins. Found in tropical and subtropical seas and weighing up to 200 kg (440 lb), it is caught as a replacement for depleted stocks of bluefin tuna.

  Insects

  • Yellowjackets are black-and-yellow wasps of the genus Vespula or Dolichovespula (though some can be black-and-white, the most notable of these being the bald-faced hornet, Dolichovespula maculata). They can be identified by their distinctive black-and-yellow color, small size (slightly larger than a bee), and entirely black antennae.

  Trees

  Other plants

  Rapeseed field in Germany
  • Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape or oilseed rape, is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family).
  • Goldenrod is a yellow flowering plant in the Family Asteraceae.

  Electric yellow vs. process yellow

Yellow
About these coordinates

— Color coordinates —

Hex triplet #FFFF00
sRGBB (r, g, b) (255, 255, 0)
HSV (h, s, v) (60°, 100%, 100%)
Source HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
  A yellow circle

The color box at right shows the most intense yellow representable in 8-bit RGB color model; yellow is a secondary color in an additive RGB space.

The measured light spectrum from yellow pixels on a typical computer display is complex, and very unlike the reflectance spectrum of a yellow object such as a banana.[18]

Process yellow (subtractive primary, sRGB approximation)
About these coordinates

— Color coordinates —

Hex triplet #FFEF00
RGBB (r, g, b) (255, 239, 0)
HSV (h, s, v) (56°, 100%, 100%)
Source [1] CMYK
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Process yellow (also known as pigment yellow, printer's yellow or canary yellow) is one of the three colors typically used as subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. The CMYK system for color printing is based on using four inks, one of which is a yellow color. This is in itself a standard color, and a fairly narrow range of yellow inks or pigments are used. Process yellow is based on a colorant that reflects the preponderance of red and green light, and absorbs most blue light, as in the reflectance spectra shown in the figure on the lower right.

Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet.

Process yellow is not an RGB color, and there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color that is pure yellow ink.

The first recorded use of canary yellow as a color name in English was in 1789.[19]

  Lasers

Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors.[20] In commercial products diode pumped solid state (DPSS) technology is employed to create the yellow light. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide (Nd:YVO4) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) and induces it to emit at two frequencies (281.76 THz and 223.39 THz: 1064 nm and 1342 nm wavelengths) simultaneously. This deeper infrared light is then passed through another crystal containing potassium, titanium and phosphorus (KTP), whose non-linear properties generate light at a frequency that is the sum of the two incident beams (505.15 THz); in this case corresponding to the wavelength of 593.5 nm ("yellow").[21] This wavelength is also available, though even more rarely, from a Helium-neon laser. However, this not a true yellow, as it exceeds 590 nm. A variant of this same DPSS technology using slightly different starting frequencies was made available in 2010, producing a wavelength of 589 nm, which is considered a true yellow color.[22] The use of yellow lasers at 589 nm and 594 nm have recently become more widespread thanks to the field of Optogenetics.[23]

  Minerals and chemistry

  Structure of Titan yellow

  Pigments

  Reflectance spectra of yellow pigments, as a percentage of white (Abney 1891)
  • Yellow ochre (also known as Mars yellow, Pigment yellow 42, 43),[28] hydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O), is a naturally occurring pigment found in clays in many parts of the world. It is non-toxic and has been used in painting since prehistoric times.[29]
  • Indian yellow is a transparent, fluorescent pigment used in oil paintings and watercolors. Originally magnesium euxanthate, it was claimed to have been produced from the urine of Indian cows fed only on mango leaves.[30] It has now been replaced by synthetic Indian yellow hue.
  • Naples Yellow (lead antimonate yellow) is one of the oldest synthetic pigments, derived from the mineral bindheimite and used extensively up to the 20th century.[31] It is toxic and nowadays is replaced in paint by a mixture of modern pigments.
  • Cadmium Yellow (cadmium sulfide, CdS) has been used in artists' paints since the mid-19th century.[32] Because of its toxicity, it may nowadays be replaced by azo pigments.
  • Chrome Yellow (lead chromate, PbCrO4), derived from the mineral crocoite, was used by artists in the earlier part of the 19th century, but has been largely replaced by other yellow pigments because of the toxicity of lead.[33]
  • Titanium Yellow (nickel antimony titanium yellow rutile, NiO.Sb2O5.20TiO2) is created by adding small amounts of the oxides of nickel and antimony to titanium dioxide and heating. It is used to produce yellow paints with good white coverage and has the LBNL paint code "Y10".[34]
  • Gamboge is an orange-brown resin, derived from trees of the genus Garcinia, which becomes yellow when powdered.[35] It was used as a watercolor pigment in the far east from the 8th century – the name "gamboge" is derived from "Cambodia" – and has been used in Europe since the 17th century.[36]
  • Orpiment, also called King's Yellow or Chinese Yellow is arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) and was used as a paint pigment until the 19th century when, because of its high toxicity and reaction with lead-based pigments, it was generally replaced by Cadmium Yellow.[37]
  • Azo-dye based pigment (a brightly colored transparent or semitransparent dye with a white pigment) is used as the colorant in most modern paints requiring either a highly saturated yellow or simplicity of color mixing. The most common is the monoazo arylide yellow family, first marketed as Hansa Yellow.

  In culture

  Cultural associations

  Maya glyph for "yellow"
  • The ancient Maya associated the color yellow with the direction South. The Maya glyph for "yellow" (k'an) also means "precious" or "ripe".[38]
  • The color is traditionally associated with the Malay Rulers of Malaysia.
  • The word yellow can be used as an adjective meaning cowardly.
  • The color was also used to represent the Manchus in the new flag of China :Five Races Under One Union, and also under the flag of Manchukuo.

  History

  Journalism

  Music

  Television

  • The characters of The Simpsons are all yellow colored (excluding the African-American characters). Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) decided to make The Simpsons yellow because it was different, bright and "it looks like there's something wrong with your television set."
  • The titular character, SpongeBob SquarePants is yellow colored.

  Politics

  Religion and metaphysics

  RAF Sea King HAR3 at RIAT 2010, used in rescue work. The color yellow is used for visibility
  • The Christian holiday of Easter is represented by the colors yellow and lavender because the crocus flower, which is yellow and lavender, blooms in Europe in the spring.
  • In the metaphysics of the New Age Prophetess, Alice A. Bailey, in her system called the Seven Rays which classifies humans into seven different metaphysical psychological types, the fourth ray of harmony through conflict is represented by the color yellow. People who have this metaphysical psychological type are said to be on the Yellow Ray."[39]
  • In Hinduism, yellow is used to symbolically represent the third, solar plexus chakra (Manipura).[40]
  • Psychics who claim to be able to observe the aura with their third eye report that someone with a yellow aura is typically someone who is in an occupation requiring intellectual acumen, such as a scientist.[41]

  Sports

  • In Association football (soccer), the referee shows a yellow card to indicate that a player has been officially cautioned because they have committed a foul or have wasted time.
  • In American Football, a yellow flag is thrown onto the field by a referee to indicate a penalty.
  • Originally in Rugby League and then later, also in Rugby Union, the referee shows a yellow card to indicate that a player has been sent to the sin bin.
  • In auto racing, a yellow flag signals caution. Cars are not allowed to pass one another under a yellow flag.
  • In cycle racing, the yellow jersey – or maillot jaune – is awarded to the leader in a stage race. The tradition was begun in the Tour de France where the sponsoring L'Auto newspaper (later L'Équipe) was printed on distinctive yellow newsprint.

  Transportation

  • In some countries, taxicabs are commonly yellow. This practice began in Chicago, where taxi entrepreneur John D. Hertz painted his taxis yellow based on a University of Chicago study alleging that yellow is the color most easily seen at a distance.[42]
  • In Canada and the United States, school buses are almost uniformly painted a yellow color (often referred to as "school bus yellow") for purposes of visibility and safety,[43] and British bus operators such as FirstGroup plc are attempting to introduce the concept there.[44]
  • "Caterpillar yellow" and "high-visibility yellow" are used for highway construction equipment.[45]
  • In the rules of the road, yellow (called "amber" in Britain) is a traffic light signal warning that the period in which passage is permitted is coming to an end.[46] It is intermediate between green (go) and red (stop). In railway signaling, yellow is often the color for warning, slow down, such as with distant signals.[47]
  • Yellow warning signs, especially with black wording, borders, or alternating stripes, are used in many countries around the world to indicate caution, both as road signs and for other uses such as "caution, slippery floor". In United Kingdom, yellow is used for the front of trains to increase their visibility.
  • Several light rail and rapid transit lines on various public transportation have a Yellow Line.

  Vexillology

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords
  2. ^ James W. Kalat (2005). Introduction to Psychology. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 105. ISBN 0-534-62460-X. http://books.google.com/?id=AHBnar7sEIIC&pg=PA105&lpg=PA105&dq=yellow-light+long+medium+short+cones. 
  3. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  4. ^ "yellow, adj. and n.". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. http://www.oed.com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/Entry/231534. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  5. ^ Hodgson, Charles (2007). Carnal Knowledge. Macmillan. p. 133. ISBN 0-312-37121-7. 
  6. ^ Hewitt, Duncan (28 November 2000). "Chinese porn trader jailed for life". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1045153.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  8. ^ J. W. G. Hunt (1980). Measuring Color. Ellis Horwood Ltd. ISBN 0-7458-0125-0. 
  9. ^ Hermann von Helmholtz (1924). Physiological Optics. Dover. ISBN 0-486-44260-8. 
  10. ^ Hermann Günter Grassman (1854). "Theory of Compound Colors". Philosophical Magazine 4: 254–264. 
  11. ^ Ron Miller (2005). Stars and Galaxies. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7613-3466-8. http://books.google.com/?id=QL9uAfad1ggC&pg=PA22&dq=spectral-class+yellow. 
  12. ^ Murdin, Paul (1984). Colours of the stars. CUP Archive. p. 18. ISBN 0-521-25714-X. 
  13. ^ Strömgren, Bengt. "Main Sequence Stars, Problems of Internal Constitution and Kinematics (George Darwin Lecture)". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 8: 8–37. Bibcode 1963QJRAS...4....8S. 
  14. ^ Norton, Andrew; Cooper, W. Alan Cooper (2004). Observing the universe: a guide to observational astronomy and planetary science. Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-521-60393-5. 
  15. ^ Kisimoto,Ryoiti (1968) Yellow Pan Water Trap for Sampling the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (FALLEN), a Vector of the Rice Stripe Virus. Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 3(1):37–48
  16. ^ Webb, S. E., M. L. Kok-Yokomi, and D. J. Voegtlin (1994) Effect of Trap Color on Species Composition of Alate Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) Caught over Watermelon Plants Florida Entomologist 77(1):146–153 PDF
  17. ^ River Birch Trees | Fall Foliage | White Birches
  18. ^ Craig F. Bohren and Eugene E. Clothiaux (2006). Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-40503-8. http://books.google.com/?id=1oDOWr_yueIC&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=%22measured+spectrum+of+computer+display+yellow+pixels%22. 
  19. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191; Color Sample of Canary Yellow: Page 45 Plate 11 Color Sample L3
  20. ^ "Laserglow – Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. http://www.laserglow.com/index.php?portable. Retrieved 2009-03-27.  – described as an "extremely rare yellow".
  21. ^ Johnson, Craig (22 March 2009). "Yellow (593.5 nm) DPSS Laser Module". The LED Museum. http://ledmuseum.candlepower.us/yelldpss.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  22. ^ "Laserglow – Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. http://www.laserglow.com/GRH. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  23. ^ "Laserglow – Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. http://www.laserglow.com/page/optogenetics. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  24. ^ "Titan Yellow". Nile Chemicals. 26 July 2008. http://www.nilechemicals.com/TitanYellow.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  25. ^ Heaton, FW (July 1960). "Determination of magnesium by the Titan yellow and ammonium phosphate methods". Journal of Clinical Pathology 13 (4): 358–60. DOI:10.1136/jcp.13.4.358. PMC 480095. PMID 14400446. http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14400446. 
  26. ^ "para-Dimethylaminobenzene". IARC – Summaries & Evaluations (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 8: 125. 1975. http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol08/p-dimethylaminobenzene.html. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  27. ^ "Ph paper, Litmus paper, ph indicator, laboratory stain". GMP ChemTech Private Limited. 2003. http://www.gmpct.com/products/stains_indicators_indicator_paper.php. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  28. ^ "Health & Safety in the Arts". City of Tucson. http://www.ci.tucson.az.us/arthazards/paint1.html. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  29. ^ "Pigments through the ages: Yellow ochre". WebExhibits. http://www.webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/yellowochre.html. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  30. ^ Harley, Rosamond Drusilla (2001). Artists' Pigments c1600-1835 (2 ed.). London: Archetype Publications. p. 117. ISBN 1-873132-91-3. OCLC 47823825. http://painting.about.com/od/productreviews/gr/RDHarley_pigmt.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  31. ^ "Pigments through the ages: Naples yellow". WebExhibits. http://www.webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/naplesyellow.html. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  32. ^ "Pigments through the ages: Cadmium yellow". WebExhibits. http://www.webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/history/cdyellow.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  33. ^ "Pigments through the ages: Chrome yellow". WebExhibits. http://www.webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/history/cryellow.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  34. ^ "LBNL Pigment Database: (Y10) Nickel Antimony Titanium Yellow Rutile (iii)". Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 14 February 2005. http://coolcolors.lbl.gov/LBNL-Pigment-Database/paints/Y10.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  35. ^ "gamboge (gum resin)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/224855/gamboge. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  36. ^ "Gamboge". Sewanee: The University of the South. 16 July 2002. http://www.sewanee.edu/chem/Chem&Art/Detail_Pages/Pigments/Gamboge. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  37. ^ Field, George (1869). Salter, Thomas. ed. Field's Chromatography or Treatise on Colours and Pigments as Used by Artists. London: Winsor and Newton. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/20915. 
  38. ^ Kettunen, Harri; Helmke, Christophe (5 December 2005). Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs (Workshop Handbook 10th European Maya Conference). Leiden: Wayeb & Leiden University. p. 75. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2688831/Introduction-to-Maya-Hieroglyphs. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  39. ^ Bailey, Alice A. (1995). The Seven Rays of Life. New York: Lucis Publishing Company. ISBN 0-85330-142-5. 
  40. ^ Stevens, Samantha. The Seven Rays: a Universal Guide to the Archangels. City: Insomniac Press, 2004. ISBN 1-894663-49-7 pg. 24
  41. ^ Swami Panchadasi The Human Aura: Astral Colors and Thought Forms Des Plaines, Illinois, USA:1912--Yogi Publications Society Page 33
  42. ^ "History of the Main Taxi Groups". Taxi Register. http://www.taxiregister.com/history.php. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  43. ^ "Frank W. Cyr, 95, 'Father of the Yellow School Bus'". Columbia University Record (Columbia University) 21 (1). 8 September 1995. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol21/vol21_iss1/record2101.36.html. Retrieved 4 April 2009. 
  44. ^ "Review backs yellow school buses". BBC. 12 September 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7610933.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  45. ^ "Maximizing Mining Safety". Caterpillar Global Mining (Caterpillar): 4. http://www.cat.com/cda/files/1042221/7/final.pdf. 
  46. ^ Robert Dinwiddle, ed. (August 2001). Science Year by Year. Popular Science. Scholastic Corporation. p. 45. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-493-28438-4|0-493-28438-4]]. 
  47. ^ Bej, Mark (16 April 1994). "Learning the ["typical" US] Aspects". http://broadway.pennsyrr.com/Rail/Signal/learning_the_aspects.html. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  48. ^ a b Flag and Etiquette Committee (12 June 2006). "Pratique". Flag Etiquette. United States Power Squadrons. http://www.usps.org/f_stuff/pratique.html. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
   
               

 

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