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définition - profanity

profanity (n.)

1.vulgar or irreverent speech or action

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Merriam Webster

ProfanityPro*fan"i*ty (?), n. [L. profanitas.]


1. The quality or state of being profane; profaneness; irreverence; esp., the use of profane language; blasphemy.

2. That which is profane; profane language or acts.

The brisk interchange of profanity and folly. Buckminster.

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définition (complément)

voir la définition de Wikipedia

synonymes - profanity

locutions

dictionnaire analogique

Wikipedia

Profanity

                   
  In cartoons, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols ("grawlixes") for words, as a form of non-specific censorship.

Profanity, also known as swearing, cursing, foul speech, strong language, dirty words, cussing, bad words, bad language, adult language, or simply language, is pejorative language that shows disrespect, desecration or debasement. Profanity can take the form of words, expressions, gestures (such as flipping the middle finger), or other social behaviors that are construed or interpreted as insulting, rude, vulgar, obscene, obnoxious, foul, desecrating, or other forms.[1]

The original meaning of the adjective profane (from Latin pro fano, "in front of" or "before, outside" the fanum, a sanctuary) referred to items not belonging to the church, e.g., "The fort is the oldest profane building in the town, but the local monastery is older, and is the oldest building," or "besides designing churches, he also designed many profane buildings". The meaning has changed over time.

Contents

  Statistics

Analyses of recorded conversations reveal that roughly 80–90 spoken words each day – 0.5% to 0.7% of all words – are swear words, with usage varying from between 0% to 3.4%. In comparison, first-person plural pronouns (we, us, our) make up 1% of spoken words.[2]

A three-country poll conducted by Angus Reid Public Opinion in July 2010 found that Canadians swear more often than Americans and Britons when talking to friends, while Britons are more likely than Canadians and Americans to hear strangers swear during a conversation.[3]

  As blasphemy

The term "profane" originates from classical Latin "profanus", literally "before (outside) the temple". It carried the meaning of either "desecrating what is holy" or "with a secular purpose" as early as the 1450s CE[4]. Profanity represented secular indifference to religion or religious figures, while blasphemy was a more offensive attack on religion and religious figures, considered sinful, and a direct violation of The Ten Commandments.

Profanities in the original meaning of blasphemous profanity are part of the ancient tradition of the comic cults, which laughed and scoffed at the deity or deities.[5][6] An example from Gargantua and Pantagruel is "Christ, look ye, its Mere de ... merde ... shit, Mother of God."[7][not in citation given]

  Research into swearing

Swearing and cursing are modes of speech existing in all human languages. They perform certain social and psychological functions, and utilize particular linguistic and neurological mechanisms; all these are avenues of research. Functionally similar behavior can be observed in chimpanzees, and may contribute to our understanding, notes New York Times author Natalie Angier.[8]

Angier also notes that swearing is a widespread but perhaps underappreciated anger management technique; that "men generally curse more than women, unless said women are in a sorority, and that university provosts swear more than librarians or the staff members of the university day care center"; and that linguistic research has shown that the physiological reactions of individuals who are proud of their education are similar between exposure to obscene words and exposure to bad grammar.[8]

Profane language is by no means a recent phenomenon. The Bible sometimes uses strong language, such as mention of men who "eat their own dung, and drink their own piss" in the Authorized King James Version of 1611's close translation of Hebrew text of 2 Kings 18:27. Shakespeare is replete with vulgarisms, though many are no longer readily recognized. Even the oldest traces of human writing include swear words.[citation needed]

Keele University researchers Stephens, Atkins, and Kingston found that swearing relieves the effects of physical pain.[9] Stephens said "I would advise people, if they hurt themselves, to swear".[10] However, the overuse of swear words tends to diminish this effect.[10] The team earned themselves the Ig Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 for the research.

In English, swears tend to be more often Germanic or Anglo-Saxon in origin than Latin. "Shit" has a Germanic lineage, as does "fuck"[11]. The more technical alternatives are Latin in origin, such as "defecate" or "fornicate".

  Swearing in the workplace

In the United Kingdom, swearing in the workplace can be an act of gross misconduct under certain circumstances. In particular, this is the case when swearing accompanies insubordination against a superior or humiliation of a subordinate employee. However, in other cases it may not be grounds for instant dismissal.[12] According to a UK site on work etiquette, the "fact that swearing is a part of everyday life means that we need to navigate a way through a day in the office without offending anyone, while still appreciating that people do swear. Of course, there are different types of swearing and, without spelling it out, you really ought to avoid the 'worst words' regardless of who you’re talking to".[13] With respect to swearing between colleagues, the site explains that "[a]lthough it may sound strange, the appropriateness [of] swearing [...] is influenced largely by the industry you are in and the individuals you work with". The site continues to explain that, even in a workplace in which swearing is the norm, there is no need to participate in it.[13] The site stresses that swearing is, in general, more problematic in asymmetric situations, such as in the presence of senior management or clients, but it also mentions that a "holier than thou" attitude towards clients may be problematic.[13]

The Guardian reported that "36% of the 308 UK senior managers and directors having responded to a survey accepted swearing as part of workplace culture", but warned about specific inappropriate uses of swearing such as when it is discriminatory or part of bullying behaviour. The article ends with a quotation from Ben Wilmott (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development): "Employers can ensure professional language in the workplace by having a well drafted policy on bullying and harassment that emphasises how bad language has potential to amount to harassment or bullying."[14]

  Severity

The relative severity of various British profanities, as perceived by the public, was studied on behalf of the British Broadcasting Standards Commission, Independent Television Commission, BBC and Advertising Standards Authority; the results of this jointly commissioned research were published in December 2000 in a paper called "Delete expletives?". It listed the profanities in order of decreasing severity.

A similar survey was carried out in 2009 by New Zealand's Broadcasting Standards Authority. The results were published in March 2010, in a report called "What Not to Swear". According to the Authority, the findings "measured how acceptable the public finds the use of swear words, blasphemies, and other expletives in broadcasting".

  Broadcasting

In countries where it is illegal to broadcast profanity on radio or television, a profanity delay device can be used to delete profanity or other undesirable material and prevent it from being broadcast.

  Notable instances in popular culture

  • Seven Dirty Words - a comedy routine by George Carlin, from 1972, in which he explained the seven words that must never be used in a television broadcast.

  See also

Other languages

  References

Notes
  1. ^ "Definition of Profane", emphasis on original, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, retrieved on June 5, 2007.
  2. ^ Jay T. (2009). The Utility and Ubiquity of Taboo Words. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4:153-161. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01115.x Entire document
  3. ^ Angus Reid. (2010). Canadians Swear More Often Than Americans and Britons [1]
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online, "profane", accessed 2/14/2012
  5. ^ Bakhtin 1941, "introduction", p.5-6
  6. ^ Meletinsky, Eleazar Moiseevich The Poetics of Myth (Translated by Guy Lanoue and Alexandre Sadetsky) 2000 Routledge ISBN 0-415-92898-2 p.110
  7. ^ François Rabelais, Gargantua book, chap. XVII; In French the words mère de (meaning "mother of") sound like merde, which means "shit".Full text of Chapter 16, Rabelais and His World at Google Books.
  8. ^ a b Angier, Natalie (25 September 2005), "Cursing is a normal function of human language, experts say", New York Times, http://articles.sfgate.com/2005-09-25/news/17390497_1_linguistic-language-dialect 
  9. ^ Richard Stephens, John Atkins, and Andrew Kingston (2009). "Swearing as a Response to Pain". Neuroreport (12): 1056–60. 
  10. ^ a b Joelving, Frederik (12 July 2009), "Why the #$%! Do We Swear? For Pain Relief", Scientific American, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-do-we-swear 
  11. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  12. ^ Swearing in the Workplace.
  13. ^ a b c Work Etiquette – Swearing in the Workplace.
  14. ^ Matt Keating (2006-06-03). "Should swearing be tolerated in the workplace?". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2006/jun/03/careers.work. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  15. ^ Ellmann, Richard (1982). James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 502–04. ISBN 0-19-503103-2. 
  16. ^ "Art or trash? It makes for endless, debate that cant be won". The Topeka Capital-Journal. 1997-10-06. http://www.cjonline.com/stories/100697/snider.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "Another perennial target, J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye, was challenged in Maine because of the "f" word." 
  17. ^ Ben MacIntyre (2005-09-24). "The American banned list reveals a society with serious hang-ups". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,923-1792974,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  18. ^ Pygmalion, Act III. Eliza's "Walk? Not bloody likely!"
  19. ^ Raw Dialog Challenges all the Censors. p. 92. http://books.google.com/books?id=rlUEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA92&dq=frankly%20my%20dear%20i%20don't%20give%20a%20damn%20censorship&pg=PA92#v=onepage&q=frankly%20my%20dear%20i%20don't%20give%20a%20damn%20censorship&f=false.  Life Magazine: 92. 10 June 1966. 
  20. ^ ""Winnebago Man" a Profanity-Laced Delight". NBC News Popcorn Biz (New York). 2010-05-20. http://www.nbcnewyork.com/entertainment/movies/_Winnebago_Man__a_Profanity-Laced_Delight_All__National_.html. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
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